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s'Gravesande, and in Montucla's Hist, des Math., 2d vol., p. 415.)

HUYSUM, John van, the most distinguished flower and fruit painter of modern times, was born at Amsterdam, in 1682. He surpassed his predecessors in softness and freshness, in delicacy and vivacity of color, in fineness of pencilling, in the disposition of light, and in exquisite finish. His father, Justus Huysum, a picture dealer and a painter of moderate merit, at first employed him in all branches of painting; but young Huysum, at a maturer age, felt a decided inclination for the representation of the productions of the vegetable kingdom. He therefore separated from his father, and married about 1705.. In landscape painting, he followed the manner of Nicholas Piemont, a much esteemed painter in Holland. But he reached the highest perfection in flower and fruit pieces. He knew how to penetrate the secrets of nature, to seize the transitory blossom in its most perfect state, and to represent it with enchanting truth and variety of colors. He was the first who had the idea of painting flowers on a white ground. He was so jealous of rivalry, that he permitted no one to see him at work, nor would he take any pupils, except his brother Michael and the daughter of a friend. His flowers have more truth and beauty than his fruits; the drops of dew and insects which he painted on them are like real life. Unhappy domestic circumstances, particularly the levity and prodigality of his wife, and the bad conduct of his son, rendered him melancholy; yet his works show no traces of this turn of mind. He died at Amsterdam, 1749, without leaving a fortune to his three sons, though his pictures sold for 1000 to 1400 florins. His brother Justus was a battle painter, and died at the age of 22 years. The third, James, copied his brother's flower and fruit pieces so perfectly, that they brought a very high price. He died in England, in 1740.

a native of the Levant, and has a bulbous root, from which rise a few linear lanceolate leaves and a leafless stem, bearing six or eight bell-shaped flowers, of a blue or white color. The cultivated double varieties have very graceful forms and a remarkable diversity of color. The natural affinities of this plant place it in the same family with the squill and onion. All the species of hyacinth are natives of the eastern continent.

HYACINTH, in mineralogy. (See Zircon). HYACINTHUS; a son of Amyclas and Diomede, greatly beloved by Apollo and Zephyrus. He returned the former's love, and Zephyrus, incensed at his coldness and indifference, resolved to punish his rival. As Apollo, who was intrusted with the education of Hyacinthus, once played at quoits with his pupil, Zephyrus blew the quoit, as soon as it was thrown by Apollo, upon the head of Hyacinthus, and he was killed with the blow. Apollo was so disconsolate at the death of Hyacinthus, that he changed his blood into a flower which bore his name, and placed his body among the constellations. The Spartans established yearly festivals in honor of the nephew of their king.

HYADES. The Hyades, according to Ovid, were nymphs, daughters of Atlas and Ethra; according to others, daughters of Cadmus or Erectheus. Their number was given differently. They bewailed the death of their brother Hyas, who was torn in pieces by a lioness, with such unceasing anguish, that the gods, moved with compassion, transferred them to the heavens, where they still weep. They form the well known constellation in the head of Taurus. According to the most probable account, these stars derived their name from the Greek word civ, to rain, because rain usually follows their rising and setting. they have received the names of mournful (tristes) and the rain-bringing (Latin, sucula), which circumstances probably gave rise to the above-mentioned fable. Some poets have confounded them with the Pleiades. The chief of the Hyades in the left eye of Taurus, is the bright star called Aldebaran, by the Arabs.

On this account,

HYACINTH. The numerous and splendid varieties of the garden hyacinth (hyacinthus Orientalis) have always been general favorites, and, in some countries, the fondness for this plant amounts to a complete mania. In Holland, upwards HYENA (canis, Lin., hyana, Desm.). of 2000 varieties have received distinct This well known and savage genus of names, recognised by the different florists, quadrupeds is distinguished by having no and the price of 1000 florins has been paid tuberculous or small teeth behind the carfor a single plant. (See Flower-Trade). nivorous. Its dental formula is, incisors The environs of some of the Dutch towns, canine, molar =34. These astonish the traveller, from the gorgeous appearance produced by the vast profusion of these flowers. The wild plant is

