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ONE GALLON OF WATER, CONVERTED INTO STEAM, WILL RAISE SIX GALLONS AT FIFTY DEGREES TO THE BOILING POINT.

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EXTREME COLD PRODUCES THE SAME FEELING ON THE SKIN AS GREAT HEAT.

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two ventricles. The dilatation is called diastole; the contraction systole. The causes of the alternate contraction and dilatation of the heart are difficult to decide: they are entirely involuntary, and dependent on the nervous system. By what means the blood is made to penetrate the thousand windings of the capillary system, and what causes impel it to flow back through the veins, are yet subjects of dispute among physiologists. The weight of the human heart with respect to the weight of the body, is greater in children than in grown persons, in the proportion of 3 to 2. Hence the weight of the heart, with respect to the weight of the body, lessens continually from the birth, till the bodies come to their full growth. In the Scriptures, the heart is spoken of as the organ of sense, or seat of the understanding. And by a metonymy, it is used for an affection or passion: thus we say, in speaking of love, it is an affair of the heart.

HEAT, or CALORIC, that principle in nature, by the action of which fluids are evaporated, and solids are either dissipated in vapour, or rendered fluid, or vitrified. Our notions of the nature and properties of leat may be assisted by the following observations:-An intimate connection subsists betwixt light and heat, though it has not been hitherto discovered on what this connection depends. Both are emitted from the sun with the same velocity nearly; both are refracted from transparent bodies, and refracted by polished surfaces; in both, the matter seems exceedingly rare, and consequently the addition, or abstraction of either, cannot sensibly affect the weight of bodies, into which they are introduced: their parts never cohere, but mutually repel each other, and when forcibly accumulated they fly off from one another in all directions. Heat, however, differs from light in this particular, viz. the latter produces in us the sensation of vision, whereas the former excites a sensation which we call by the name of the substance itself. Heat attracts other bodies, and is attracted by them. In consequence of this mutual attraction, it enters into other substances, combines with them, and occasions changes in them.-The sensation of heat is produced by particles of heat passing into our bodies, and that of cold by heat passing out of them. We call any thing hot, when it communicates heat to bodies in its vicinity, and cold when it absorbs heat from them. The strength of the sensation' depends on the rapidity with which the heat enters or leaves our bodies; and this rapidity is proportional to the difference between our bodies and the hot or cold substance, and to the conducting power of that substance. Heat is considered one of the chief agents in chemistry, because its most obvious sources are chiefly referred to the general head of chemical combination. Thus, fire, or the combustion of inflammable bodies, is nothing more than a violent chemical action attending the combination of their ingredients with the oxygen

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of the air. Animal heat, is, in like man-
ner, referable to a process bearing no re-
mote analogy to slow combustion, by which
a portion of carbon, an inflammable princi-
ple existing in the blood, is united with the
oxygen of the air in respiration, and thus
carried off from the system: fermentation
is nothing more than a decomposition of
chemical elements loosely united, and their
reunion in a more perfect state of combina-
tion. Heat, among geographers, the heat
of different climates, which arises from the
different angles under which the sun's rays
strike upon the surface of the earth; added
to which, the heat of different places is
either increased or diminished by the acci-
dents of situation, with regard to moun-
tains and valleys, proximity to the sea, and
the like.Heat, among smiths and foun-
ders, the degree of heat requisite for iron
work, namely, the blood-red heat, the smal-
lest degree; the flame, or white heat, the
second degree; and the sparkling, or weld-
ing heat, which is the strongest degree.
Heat, in racing, a certain prescribed dis-
tance which a horse runs on the course.
HEATH, in botany, Erica, a genus of
beautiful shrubby plants, of which more
than 250 species are known. Some of them
are natives of Europe, and grow wild; but
the greater part are found in South Africa,
and are greatly admired on account of their
lasting verdure, their light foliage, and the
elegance of their flowers.

