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which he was chosen president on the death of doctor Fothergill. In 1762, he published a work, entitled Medical Commentaries (4to.), to which was subsequently added a Supplement, the object of which was to vindicate his claim to some anatomical discoveries, in opposition to professor Monro, of Edinburgh, and others. In 1764, he was appointed physician-extraordinary to the queen. Doctor Hunter was elected a fellow of the royal society in 1767; and, in 1768, on the establishment of the royal academy of arts, he was appointed professor of anatomy. He was made a foreign associate of the royal medical society at Paris in 1780, and of the royal academy of sciences in 1782. The most elaborate and splendid of his publications, the Anatomy of the human Gravid Uterus (folio, illustrated by 34 large plates), appeared in 1775. In 1777, he joined Mr. Watson in presenting to the royal society a Short Account of the late Doctor Maty's Illness, and of the Appearances on Dissection; and, in 1778, he published Reflections on the Section of the Symphysis Pubis, designed to show the impropriety and inutility of that surgical operation, which had become fashionable among accoucheurs on the continent, and especially in France. Two Introductory Lectures to his Anatomical Course, which he had prepared for the press, were published after his death. About 1765, he presented a memorial to Mr. Grenville, then minister, requesting a grant from government of the site of the king's mews, whereon he offered to erect an edifice at the expense of £7000, and endow a professorship in perpetuity. But his proposal was treated with neglect, in consequence of which he purchased a spot of ground in Great Windmill street, Haymarket, where he built a house, anatomical theatre, and museum, for his own professional purposes, and thither he removed in 1770. Here, besides objects connected with the medical sciences, he ultimately collected a library of Greek and Roman classics, and a valuable cabinet of medals. The latter furnished the materials for a publication, entitled Nummorum veterum Populorum et Urbium qui in Museo Gulielmi Hunter asservantur Descriptio, Figuris illustrata, Op. et Stud. Caroli Combe, SR. et SA. Sec. (1783, 4to.). In 1781, the museum was augmented by the addition of shells and other natural curiosities, which had been collected by doctor Fothergill, who had given testamentary directions that his cabinet of natural history should be offered to doctor Hunter

for £500 less than the appraised value; and he accordingly purchased it for £1200. He continued to attend to his avocations till within a very short time of his death, which took place March 30, 1783. He bequeathed his museum to his nephew for the term of 30 years, after which it was removed to the university of Glasgow, where it is now deposited.

HUNTER, John; younger brother of the preceding, highly celebrated as a practitioner and writer on surgery, anatomy and physiology. He was born July 14, 172. His education was neglected, and he was, at first, apprenticed to a cabinet-maker; but, hearing of the success of his elder brother in London, he offered his services to him as an anatomical assistant, and was invited by him to London, where he arrived in September, 1748. He improved so speedily, that, in the winter of 1749, he was able to undertake the instruction of dissecting pupils. In 1755, he was admitted to a partnership in the lectures delivered by his brother, in which situation he most assiduously devoted himself to the study of practical anatomy, not only of the human body, but also of brute animals, for which he procured from the Tower, and from the keepers of other menageries, subjects for dissection. He also kept several foreign and uncommon animals in his house for the purpose of studying their habits and organization. In the beginning of 1767, he was elected a fellow of the royal society. His first publication, a treatise On the Natural History of the Teeth (4to.), appeared in 1771. In the winter of 1773, he commenced a course of lectures on the theory and principles of surgery, in which he developed some of those peculiar doctrines which he afterwards explained more fully in his published works. His perfect acquaintance with anatomy rendered him a bold and skilful operator, and enabled him to make improvements in the modes of treating certain surgical cases. But his fam chiefly rests on his researches concerning comparative anatomy. In 1776, he ob tained the appointment of surgeon-extraordinary to the army. In 1781, he was chosen a member of the royal society of Göttingen, and, in 1783, of the royal society of medicine and academy of surgery st Paris. In 1786, he published his celebrated work On the Venereal Disease. About the same time appeared a quarto volume, entitled Observations on Various Parts of the Animal Economy, consisting of physiological essays, most of which had been inserted in the Philosophical Trans

actions. His Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and Gun-shot Wounds, was one of the last of his literary labors. On the death of Mr. Adair, he was appointed inspector-general of hospitals and surgeon-general to the army. He died Oct. 16, 1793. His Treatise on the Blood, &c., was published in 1794, with an account of his life, by sir Everard Home. Government purchased the museum of Hunter for £15,000, and transferred it to the royal college of surgeons, for the use of the public.