teeth are well adapted, from their great thickness and strength, to break bones. The head of the hyena is of a middle

size, with an elevated forehead; the jaws are shorter, in proportion, than those of dogs, and longer than those of cats; the tongue is furnished with rough papillæ; the eyes are large, and have longitudinal pupils; the ears are long, pricked, very open, and directed forwards. Beneath the tail is a glandulous pouch. Naturalists have described three species of the hyæna. The common or striped hyæna (H. vulgaris), which is a native of Asiatic Turkey, Syria, Abyssinia, &c., is about the size of a large dog, of a brownish gray color, and marked with transverse bands of dark brown on the body, which become oblique on the flanks and legs. The hair upon the line of the back is much thicker and stronger than on any other part, forming a sort of mane, extending from the nape of the neck to the origin of the tail. This species was well known to the ancients, who entertained many absurd notions respecting it; believing that its neck consisted of but one bone; that it changed its sex every year; that it could imitate the human voice; that it had the power of charming the shepherds, and riveting them to the spot, as the serpent is said to fascinate a bird. Lucan furnishes the Thessalian sorceress with the neck of one of these animals, as a potent spell.* The hyæna generally inhabits caverns and rocky places, prowling about at night to feed on the remains of dead animals, or on whatever living prey it can seize. The common idea, that these animals tear newly buried bodies out of graves, is not inconsistent with their insatiate voracity and the peculiar strength of their claws. The courage of the hyaena is equal to his rapacity. Kämpfer says, that he saw one which had put two lions to flight. At Darfur, a kingdom in the interior of Africa, the hyenas come in herds of six, eight, and often more, to the villages at night, and carry off with them whatever they are able to master. They will kill dogs and asses, even within the enclosure of the houses, and fail not to assemble wherever a dead camel or other animal is thrown; nor are they much alarmed at the sight of men or the report of fire-arms, In these attacks, if one of them should be wounded, his companions instantly tear him in pieces and devour him. (Brown.) A remarkable peculiarity in this animal is, that when he is first obliged to run, he always appears lame for a considerable distance, and that, in some cases, to such a degree, as to induce à belief

* Non diræ nodus hycence defuit. Lib. vi. 672.

that one of his legs is broken; but after running for some time, this halting disappears, and he proceeds on his course very swiftly. (Bruce.) It was formerly supposed, that the hyena was untamable, and this assertion has been copied by most writers on natural history without investigation. But that it can be completely tamed, there is not the shadow of a doubt. The hyæna has lately been domesticated in the Sneeuberg (South Africa), where it is considered as one of the best hunters after game, and as faithful and diligent as any of the common domestic dogs. (Barrow.) A Mr. Traill, in India, had one for many years, which followed him about like a dog. (Heber.) It is, in fact, exceedingly doubtful whether any animal is incapable of subjection to man. The spotted hyæna (C. crocuta, Lin., H. capensis, Desm.) has a considerable resemblance to the former species, but is larger, and is marked with numerous round blackish-brown spots instead of stripes, nor is the mane so large. This species inhabits many parts of Africa, but is peculiarly numerous around the cape of Good Hope, where it is much dreaded. One of them entered a negro hut, laid hold of a girl, flung her over its back, held her by one leg in its teeth, and was making off with her, when her screams fortunately brought assistance, and she was rescued. (Bosman.) Those animals act the part of scavengers in South Africa. At the cape, they formerly came down into the town, unmolested by the inhabitants, to devour the filth and offal. Among the savage tribes in this part of Africa, the dead are never buried after a battle, the birds and beasts of prey reliev ing the living of that trouble; even the bones, except a few of the less manageable parts, finding a sepulchre in the voracious maw of the hyenas. Thunberg informs us, that they are so excessively bold and ravenous, as sometimes to eat the saddle from under the traveller's head, and gnaw the shoes on his feet, while he is sleeping in the open air. In fact, every kind of animal substance is a prize to them, and this gluttony seems a kind provision of nature, to consume those dead and corrupting bodies, which, in warm climates, might otherwise cause disease and death among the inhabitants. The following curious incident is related by Sparmann: One night, at a feast near the cape, a trumpeter, who had become intoxicated, was carried out of doors, in order to cool and sober him. The scent of him attracted a hyena, which threw him on his back, and dragged him along like a