HEAVEN, literally the sky, or azure vault which spreads above us like a hollow hemisphere, and appears to rest on the limits of the horizon. Modern astronomy has taught us, that this blue vault is, in fact, the immeasurable space in which our earth, the sun, and all the planets, revolve. In metaphorical language, this space is called the abode of the Deity, and the seat of the souls of the just in the life to come. In these latter senses, it is sometimes called the empyrean, from the splendor by which it is characterized. It is also sometimes called the firmament. The word which, in the first chapter of Genesis, is translated firmament, was corrupted, it is said, by the Septuagint translators, and should be rendered expanse or extension. St. Paul speaks of the third heaven; and the orientals always describe seven heavens, or more. The foundation of the doctrine of several heavens was this: the ancient philosophers assumed there were as many different heavens as they saw bodies in motion: they considered them solid, although transparent, and supposed the blue space extended over our heads firm as a sapphire. They could not conceive that otherwise they could sustain those bodies; and they deemed them spherical, as the most proper form for motion. Thus, there were seven heavens 'for the seven planets, and an eighth for the fixed stars. Ptolemy discountenanced this system. He said, the deities (by which name he calls the stars, for they were adored in his time), moved in an ethereal fluid. It was, however, by very slow degrees that men became acquainted

HEAT STIMULATES THE LIVING PRINCIPLE THROUGHOUT ALL NATURE.

THE SAME HEAT WHICH RAISES WATER ONE DEGREE, RAISES OIL TWO, OWING TO THE EVAPORATION OF THE WATER.

THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF HEBREW, THE SQUARE OR ANCIENT CHARACTER, AND THE MODERN OR RABBINICAL HEBREW.

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THE RABBINICAL HEBREW IS A VERY COPIOUS LANGUAGE.

A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

with the true science which instructs us in the laws of celestial motion, and the magnitudes, distances, &c. of those effulgent orbs which deck the vast expanse. The heavens then, to follow the path of the Newtonian or true system, are filled with a fluid much finer and thinner than this air, and extending beyond all limits of which we have any conception. There being nothing visible to us in the remote part of the heavens, we can only consider them as the places of the stars. We shall have a vast idea of this space if we consider that the largest of the fixed stars, which are probably the nearest to us, are at a distance too great for the expression of all that we can conceive from figures, and for all means of admeasurement. The sun, which in that little space of the heavens that makes the system of which our world is a part, is in reality nothing more than a fixed star. Round him revolve the planets, among which Jupiter alone is in its solid contents nine hundred times as large as our earth. But these and the other particulars will be found under separate heads; to which we refer,

HEBDOMADARY, a member of a chapter or convent, whose duty it is to officiate in the choir, rehearse the anthems and prayers, and perform other services, which on extraordinary occasions are performed by the superiors.

HEBDOM'ARY, a solemnity of the ancient Greeks, in which the Athenians sung hymns in honour of Apollo, and carried in their hands branches of laurel. It was observed on the seventh day of every lunar month; hence the name.

HE BRAISM, an idiom or manner of speaking peculiar to the Hebrew language. HE BREW, the language spoken by the Jews, and which appears to be the most an. cient of all the languages in the world. The books of the Old Testament are the only pieces to be found, in all antiquity, written in pure Hebrew; and the language of many of these is extremely sublime. But Hebrew literature, independently of its containing the records of a divine revelation, possesses a peculiar scientific interest. It surpasses in antiquity, general credibility, originality, poetic strength, and religious importance, that of any other nation before the Christian era, and contains most remarkable memorials and trustworthy materials for the history of the human race, and its mental development.The Epistle to the Hebrews, a canonical book of the New Testament. The Hebrews, to whom this epistle was addressed, were the believing Jews of Palestine, and its design was to convince them of the insufficiency and abolishment of the ceremonial and ritual law. In order to which the apostle undertakes to shew, first, the superior excellency of Christ's person above that of Moses; secondly, the superiority of Christ's priesthood above the Levitical; and thirdly, the mere figurative nature, and utter insufficiency, of the legal ceremonies and sacri

fices.

