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germinating calabash as part of the name of their country, remains to be explained.

If we examine the map of the lands back of the peninsula, it will not be difficult to discover the idea uppermost in the mind of the draughtsman at the time of composing the symbol; and to see that he was as thoroughly acquainted with the geography of the interior and the western shores of those parts of the continent, as with the configuration of its eastern coasts; also that their geological formation was no mystery to him.

By comparing this symbol with the shape of the countries immediately south of the peninsula, notwithstanding the changes that are continually taking place in the contour of the coast lines, particularly at the mouth of rivers, by the action of currents, etc., we cannot fail to recognize that

the hierogrammatist assumed it to be the sprout of a calabash, the body of which was represented by the lands comprised within the segment of

a circle having for radius the half of a line, parallel to the eastern and western shores of the peninsula, starting from Point Lagartos, on the northern coast of Yucatan, drawn across the country to the shore of the Pacific Ocean on the south. For if, from the middle of said line as centre, we describe a circumference, part of it will follow exactly the bent of the coast line of said ocean, opposite the northern shore of the peninsula; another part will cross the

· Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, vol. i., chap. iii., p. 252.


Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the northern frontier of the Maya Empire, and, if carried overland on the south until it intersect the seaboard of the Bay of Honduras, the segment of the circle thus formed resembles the bottom of a calabash, and the peninsula the sprout.

Analyzing the character yet more closely, we see a line of dots on each side of the base of the sprout, the root of which is made to repose on the curled figure

intended to represent the curling of the smoke as it ascends into the air from the crater of the volcanoes among the mountains, indicated, as on our maps, by the etchings on both sides of the body of the symbol. These tokens prove that the designer knew the geological formation of the country in which he lived; and that the peninsula had been upheaved from the bottom of the sea by the action of volcanic forces, whose centre of activity was in his time, as it still is, in the mountains of Guatemala, far away in the interior of the continent. placing the small end of the sprout deep into the figure on the focus of the volcanic action, on the curling line of the smoke, and by the dots, on both sides of the root of the sprout, he shows that he knew that the upheaval of the peninsula was effected by the expansive force of the gases, which produce earthquakes by their pressure on the uneven under surface of the superficial strata, too homogeneous to permit their escape." Thus it is that we come to learn from the


of an ancient Maya philosopher that the name of his people, once upon a time so broadly scattered over the face of the earth, had its



Sir Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, chap. xxxii., xxxiii. Augustus Le Plongeon, “The Causes of Earthquakes," Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, vol. 6, Nos. 41, 42.



origin in that of the country they inhabited, a place situated in the northern tropical parts of the Western Continent, in that “ Land of Kui,” Su that mysterious home of their

ancestors, where the Egyptians thought the souls of their departed friends went to dwell, which was known to its inhabitants as Mayach, a word that in their language meant the 'first land,” the “land just sprouted,” also the “hard land,” the “ terra firma,” as we learn from the sign n 'of aspiration, hardness, coagulation, placed each side of the body of the calabash, to indicate, perhaps, the rocky formation of its soil, and that it had withstood the awful cataclysms which

swept from the face of the earth the Land of Mu and many other places with their

populations. The priests of Egypt, Chaldea, and India preserved the remembrance of their destruction in the archives of their temples, as did those of Mayach on the other side of the ocean.

The latter did not content themselves with recording the relation in their treatises on geology and history, but in order to preserve its memory for future generations they caused it to be carved on a stone tablet which they fastened to the wall in one of the apartments of their college at Chichen, where it is yet seen.

The natives have perpetuated, from generation to generation, for centuries, the name of that inscription. They still call it Akab-ɔib, the awful, the tenebrous writing

* Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of Ancient Egyptians, vol. iii., p. 70. “Kui Land,according to the Maya language the “land of the gods,” the birthplace of the Goddess Maya, "the mother of the gods" and of men, the feminine energy of Brahıma by whose union with Brahma all things were produced.

* Landa, Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan, chap. xli., p. 322.

The history of that terrible catastrophe, recounted in various ways in the sacred books of the different nations among which vestiges of the presence of the Mayas are to be found, continues to be the appalling tradition of a great portion of mankind.

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