corpse up towards Table mountain. In the mean time, the drunken musician revived sufficiently to find the danger of his situation, and to sound the alarm with his trumpet, which fortunately he had not relinquished. The wild beast became alarmed in turn, and fled. There is another species mentioned by Cuvier (the H. brunnea, Thunberg; H. villosa, Smith), of which little is known. It differs from the preceding, by having stripes on the legs, the rest of the body being of a dark grayish-brown. It inhabits the south of Africa, and is known there under the name of sea-shore wolf. The bones of a species of this animal have, of late years, been found in a fossil state in various parts of Europe, but more particularly in England. The scientific world are indebted, in a great measure, to professor Buckland, of Oxford, for the information we have on the subject. This fossil or extinct species (H. spelaa), according to Cuvier, was about one third larger than the striped species, with the muzzle, in proportion, much shorter. The teeth resemble those of the spotted species, but are considerably larger.

HYALITE. (See Opal.)

HYBLA; a mountain in Sicily, where thyme and odoriferous flowers of all sorts grew in abundance. It is famous for its honey. There is, at the foot of the mountain, a town of the same name. There is also another near mount Etna, and a third near Catana (Paus., v. c. 23; Strab., vi. c. 2 ; Mela., ii. c. 7 ; Stat., xiv. v. 201). A city of Attica bears also the name of Hybla.

HYcsos or HYK-SHOS (that is, shepherdkings), a nomadic people from Arabia, which conquered the greater part of Egypt, and held it from about 1700 to 1500 B. C. Their invasions were begun long before their final conquest of Lower and Middle Egypt. They destroyed the temples and cities, carried away women and children into captivity, and, as the Egyptian historians assert, committed the most brutal cruelties. On the eastern frontier of the country, near Pelusium, they built the fortress of Avaris, and founded a kingdom, the capital of which was Memphis. Thebes, however, and some other states, remained distinct governments, but became tributary. The Hyk-shos are supposed to have entered Egypt during the residence of the Israelites in that country, on account of which, the two nations have been confounded with each other. The Pharaoh who was drowned in the Red sea, when pursuing

the Israelites, is thought, by some, to have been a Hyk-sho. Manetho (q. v.) mentions a series of their kings, whom he reckons among the Egyptian dynasties. They were probably the builders of the pyramids, who are called, in the annals of the priests, oppressors of the people and enemies of religion. They were finally conquered by Tethmosis, king of Thebes. Avaris was besieged, and they were obliged to leave the country. On the magnificent ruins of Karnac (q. v.), the events of this war are represented. The Egyptians detested them as the enemies of every thing holy or noble. They are always represented in the bass-reliefs as captives, often lying bound on the ground, serving as foot-stools, and their images were often painted under the sandals of the Egyptians. If, as is very probable, on the block of black granite in the museum at Turin, which represents three different nations, the Israelites, Negroes and Hykshos are intended, the latter appear in a state of barbarism, wearing a rough skin over their shoulders, with their legs and arms tattooed. This stone is described in one of Champollion's letters to the duke of Blacas. (See Spineto's Lectures on the Elements of Hieroglyphics, London, 1829.)

HYDASPES; a river of Asia, flowing by Susa.-Another in India, the boundary of Alexander's conquests in the East. It falls into the Indus.

HYDE, Edward, earl of Clarendon. (See Clarendon.)

HYDE, Thomas, a celebrated Orientalist, was born in 1636, and went to King's college, Cambridge, at the age of 16. There he was recommended to Walton, as capable of assisting him in his great polyglot Bible. Such were his attainments at that time, as to enable him to make a Latin translation of the Persian Pentateuch for that work. In 1658, he went to Oxford, where he was admitted a student of Queen's college, and soon after appointed Hebrew reader to that society. In 1697, he was appointed regius professor of Hebrew, and canon of Christ church, Oxford. He died in 1703. His Veterum Persarum et Medorum Historia (3d edit., Oxford, 1760) is a valuable work. The Syntagma Dissert. (2 vols. 4to., 1767) was edited by doctor Sharpe.