HECATE'SIA, in Grecian antiquity, a

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public entertainment given by the Athenians every new moon, in honour of Hecate. HEC'ATOMB, amongst the Greeks, was a sacrifice consisting of a hundred oxen offered upon some very extraordinary occasion. Hecatomb, in its most general sense, signifies no more than a sacrifice of a hundred animals; but the ox being the chief of animals used in sacrifice, gave derivation to HECTIC FEVER, in medicine, an habitual fever, or one which is slow and continued, ending in a consumption.

the word.

HECTOGRAM, in the French system of weights and measures, a weight containing 100 grains; equal to 3 ounces, 2 gros, and 12 grains French. HECTOLITER, a French measure of capacity for liquids, containing 100 liters; equal to a tenth of a cubic meter, or 107 Paris pints.

HECTOMETER, a French measure equal to 100 meters; the meter being the unit of a lineal measure. It is equivalent nearly to 308 French feet.

HEDENBERGITE, in mineralogy, an ore of iron, in masses, composed of shining plates, which break into rhombic frag

ments.

HEDERA CEOUS, in botany, pertaining to, or growing like, ivy. HED'ERA, in botany, a genus of plants, class 5 Pentandria, order 1 Monogynia. The species are shrubs, consisting of the different kinds of ivy.

HEDGEHOG, in zoology, the Erinaceus, a small animal which feeds on worms, insects, frogs, fruit, and the roots of vegetables. It is remarkable for the sharp prickles which enclose it, and for its power of rolling itself into a globe of its own prickles, when in danger; but it unfolds on being put into water. One of the most interesting facts in the natural history of the hedgehog was announced in 1831 by M. Lenz; and as it has since been confirmed by the observations of Professor Buckland and other naturalists, we deem it too important to be omitted in this or any other description that may in future be given of this animal. It is, that the most violent animal poisons have no effect on it; a fact which renders it of peculiar value in forests, where it appears to destroy a great number of noxious reptiles. Repeated experiments fully warrant us in saying, that the venom of the adder (to whom the hedgehog is a mortal enemy) has not the slightest effect upon it; and a German physician asserts, that he gave one several strong doses of prussic acid, of opium, and of corrosive sublimate, none of which did it any harm. HEGIRA, the epoch of the flight of Mahomet from Mecca, July 10, 622, whence Eastern nations date the year of 354 days; which is found by subtracting 622 from our year, and then multiplying by 365.52, and dividing by 354.

HEIR, in law, the person who succeeds another by descent to lands, tenements, and hereditaments, being an estate of inheritance, or an estate in fee; because

POETRY WAS EVIDENTLY THE FOUNDATION OF HEBREW LITERATURE.

THE JEWISH RABBIES FREQUENTLY MAKE USE EITHER OF THEIR OWN, OR THE SQUARE HEBREW, TO WRITE THE MODERN LANGUAGES IN.

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FLATTERERS ARE LIKE THE HELIOTROPE; THEY OPEN ONLY TOWARDS THE SUN, BUT SHUT AND CONTRACT THEMSELVES IN CLOUDY WEATHER.

350

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HELIX HORTENSIS IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME OF THE GARDEN SNAIL.

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nothing passes by right of inheritance but in fee. We give the title to a person who is to inherit after the death of an ancestor, and during his life, as well as to the person who has actually come into possession. Heir-apparent, is a person so called in the lifetime of his ancestor, at whose death he is heir at law. Heir-presumptive, one who, if the ancestor should die immediately, would, in the present circumstances of things, be his heir; but whose right of inheritance may be defeated by the contingency of some nearer heir being born.

HEIR-LOOM, any furniture or personal chattel, which by law descends to the heir with the house or freehold.