HUNTING, in a general sense, includes the pursuit both of hairy and feathered game; but, in a narrower sense, is applied only to beasts of venery (of the forest, as the hart, hind, hare, boar, wolf) and of chase (of the field, as the buck, doe, fox, marten, roe). In a rude state of society, it is one of the most important employments of mankind; and, in its more advanced state, becomes an agreeable amusement, men pursuing for pleasure, in the latter case, what they once followed from necessity. Hunting is practised in a great variety of ways, according to the object of the persons engaged in it, the nature of the country, and the description of the game. The object may be to obtain a supply of food, to destroy noxious animals, to get possession of useful ones, or of some useful animal product (as furs, &c.), or merely amusement. The pursuit may be conducted by means of other animals, as by dogs, falcons (see Falconry), &c.; or the prey may be caught by stratagem (as by nets, traps, pitfalls), or destroyed by firearms or other weapons, &c. A full account of the methods of hunting among the ancients may be found in the treatises of Xenophon (Kuvnyerikos) and Arrian (under the same title), and in the poem of Oppian-Cynegetics, or On Hunting. The breeds of hounds, their training and management, the hunting of the hare, the stag, the wild boar, lion, bear, &c.; the instruments, dress, &c., of the hunters, are minutely described with evident keenness and great precision. Xenophon commences with Apollo and Diana, through whose aid the Centaur Chiron, on account of his love of justice, was rewarded with instructions in the science of the chase. Chiron, in turn, taught many eminent pupils. The treatise concludes with a general eulogy of hunting, which, we are informed, not only affords pleasure, but increases health, strengthens the sight and hearing, and protracts the approach of old age. It is also the best preparation for military service. The author then

goes on to prove that activity is the duty of every good citizen, and that the interests of his country, not less than the will of the gods, demand from each man all the exertion of which he is capable. To the passion for hunting which animated the feudal kings and nobles of Europe, the huge tracts of land which were afforested bear fearful testimony; and the writers of the time give a strong picture of the sufferings of the oppressed commonalty, under the tyrannical privileges of sport which were claimed by their masters. (See Game Laws.) It is unnecessary here to go into a minute description of the technical terms of hunting, or of the manner in which it is carried on. In England, the fox, the stag and the hare are the principal objects of the chase; on the continent of Europe, the wild boar and the wolf are added to the list. (See Daniel's Rural Sports.) The lion is hunted by horsemen on plains, and large dogs are used to dislodge him from his haunts. At the first sight of the huntsmen, he always endeavors to escape by speed, but if they and the dogs get near, he either slackens his pace, or quietly awaits their approach. The dogs immediately rush on, and, after one or two are destroyed, overpower him: 12 or 16 are a sufficient match for him. The huntsmen keep together in pairs; if they have not a sufficient number of dogs, one of them, when within reach of the lion, dismounts and aims at the animal's heart; he instantly remounts, and his companion follows up the blow. In some parts of Africa, when a lion is discovered, the whole surrounding district is raised, a circle of three or four miles is formed, and the party proceeds, always narrowing the circle until the lion appears. He then springs on one of the party, who generally succeeds in killing him with a musket ball. One of the noblest sports in the East is hunting the tiger, which is done in various ways, but chiefly by a numerous company of sportsmen, with elephants trained for the purpose, horses becoming ungovernable. When the retreat of the tiger is discovered, every attempt is made to dislodge him; the search is conducted with the largest and best trained elephant, which discloses the presence of the tiger by a peculiar kind of snorting and great agitation. The huntsmen, who are mounted on elephants, discharge their pieces, and, if the shot is not fatal, the tiger springs upon his assailants, who are often in great danger. Tigers are sometimes taken in traps, pits or nets. The other animals of the feline