HYDE DE NEUVILLE, Paul, count of, during the revolution and the imperial government, was distinguished for his secret machinations against the existing authorities in France. After the restoration, he sat on the extreme right in the cham

ber of deputies. He was born at Charité sur Loire, where his father, who left him a considerable fortune, was a button-manufacturer, and, at the commencement of the revolution, he went to Paris, without, however, acquiring any political importance till 1797. He then joined the party known under the name of Clichy, the object of which was to overthrow the liberal institutions, and to restore the old government. This they endeavored to effect by keeping the nation in agitation, and exciting prejudices against the advocates of freedom, by confounding them with the monsters of the reign of terror, and reiterating in their public speeches that the character, cultivation and the manners of the nation were totally incompatible with free institutions. Through the weakness of the directory, the project was already so far successful, by the aid of a number of venal pens, that hopes were entertained of lighting again the torch of civil war, which had been hardly extinguished by rivers of blood in the western departments. When the whole was frustrated by the unexpected return of Napoleon from Egypt, Hyde de Neuville played his part so warily, that, for a long time, no suspicion fell on him, although he had undertaken several journeys to England, in the service of the royalist party. About the end of 1799, he formed connexions with the insurgents in the western departments, particularly with George Cadoudal, Dandigné and Bourmont, and likewise presented to the British ministry the plan of a counter revolution, when the project was overthrown by the 18th Brumaire. The scheme, nevertheless, was not entirely abandoned, and M. Hyde had the assurance to propose to the first consul the restoration of the Bourbons. As this attempt failed, with the aid of some congenial spirits in Paris, he formed a counter police, the object of which was to watch all the steps of the government, in order to take advantage of any opportunity that might present itself. This was soon discovered, and the arrest of M. Hyde was ordered; but he succeeded in escaping to England. His papers, which contained important disclosures, fell into the hands of the government, and were published in May, 1800, under the title of Correspondance Anglaise, in which he is designated under the name of Paul Berri. He was subsequently accused, in a report of Fouché, the minister of the police, of having been engaged in the plot of the infernal machine, but in a memorial published in 1801, he repelled this charge.

He soon after repaired to Lyons, where he lived in great secrecy till 1805, when, through the intercession of his friends, the prayers of his wife, and especially through the influence of the empress Josephine, he received permission from Napoleon to arrange his affairs in France, and then remove to Spain. He remained in that country but a short time, but repaired with his family to the U. States, where he purchased an estate in New York, in the neighborhood of general Moreau. He is said to have had the principal agency in persuading the general to return to Europe, and take up arms against Napoleon. M. Hyde returned to France after the fall of Napoleon in 1814, followed Louis XVIII to Ghent, and, after the second restoration, was elected member of the chamber of deputies, where he took his place among the ultra royalists, and was distinguished for his violence in urging the severest measures, by which means he not unfrequently embarrassed the ministers themselves. His zeal was particularly manifested against retaining the imperial officers (whose places he wished should be supplied by pure royalists against the laws of amnesty, against the tribunals of justice, not occupied with men of his views, &c. The Parisians, therefore, called him and his partisans, Les Hideur, After the dissolution of the chamber of 1815, he was made count by Louis XVIII, and sent as a minister plenipotentiary to the U. States of North America; also received the grand cross of the legion of honor. In 1822, he returned from the U. States, was chosen a member of the chamber of deputies for the depart ment of the Nièvre, in 1823, and soon af ter sent as ambassador to Lisbon. On occasion of the disturbances raised by princ Miguel in that country, he supported the cause of the legitimate monarch; in return for which, king John VI appointed him count of Bemposta. But the British influence being predominant there, he left Lisbon in 1824, returned to Paris, and re sumed his seat in the chamber, where he incurred the displeasure of the govern ment, and lost his diplomatic prospects, by his opposition to Villèle and his close connexion with Chateaubriand. In March. 1828, he received the portfolio of the ma rine in the Martignac ministry, Chabrol having resigned that charge. He was succeeded, Aug. 9, 1829, on the formation of the Polignac ministry, by d'Hauser Since the late revolution, he has continued to sit in the chamber of deputies.