HELIACAL, in astronomy, a term applied to the rising or setting of the stars, or, more strictly speaking, to their emer sion out of and immersion into the rays and superior splendour of the sun. A star rises heliacally when, after it has been in conjunction with the sun, and on that account invisible, it gets at such a distance from the sun as to be seen in the morning before the rising of that luminary.

HELIANTHUS, or the Sun-flower, in botany, a genus of plants, class 19 Syngenesia, order 3 Polygamia frustanea, containing more than twenty species, of which the most curious is the Helianthus gyrans, or moving plant, which is found in Bengal, and on the banks of the Ganges: it has a constant and voluntary motion, consisting in an alternate meeting and receding of the leaflets, a motion which does not seem to depend on any external stimulus. HELICITE, fossil remains of the helis, or snail-shell.

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HELIX, in architecture, a spiral line or something that is winding; as, a winding staircase; or a little volute under the flowers of the Corinthian capital. In anatomy, the whole circuit or extent of the auricle, or external border of the car.

HELL, in the translation of the Scriptures, and in the Apostle's creed, is used to signify the grave, or place of the dead. In the New Testament, it also signifies the region of the wicked after death. The ancient Jews seem to have had no knowledge of any but temporal punishments, and the law threatens no other: but, after they became conversant with the Greeks, they adopted many of their opinions on this subject, and added some inventions of their own. They believed hell to be in the centre of the earth, and that there were three roads leading to it; one through the wilderness, by which Dathan and Abiram passed; another through the sea; and the third in Jerusalem.-Amongst the Greeks and Ro. mans, the idea of hell varied according to the fancy and imagination of each individual. The general idea, however, was, that hell was divided into two mansions, the one called Elysium, on the right hand, pleasant and delightful, appointed for the souls of good men; the other called Tartarus, on the left, a region of misery and torment, appointed for the wicked.

HELLEBORE, in botany, Helleborus niger, or Christmas rose, an exotic plant, the root of which is employed medicinally. The ancients esteemed it as a powerful remedy in maniacal cases; at present it is exhibited principally as an alterative; and it is also recommended in dropsies, and some cutaneous diseases. There is also the white hellebore of the genus Veratrum. Both are acid and poisonous, though valuable in medicine.

HELIOCENTRIC. In astronomy, the heliocentric latitude of a planet, is the inclination of a line drawn between the centre of the sun and the centre of a planet, to the plane of the ecliptic. Heliocentric HELLEBORUS, in botany, a genus of place of a planet, the place of the ecliptic plants, class 13 Polyandria, order 7 Polywherein the planet would appear to a spec-gynia. The species are perennials. tator placed at the centre of the sun. HELLENISM, a phrase in the idiom, HELIOMETER, an instrument for mea- genius, or construction of the Greek tongue. suring with exactness the diameter of the This word is only used when speaking of heavenly bodies. authors who, writing in a different language, express themselves in a phraseology peculiar to the Greek. HELLENISTIC, an epithet for whatever pertained to the Hellenists. The Hellenistic language was the Greek spoken by the Jews who lived in Egypt and other parts where the Greek tongue prevailed. In this language, it is said, the Septuagint was written, and also the books of the New Testament; and that it was thus denominated to shew that it was Greek filled with Hebraisms and Syriacisms.

HELIOSCOPE, in optics, a sort of telescope, peculiarly fitted for viewing the sun without pain or injury to the eyes.

HELIOSTATE, an instrument by which a sunbeam may be steadily directed to one

spot.

HE'LIOTROPE, in mineralogy, a subspecies of rhomboidal quartz, of a deep green colour. It is usually variegated with blood red or yellowish dots, and is more or less translucent. It is generally supposed to be chalcedony, coloured by green earth or chlorite. In botany, the Sunflower. HELIOTROPIUM, in botany, a genus of plants, class 5 Pentandria, order 1 Monogynia. The species are mostly annuals or shrubs.