species-the panther, leopard, &c. are generally roused by dogs, and killed with fire-arms or arrows. The animals of the canine species, though less furious, are more cunning than those above mentioned. The wolf has always been an object of human vengeance: in the East, it is hunted by eagles trained for the purpose; in Europe, the strongest greyhounds and other dogs are employed, and the chase is prosecuted either on foot or on horseback. It is, however, very difficult to run down a wolf, for it is stronger than a dog, and will easily run 20 miles, which, added to its stratagems, often renders the pursuit abortive. Wolves are also taken in traps and nets, though their vigilance and caution make it difficult to deceive them. The most formidable animals of North America are the white bear and the grisly bear. They are ferocious, fearless, and extremely vivacious, and are hunted with arrows or fire-arms. The bison is destroyed by the North American Indians sometimes by riding in among a herd, and singling out one, which they wound with their arrows, until a mortal blow is given; or they drive a whole herd over a precipice. When flying before the pursuers, the herd rushes on with great rapidity, and it is impossible for the leaders to stop, as the main body pushes forward to escape the pursuit. The Indians nearly surround them, and rush forward with loud yells. The alarmed animals hasten forward in the only direction not occupied by their enemies, and are hurled over the precipice and dashed to pieces.

HUNTINGDON, Selina, countess of, the second daughter of Washington, earl Ferrers, was born in 1707, and married June 3, 1728, to Theophilus, earl of Huntingdon. Becoming a widow, she acquired a taste for the principles of the Calvinistic Methodists, and patronised the famous George Whitefield, whom she constituted her chaplain. Her rank and fortune giving her great influence, she was long considered as the head of a sect of religionists; and, after the death of Whitefield, his followers were designated as the people of lady Huntingdon. She founded schools and colleges for preachers, supported them with her purse, and expended annually large sums in private charity. She died June 17, 1791.

HUNTINGDON, William; a religious enthusiast, who attained some notoriety towards the end of the 18th century. He was the son of a farmer's laborer in Kent, and the early part of his life was passed in menial service, and other humble occupations.

After indulging in vice and dissipation for several years, according to his own account, he was converted, and became a preacher among the Calvinistic Methodists. He soon engaged in religious controversies, published a vast number of tracts, and was regarded as the head of a peculiar sect. He died in August, 1813, at the age of 69. He was a man of some talent, though little cultivated by education. His publications are very numerous, and some of them contain curious details relative to his personal history and religious experience. The titles of two may be mentioned as specimens: the Arminian Skeleton, or the Arminians dissected and anatomized (8vo.); and the Bank of Faith (8vo.). After having lost his first wife by death, he married the wealthy relict of sir James Saunderson, a London alderman, and passed the latter part of his life in affluence.

HUNTINGDON, Henry of, an ancient English historian, was born towards the end of the 11th or the beginning of the 12th century. He was educated by Albinus of Anjou, a learned canon of the church of Lincoln. He composed a general history of England, from the earliest accounts to the death of king Stephen, in 1154, in eight books, which have been published by sir Henry Savile. Towards the conclusion, the author honestly acknowledges that it is only an abridgment, and allows that to compose a complete history of England, many books were necessary which he could not procure. Mr. Wharton has published a letter of his on the contempt of the world, which details many curious anecdotes of the great men of his time.

HUNTINGTON, Samuel, one of the signers of the declaration of independence, was born in Windham, Connecticut, in 1732. His father was a farmer, whose situation did not allow him to give his son any other than the limited education which the common schools of the province afforded. Young Huntington, however, made up for this deficiency, by his own industry, and employed all the time which he could spare from the occupations of the farm, in improving his mind. At the age of 22, he resolved upon studying the law, and, having borrowed the necessary books, soon acquired knowledge sufficient to be admitted to the bar and commence the practice of his profession, which he did in his native town. He shortly afterwards removed to Norwich. Here he had not long resided, before his business became very extensive, and, in 1764, he was

