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'scarlet, or red," is the color which stands for sacrifices, or for sacrificial blood, in all their picture painting; and the shrine, or tunkan, which continues to have its devotees, "is painted red, as a sign of active [or living] worship." The same is true of the shrines in India; 2 the color red shows that worship is still living there; red continues to stand for blood.

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The two covenant tokens of blood-friendship with God-circumcision and the phylacteries—are, by the Rabbis, closely linked in their relative importance. 'Not every Israelite is a Jew," they say, "except he has two witnesses-the sign of circumcision and phylacteries"; the sign given to Abraham, and the sign. given to Moses.

In the narration of King Saul's death, as given in 2 Samuel 1 I-16, the young Amalekite, who reports Saul's death to David, says: “I took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelet that was on his arm [the emblems of his royalty], and have brought them hither unto my lord." The Rabbis, in their paraphrasing of this passage, claim that it was the phylactery, "the frontlet" (totephta) rather than a "bracelet,” which was on the arm of King Saul; as if the king of the


1 Lynd's Hist. of Dakotas, p. 81.

2 Bayard Taylor's India, China, and Japan, p. 52.
3 See Home and Syn. of Mod. Jew, p. 5.

See Targum, in Buxtorf's Biblia Rabbinica, in loco.

covenant-people of Jehovah would not fail to be without the token of Jehovah's covenant with that people.

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So firmly fixed was the idea of the appropriateness and the binding force of these tokens of the covenant, that their use, in one form or another, was continued by Christians, until the custom was denounced by representative theologians and by a Church Council. In the Catacombs of Rome, there have been found. 'small caskets of gold, or other metal, for containing a portion of the Gospels, generally part of the first chapter of John [with its covenant promises to all who believe on the true Paschal Lamb], which were worn on the neck," as in imitation of the Jewish phylacteries. These covenant tokens were condemned by Irenæus, Augustine, Chrysostom, and by the Council of Laodicea, as a relic of heathenism.1



When rescued Israel had reached Mount Sinai, and a new era for the descendants of Abraham was entered upon, by the issue of the divinely given charter of a separate nationality, the covenant of bloodfriendship between the Lord and the seed of the Lord's friend was once more recognized and celebrated. "And Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord, and all the judgments: and all the peo1 See Jones's Credulities Past and Present, p. 188.



ple answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do. And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, and rose up early in the morning [or, 'prepared for a new start' as that phrase means],' and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the Lord; "2 not sin-offerings are named, but burnt-offerings, of consecration, and peace-offerings, of communion. And now observe the celebration of the symbolic rite of the blood-covenant between the Lord and the Lord's people, with the substitute blood accepted on both sides, and with the covenant record agreed upon. "And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. And he took the book [the record] of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the Lord hath spoken will we do, and be obedient. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people [half of it he sprinkled on the Lord's altar, and half of it he sprinkled on the Lord's people. The writer of Hebrews says that Moses sprinkled blood on the book, also; thus blood-staining the record of the covenant, according to the custom in the East, to-day], 1Kadesh-Barnea, p. 382, note. 2 Exod. 24:3-6.


8 Heb. 9: 19.


and [Moses] said, Behold the blood of the covenant,
which the Lord hath made with you concerning all
these words [or, as the margin renders it,' upon all
these conditions,' in the written compact]. Then
went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and
seventy of the elders of Israel.
And they
beheld God, and did eat and drink";1 as in the social
inter-communion, which commonly accompanies the
rite of blood-friendship.

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When Abraham was brought into the covenant of blood-friendship with Jehovah, it was his own blood which Abraham devoted to Jehovah. When Jehovah recognized anew this covenant of blood-friendship in behalf of the seed of his friend, Jehovah provided the substitute blood, for its symbolizing in the passover. When united Israel was to be inducted into the privileges of this covenant of blood-friendship at Mount Sinai, half of the blood came from the one party, and half of the blood came from the other party, to the sacred compact; both portions being supplied from a common and a mutually accepted symbolic substitute.


With the establishment of the Mosaic law, there was an added emphasis laid on the sacredness of blood, which had been insisted on in the Noachic

1 See Exod. 24: I-II.



covenant; and many new illustrations were divinely given of the possibilities of an ultimate union with God through inter-flowing blood, and of present communion with God through the sharing of the substitute flesh of a sacrificial victim.

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"Ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl or beast, in any of your dwellings. Whosoever it be that eateth any blood, that soul shall be cut off from his people." 'Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood; I will set my face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people. For the life [the soul] of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life [by reason of its being the life]. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that is among you eat blood.”2 'For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 3


Because of sin, death has passed upon man.

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3 Lev. 17: 14.

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