HELISPHERICAL, spiral. The helispherical line is the rhomb line in navigation, so called because on the globe it winds round the pole spirally, coming nearer and nearer to it, but never terminating in it.

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IN THE KORAN IT IS SAID THAT HELL HAS SEVEN GATES OR ENTRANCES,

THE LOCALITY OF HELL, AND THE REALITY OF ITS FIRE, BEGAN FIRST TO BE CONTROVERTED BY ORIGEN, WHO INTERPRETED IT METAPHORICALLY.

ALKALIES, SUCH AS POTASH AND AMMONIA, CONVERT INTO A DARK PURPLE-RED TINT, THE PALE SOLUTION OF HEMATINE.

HEM]

HEMP AND FLAX WERE FIRST PLANTED IN ENGLAND, IN 1533.

A New Dictionary of the Belles Letters.

HEN

bear up the helm; that is, let the ship go HEMIPLEGIA, in medicine, a paralytic more large before the wind; helm a mid- affection of one side of the body. ship, or right the helm, that is, keep it even IIEMIPTERA, in entomology, the sewith the middle of the ship; port the helm, cond order of insects, which have the put it over the left side of the ship; star-wings half crustaceous and hait membraboard the helm, put it on the right side of neous, as cockroaches, crickets, grasshopthe ship. pers, &c. IIEM'ISPHERE, in astronomy, one half of the sphere. The equator divides the sphere into two parts, called the northern and the southern hemispheres. The horizon also divides the sphere into two parts, called the upper and lower hemispheres. Hemisphere is also used for a map or projection of half the terrestrial globe, or half the celestial sphere, on a plane, and is then often called planisphere. HEMISPHEROIDAL, in geometry, an appellation given to whatever approaches to the figure of a hemisphere, but is not exactly so.

HELMET, a headpiece, or armour for the head, which was formerly the noblest part of coat armour. It covered both the head and face, only leaving an aperture in the front secured by bars, which was called the visor. It is still used in heraldry by way of crest over the shield or coat of arms, in order to express the different degrees of nobility, by the different manner in which it is borne.The modern helmet is worn by some of the cavalry to defend the head against the broad-sword.

HE'LOTS, the name given to certain slaves in Sparta, who were originally inhabitants of the town of Helos, but carried off and reduced to slavery by the Heraclidæ, about 1000 B. C. They differed from other Greek slaves in not belonging individually to separate masters; being the property of the state, which alone had the disposal of their lives and freedom.

HELVETIC, an epithet designating what pertams to the Helvetii, the ancient inhabitants of Swisserland, or to the modern states and inhabitants of the Alpine regions; as the Helvetic confederacy, &c. HEM'ACHATE, in mineralogy, a species of agate, of a blood colour.

HEM'ATIN, or HEM'ATINE, in chemistry, the colouring principle of logwood, of a pale red colour and bitterish taste. HEM'ATITE, in mineralogy, the name of two ores of iron, the red and the brown hematite. They are both of a fibrous structure, their fibres usually diverging, or even radiating from a centre.

HEMERALO'PIA, in medicine, nocturnal blindness; a defect in the sight, which consists in not being able to see in the evening, though the sight is perfect enough in the day-time. At sun-set, objects appear to persons afflicted with this complaint as if covered with an ash-coloured veil, which gradually changes into a dense cloud, and appears to intervene between the eyes and surrounding objects. When brought into a room faintly lighted by a candle, where all the bystanders can see tolerably well, they can scarcely discern any object, and at moon-light their sight is still worse.

HEMEROCAL'LIS, in botany, a genus of plants, class 6 Hexandria, order 1 Monogynia. The species are bulbs, of the lily kind. HEM'I, a Greek word used in the composition of several terms borrowed from that language. It signifies half, the same as semi, and demi: thus, hemiplegia is a palsy of one half of the body; hemistich, half a verse; hemicycle, a semi-circle.

HEMICRA'NIA, in medicine, a species of head-ache, which affects only one half or side of the head.