elected a representative of the town in the general assembly, and the following year appointed king's attorney, an office which he filled until 1774, when he was raised to the bench of the superior court. In 1775, he was chosen a member of the council of Connecticut, and in the same year, having always shown himself a decided opponent of all encroachments on the rights of the people, was sent as a delegate to the general congress of the colonies. He took his seat in that assembly on the 16th of January, 1776, and, in the ensuing month of July, signed the declaration of independence. September 28, 1770, he was chosen to succeed John Jay, as president of the congress. He was reelected to the same dignity in 1780, and occupied it until the following year, when his health obliged him to retire from the house. On his return to Connecticut, he resumed his judicial functions and his seat in the council of that state. In 1783, he again went to congress, and was soon afterwards appointed chiefjustice of the supreme court of Connecticut. In 1786, he was chosen the successor of Mr. Griswold in the chief magistracy of the state, and was annually reelected to the same station until his death, which took place Jan. 5, 1796, in the 64th year of his age.

HUPAZOLI, Francis; one of the few individuals who have lived in three centuries. He was born in 1587, at Casal, in Sardinia, and died in 1702. At first, he was a clergyman, and afterwards became a merchant at Scio; and, in his 82d year, he was appointed Venetian consul at Smyrna. He had five wives, who bore him 24 children, besides which, he is known to have had 25 illegitimate children. By his fifth wife, whom he married at the age of 98 years, he had four children. His drink was water; he never smoked, and eat little (principally game and fruit). He drank a good deal of the juice of the scorzonera root, eat but very little at night, went to bed and rose early, then heard mass, walked and labored the whole day to the last. He wrote down every thing remarkable which he had witnessed, in 22 vols. He never had a fever, was never bled, and never took any medicine. At the age of 100, his gray hair again became black. When 109 years old, he lost his teeth, and lived on soup. Four years later, he had two large new teeth, and began again to eat meat. During the latter part of his life, he had, for almost 30 years, monthly evacuations of blood. After these ceased, he was af

flicted with the stone, and frequent colds, which continued until his death. He was of a mild temper. His principal fault was his passion for the other sex. Hupazoli was rich, and had but few wants.

HURD, Richard; an eminent English prelate and philological writer of the last century. He was born Jan. 13, 1720, at Congreve, in Staffordshire, went to Emanuel college, Cambridge, in which he obtained a fellowship in 1742, and, in 1749, published Horatii Ars Poetica, Epistola ad Pisones, with an English commentary and notes. In 1750, he published a Commentary on the Epistle of Horace to Augustus. A satirical attack on doctor Jortin, in defence of Warburton, in an Essay on the Delicacy of Friendship, he afterwards endeavored to suppress, In 1757, he published Remarks on David Hume's Essay on the Natural History of Religion (8vo.). His Dialogues, moral and political, with Letters on Chivalry and Romance, appeared at different times, from 1758 to 1764, and were republished collectively, in 1765 (3 vols. 8vo.). None of his works attracted so much notice as the dialogues, which were translated into German by Hölty. In 1767, he was made arch-deacon of Gloucester, and, in 1768, commenced a series of sermons on the prophecies, preached at the lecture founded by his friend Warburton, at Lincoln's Inn. These discourses were published under the title of an Introduction to the Study of the Prophecies concerning the Christian Church, in twelve Lectures (1772). In 1775, doctor Hurd was raised to the bishopric of Litchfield and Coventry; and, not long after, was made preceptor to the late king, and his brother the duke of York. He was translated to the see of Worcester, in 1781, and, at the same time, was bestowed on him the confidential situation of clerk of the closet. The king afterwards desired to elevate doctor Hurd to the primacy, but he modestly declined the offer. In 1788, he published an edition of the works of bishop Warburton, in which he omitted some of the productions of his deceased friend. Doctor Parr supplied the editorial deficiencies of bishop Hurd's collection, by Tracts by Warburton and a Warburtonian. In 1795, the right reverend editor himself published a kind of supplement to the works of Warburton, in the form of a biographical preface, and he subsequently also published the correspondence of Warburton, which was his last literary undertaking. He died in May, 1808.