HYDE PARK is situated at the was

extremity of London. This park derived its name from having been the manor of the Hyde, belonging to the abbey of Westminster. It contains nearly 400 acres, and abounds with fine trees and pleasing scenery. At the south-east corner of Hyde park, near the entrance from Piccadilly, is a colossal statue of Achilles, executed by Mr. Westmacott, and dedicated to the duke of Wellington and his companions in arms. This statue was cast from cannon taken in the battles of Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse and Waterloo, is about 18 feet high, and stands on a basement of granite, making the whole 36 feet above the level of the ground. It was cast from 12 twenty-four pounders, and weighs upwards of 30 tons. The sheet of water called the Serpentine river, although in the form of a parallelogram, was made between 1730 and 1733, by order of queen Caroline. It is much frequented in summer for bathing, and during frosts for skating. At the eastern end of it is an artificial waterfall, constructed in 1817. On the south side are the barracks of the life-guards. The park is much frequented as a promenade.

HYDERABAD, as a province (subah) of the Mogul empire containing 42 districts (circars), and upwards of 400 townships perganahs), comprehending nearly the whole territory between the Godavery and the Krishna, has been much reduced by the diminution of the Mussulman power in India, but still comprehends the territories of the most powerful Mohammedan prince, the nizam of the Deccan. It is now divided into 16 districts. Nearly the whole country is parcelled out into feudal lordships, the possessors of which are bound to maintain an armed force. The soil is fertile, but agriculture and commerce are equally discouraged by the badness of the government. A small quantity of muslins, salt and opium are almost the only articles of commerce. On the death of Aureng-Zebe, this country, which had formed a province of his empire, was taken possession of (1717) by his viceroy, who still preserved the title of nizam or minister. His successors, alarmed by the growing power of the Mahrattas, who had already seized a valuable part of their territory, formed treaties with the British (1798 and 1800), by which it was agreed that a British force should be stationed in the country, and that all the foreign affairs of the nizam should be managed by the English government. Hyderabad the capital, is in 17° 15′ N. Lat.; 78° 35 E. lon. It is about four

miles long and three broad, and is surrounded by a stone wall. Its streets are narrow, crooked, ill-paved, formed by rows of houses of one story. The palace and some of the mosques are the only remarkable buildings, but the tank is worthy of notice; it is nearly 17 miles in circumference, and covers about 10,000 acres. It is filled by a canal from the river, and is formed by an embankment, consisting chiefly of granite, 3350 feet long and 50 feet high, which closes the open end of a valley, surrounded on the other three sides by mountains. It was finished in 1812. The population is 200,000.

HYDER ALLY KHAN; an Asiatic prince, who rose by his talents to sovereign power, and was a formidable enemy to the English in Hindoostan, in the latter part of the last century. He was born at Dinavelli, in the Mysore, and after some military service under his father, a petty chief of the country, he joined his brother in an alliance with France, and introduced European discipline among his troops. He became general-in-chief of the forces of Cinoas, who then reigned at Seringapatam as a vassal of the Great Mogul; and having quarrelled with the grand vizier of his master, he marched against the capital, and obliged Cinoas not only to deliver the vizier into his power, but also to appoint him regent. He subsequently assumed the sovereignty himself; and having deposed the royal family, he founded the Mohammedan kingdom of Mysore, in 1760. He so greatly extended his dominions, that, in 1766, they contained 70,000 square miles, and afforded an immense revenue. His reign was passed in wars with the English and with the Mahrattas, the former of which powers excited his peculiar jealousy. A treaty which he made with the East India company, in 1769, was violated in 1780, and he was opposed with success in the field by the English general, sir Eyre Coote. Mahrattas joining in a league against him, he carried on a disadvantageous war, during the continuance of which he died, in 1782. (For an account of the subsequent fate of his empire, see Tippoo Saib.)


HYDRA; a celebrated monster, which infested the neighborhood of the lake Lerna in the Peloponnesus. It was the fruit of Echidna's union with Typhon. It had a hundred heads according to Diodorus, 50 according to Simonides, and 9 according to Apollodorus, Hyginus, &c. The central head was immortal. As soon as one of those heads was cut off, two immediately grew up, if the wound was

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