HEMIOP'SIA, in medicine, a defect of vision in which the person sees the half, but not the whole of an object.

HEMISTICH, in poetry, denotes half a verse, or a verse not completed. In reading common English verse, a short pause is required at the end of each hemistich.

HEMLOCK, a genus of plants called Conium, of which the species maculatum, or greater hemlock, is one of our few poisonous plants, but now used in medicine.

HEMP, a fibrous plant, of the Diccia class, and of the genus Cannabis; well known for its use in the manufacture of cordage and cloths. The stem is herbaceous, upright, simple, slightly pilose, attaining the height of from four to six feet; the male flowers, which are on separate stems, are green, resembling those of the hop; the female flowers are inconspicuous, and the fruit is a little, hard, bivalve capsule, containing a single seed. It may be planted upon any land; the poorer producing that which is fine in quality, though small in quantity; and the richer and stronger, that which is abundant in the former, but coarse in the latter. Besides its use in manufactures, hemp is said to recommend itself to the agriculturist, by driving away almost all the insects that feed upon other vegetables. Hence, in some parts of Europe, a belt of this plant is sown round gardens, or other spots, to preserve them. Only the coarser kinds of hemp are employed in making cordage; the finer being used for cloth, which though incapable of receiving the delicacy of linen, is incomparably stronger, equally susceptible of bleaching, and possessed of the property of improving its colour by wear. The English hemp is much superior in strength to that which grows in any other country. Next to this is the Russian, from which sacking is usually made. A large quantity of Russia-sheeting, coarser at the price than any other foreign cloth, is imported into England on account of its strength. The great importance of hemp to the maritime interests of the United Kingdom, occasions it to form a considerable article of commerce. The cordage and sails of a first-rate ship of war are said to consume 180,000 lbs. of rough hemp.

HEN, a female bird of any species, but

ENGLISH HEMP, WHEN PROPERLY PREPARED, IS THE STRONGEST OF ANY.

HEMP-SEED CONTAINS AN OIL WHICH IS EMPLOYED FOR MAKING SOFT SOAP, FOR PAINTING, AND FOR BURNING IN LAMPS.

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IT IS THOUGHT THAT THE WORD "HERALD" IS DERIVED FROM THE SAXON "HEREHAULT," WHICH SIGNIFIES THE CHAMPION OF AN ARMY.

352

HEP]

HERALDS WERE FIRST INCORPORATED BY HENRY V. IN 1419.

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applied particularly to the female of the domestic fowl of the gallinaceous kind.

HEN BANE, in botany, the Hyoscyamus, of several species. The roots, leaves, and seeds are poisonous, but, from its narcotic qualities, it is occasionally serviceable in medicine.

HENDEC'AGON, in geometry, a figure of eleven sides, and as many angles. In fortification, hendecagon denotes a place defended by eleven bastions.

HENDECASYLLABLES, in poetical composition, a verse of eleven syllables. Among the ancients it was particularly used by Catullus, and is well adapted for elegant trifles.

HEPAR SULPHURIS, or Liver of Sulphur, in chemistry, the name commonly given to a sulphuret made either with potash or soda. It has a disagreeable fetid sinell, but is in high esteem with some as a medicine to decompose corrosive sublimate, when taken into the stomach.

HEPATIC, in medicine, an epithet for whatever belongs to the liver.Hepatic artery, the artery which nourishes the substance of the liver.-Hepatic duct, the trunk of the biliary pores. It runs from the sinus of the liver towards the duodenum, and is joined by the cystic duct.

HEPATIC AIR, in chemistry, sulphuretted hydrogen gas; or inflammable air variously combined with sulphur, alkalies, earths, and metals. HEPATIC MERCURIAL ORE, compact sulphuret of mercury or cinnabar, a mineral of a reddish brown colour. It occurs in compact masses with an even or fine grained structure, and has some lustre.