HURL GATE (see East River). We will

only add here, that a project is on foot for improving the navigation of this dangerous pass, and that a survey has been made for this purpose, from which it appears, that a ship canal, of 2439 running feet in length, can be opened between Pot cove and Hallet cove, sufficient to admit the largest vessel of war.

HURON; a lake of North America, 218, miles long, from east to west, and 180 broad, of very irregular form; about 1100 miles in circumference, containing many islands and bays; lon. 80° 10' to 84° 30′ W.; lat. 43° 20 to 46° 10′ N. It abounds in fish, which are similar to those in lake Superior. Some of the land on its banks is very fertile, and suitable for cultivation; but in other places, barren and sandy. The promontory which divides the lake from lake Michigan, is composed of a vast plain, upwards of 100 miles in length, but varying in its breadth. At the north-east corner, the lake communicates with lake Michigan, by the straits of Michilimackinac. On its banks are found amazing quantities of sand cherries, and in the adjacent countries, nearly the same fruits as about the other lakes.-Huron River, or St. Clair River, connects lake Huron with lake St. Clair. It is 40 miles long, and about one mile wide.

HURONS; a tribe of North American Indians, which was formerly numerous, and dwelt on the east of lake Huron; but, in 1650, they were driven out by the Iroquois, and retired to the south-west of lake Erie. The Six Nations (the Mohawk tribes or Iroquois) call the Hurons father, without doubt because they are descended from the Hurons, who are now reduced to 700 warriors. They are among the most civilized of the N. American Indians, live in good houses, have horses, cows and swine, and raise grain for sale. Their proper name is Wyandots. (See North American Review, vol. 24, pp. 419,428.) The Iroquois are sometimes included under the name of Hurons, but they are a separate people.


HURRICANE (in Spanish, hurracan; in French, ouragan; in German, orkan); a word, according to the most probable supposition, picked up by voyagers among the natives of the West Indies; properly a violent tempest of wind, attended with thunder and lightning, and rain or hail. Hurricanes appear to have an electric origin at the moment that the electric spark produces a combination of oxygen and hydrogen, a sudden fall of rain or hail is thus occasioned, and a vacuum formed, into which the circumambient

air rushes with great rapidity from all directions. The West Indies, the Isle of France, and the kingdoms of Siam and China, are the countries most subject to their ravages. What are called hurricanes, in the more northern latitudes, are nothing more than whirlwinds, occasioned by the meeting of opposite currents. But in the real hurricane, all the elements seem to have armed themselves for the destruction of human labors and of nature herself. The velocity of the wind exceeds that of a cannon ball; corn, vines, sugar canes, forests, houses, every thing is swept away. The hurricane of the temperate zone moves with a velocity of about 60 feet a second; those of the torrid zone, from 150 to 300 feet in the same time. They begin in various ways; sometimes a little black cloud rolls down the mountains,and suddenly unfolds itself and covers the whole horizon; at others, the storm comes on in the shape of a fiery cloud, which suddenly appears in a calm and serene sky.

HUSBAND AND WIFE. Of all private contracts, that of marriage is most int mately blended with the social condition of a community, and gives rise to the mos numerous and important relations, rights and duties. It was for this reason, in part, though still more, perhaps, from the desire of domination and jurisdiction on the part of the clergy in former times, that this contract was invested with a peculiar religious character, and made one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic church. Marriage, accordingly, is often celebrated in places of public religious worship, in both Catholic and Protestant countries; and the ministers of religion. even in countries where the church has no judicial jurisdiction whatever over the rights arising from this contract, still officiate, for the most part, at its solemnization. (As to the forms of solemnizing marriage, and as to its dissolution, the reader is referred to the respective articles Marriage and Divorce.) The first and one of the most important rights resulting from this contract, is the control, in s greater or less degree, according to the laws of different countries, which it gives to the husband of the person of the wife. The terms in which this right is expressed, in the laws of England and the U. States, are stronger than those of the civil law, or the modern codes derived from it But this right is still recognised in those codes, of which that of France may be referred to as an example. The old writers in the English law express themselves more directly upon this subject than is

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