HEPATITE, a name given to the fetid sulphates of barytes. It sometimes occurs in globular masses, and is either compact or of a foliated structure. By friction or the application of heat it exhales a fetid odour, like that of sulphuretted hydrogen. HEPATITIS, in medicine, inflammation of the liver, of which there are two kinds, the acute and chronic. Both require attentive medical treatment. In warm climates the liver is more apt to be affected with inflammation than perhaps any other part of the body, probably from the increased secretion of the bile which takes place when the blood is thrown on the internal parts, by an exposure to cold; or from the bile becoming acrid, and thereby exciting an irritation of the part. HEPTAGON, in geometry, a figure of seven sides and seven angles. In fortification, a place is termed a heptagon that has seven bastions for its defence. HEPTAG'ONAL NUMBERS, in arithmetic, a sort of polygonal numbers, wherein the difference of the terms of the corresponding arithmetical progression is 5. One of the properties of these numbers is, that if they be multiplied by 40, and 9 be added to the product, the sum will be a square number.

HEPATOSCO'PIA, a mode of divination, by which conjectures concerning futurity were drawn from the appearances exhibited

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by the liver of the victim offered in sacrifice. HEPTACHORD, in ancient poetry, ver

ses sung or played on seven chords or different notes; in which sense the word was applied to the lyre when it had but seven strings. HEPTACAP'SULAR, a term in botany, signifying that the plant has seven cells or cavities for seeds. HEPTAGYN'IAN, in botany, an epithet for a plant having seven pistils. HEPTAN'DRIA, the seventh class of the Linnæan system of plants, containing four orders, Monogynia, Digynia, Tetragynia, and Heptagynia. HEP'TARCHY, & government exercised by seven persons; or, a nation divided into seven governments. Saxon heptarchy, the seven kingdoms existing in England, between the fifth and ninth centuries. These kingdoms were severally named, 1. Kent; 2. Sussex; 3. Wessex; 4. Essex; 5. Northumberland; 6. East-Angleland; 7. Mercia. The heptarchy was formed by degrees; but it may be said to have commenced in 449, when Hengist arrived on the island. 827 Egbert was enabled, by a combination of circumstances, to assume the title of King of England; but, in reality, three of the kingdoms, Northumberland, East Angleland, and Mercia, were still governed by their own kings, though those kings were his vassals and tributaries. The kingdoms he actually governed were Kent, Sussex, Wessex, and Essex.

In

HERACLI'DE. The return of the Heraclide into Peloponnesus, in chronology, constitutes the beginning of profane history; all the time preceding that period being accounted fabulous. This return happened in the year of the world 2682, a hundred years after they were expelled, and eighty after the destruction of Troy.

HERALD, the title of an officer, whose duty it anciently was to declare war, to challenge in battle and combat, to proclaim peace, and to execute martial messages; but who is, at present, to conduct royal processions, the creations of nobility, and the ceremonies of knighthood; to publish declarations of war, not to the enemy, but at home; to proclaim peace; to record and blazon armorial bearings; and to regulate abuses in arms, under the authority of the earl-marshal, by whom he is created. The heralds were formed into a college by Richard the Third. The three chief heralds are called kings at arms, the principal of which is Garter; the next is called Clarencieux, and the third Norroy; these two last are called provincial heralds. Besides these there are six other inferior heralds, viz. York, Lancaster, Somerset, Richmond, Chester, and Windsor; to which, on the accession of king George I. to the crown, a new herald was added, styled Hanover herald; and another styled Glocester king at arms. Heralds, amongst the ancient Greeks and Romans, were held in great estimation, and looked upon as sacred. Those of Greece carried in their hands a rod of

MANY PRIVILEGES WERE GRANTED TO THE HERALDS BY EDWARD VI.

HERALDS WERE FORMERLY CREATED BY THE KING HIMSELF, WHO, POURING WINE FROM A GOLDEN CUP ON THEIR HEAD, GAVE THEM THEIR TITLE.

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