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physics and morals, was born in 1705. At the age of 15, he was sent to Jesus college, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. He engaged in the study of medicine, and practised as a physician in Nottinghamshire, and, subsequently, in London. When Mrs. Stephens, a female empiric, professed to have found out a specific for the stone, doctor Hartley contributed towards her obtaining the grant of £5000 from parliament for her discovery. He spent the latter part of his life at Bath, and died there, Aug. 28, 1757. His fame as a philosopher and a man of letters depends on his work entitled Observations on Man (1749, 2 vols., 8vo.). This treatise exhibits the outlines of connected systems of physiology, mental philosophy, and theology. His physiology is founded on the hypothesis of nervous vibrations. The doctrine of association, which he adopted and illustrated, explains many phenomena of intellectual philosophy; and this part of Hartley's work was published by doctor Priestley, in a detached form, under the title of the Theory of the Human Mind (8vo.).

HARTLEY, David; distinguished as a politician and an ingenious projector. He was for some time member of parliament, and uniformly displayed liberal views. His steady opposition to the war with the American colonies, led to his being appointed one of the plenipotentiaries to treat with doctor Franklin, at Paris; and some of his letters on that occasion were published in the correspondence of that statesman, in 1817, and are contained in the Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution (Boston, 1831). In the house of commons, Hartley was one of the first promoters of the abolition of the slave-trade. This benevolent philosopher died at Bath, Dec. 19, 1813, aged 84. HARTSHORN; the horns of the common male deer, to which many very extraordinary medicinal virtues were attributed; but the experience of late years gives no countenance to them. The horns are of nearly the same nature as bones, and the preparations from them by heat are similar to those from solid animal substances in general; so that the articles denominated spirit of hartshorn and salt of hartshorn, though formerly obtained only from the horns of different species of deer, are now chiefly prepared from bones. The former of these, which is a volatile alkali of a very penetrating nature, is an efficacious remedy in nervous complaints and fainting-fits; and salt of hartshorn has been successfully prescribed in fevers.

The scrapings or raspings of the horns, under the name of hartshorn shavings, are variously employed in medicine. Boiled in water, the horns of deer give out an emollient jelly, which is said to be remarkably nutritive. Burned hartshorn is employed in medicine. The horns of the stag are used, by cutlers and other mechanics, for the handles of knives and cutting instruments of different kinds.

HARTZ; the most northerly mountain chain of Germany, from which an extensive plain, interrupted only by some inconsiderable hills, stretches to the North sea and the Baltic. The Hartz, though surrounded by a low range of hills, forms a separate mountainous chain, 70 miles in length and 20 to 28 miles in breadth. The Hartz, properly speaking, commences in the east, in Mansfeld, passes through AnhaltBernburg, the counties of Stolberg, Hohenstein and Wernigerode, a part of Halberstadt and Blankenburg, BrunswickWolfenbuttel and Grubenhagen, and terminates on the west, at the town of Seesen, comprising an extent of 1350 square miles, and embracing 40 towns and numerous villages, with 56,000 inhabitants, belonging principally to Hanover. The Hartz is divided into the Upper and Lower, in a double sense. In the wider sense, the Brocken, the loftiest summit of the chain, forms the line of separation. The Upper Hartz lies west of the Brocken, and is the most elevated, extensive, and rich in minerals; the Lower Hartz lies on the east of the Brocken, and is superior in the beauty of its scenery. The same summit is also the dividing point of the rivers; those on the east empty into the Elbe; those on the west, into the Weser. There are several ranges of mountains in Germany, that are much higher than the Hartz; as, for instance, the German Alps, the Riesengebirge and the Schwartzwald (Black Forest), The Brocken, the highest summit of the Hartz, is 3489, or, according to some accounts, 3435 feet high; next to this are the Bruchberg (2755 feet), the Wormberg (2667 feet), and the Ackermannshöhe (2605 feet). That part of the Hartz which includes the Brocken, with the neighboring high summits, consists entirely of granite; then come the hills of the second rank, formed of greywacke, in which the ores are chiefly found; at their foot he the Floetz hills, known under the name of the Vorhartz. The climate, particularly of the Upper Hartz, is cold. The frost continues till the end of May, and appears early in September, accompanied by snow; and even in June, night frosts are not uncom

mon. The warm weather lasts only about six weeks, and the snow upon the highest peaks seldom disappears before June; fires are kept up, even in mid-summer. The Hartz is wooded throughout, even to the top of the Brocken (the Hanoverian part alone contains 286,363 acres of forest). On the Brocken itself stand firs dwindled into dwarf trees. Upon the less lofty hills, several sorts of deciduous trees are found intermingled with the evergreens, and the Flatz hills are covered with the finest oaks, beech and birch. The hills also abound in wild berries, in truffles and mushrooms, in medicinal plants, Iceland moss, and fine pastures; and in summer, immense herds of neat cattle, sheep, goats and horses graze here. In the Upper Hartz, little grain is raised, except oats; in the Lower Hartz, the productions are more various. The woods furnish a great quantity of game, such as 'stags, roe-bucks, foxes, wild boars, wild cats, &c. But the wealth of the Hartz consists in its forests and valuable mines. The latter furnish some gold (on account of its rarity, ducats were formerly coined, with the inscription Ex auro Hercynia); in the Rammels-berge, great quantities of silver, iron, lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, manganese, vitriol, granite, porphyry, slate, marble, alabaster, &c. The gross produce of the Hanoverian mines is but little over the expenses; but they support the greatest part of the inhabitants of the Hartz. The towns of the Upper Hartz are entirely open. In addition to the establishments for carrying on the mines, the objects of curiosity in the Hartz are the Brocken, with its prospect; the horse-track (Rosstrappe), the wildest and most beautiful part of the Hartz, near the village of Thale; the different caves, as those of Baumann, Biel, Schwartzfeld, the romantic Selkenthal, with the Maiden's Leap, and the Bath of Alexis;, the wild Ockerthal, &c. A wide plain on the summit of the Brocken, is the place of the annual rendezvous of all the witches and spirits of Germany, of which Göthe has made such a noble use in his Faust. It is on the Brocken, also, that the wild huntsman of the Hartz is supposed to dwell. The spectre of the Brocken is an image of the spectator, of a magnified and distorted shape, reflected from an opposite cloud under particular circumstances. (See the Taschenbuch für Reisende in den Hartz, by Gottschalk (2d edit., Magdeburg, 1817). HARCSPEX. (See Aruspices.) HARVARD COLLEGE. (See Cambridge.) HARVEY, William, an English physi

cian, celebrated as the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, was born at Folkstone, in Kent, April 2, 1578, and, in 1593, removed to Caius college, Cambridge. At the age of 19, he went abroad for improvement, and, after visiting France and Germany, he staid some time at the university at Padua, where Fabricius ab Acquapendente, and other eminent men, were professors of the medical sciences. He took the degree of M. D. in 1602, and, returning to England, obtained a similar distinction at Cambridge. Having settled in London, in 1604 he was admitted a licentiate of the college of physicians, and, three years after, a fellow. In 1615, he was appointed to read lectures at the college, on anatomy and surgery; and, in the course of this undertaking, he developed the discovery which has immortalized his name. It was not till 1620, that he gave publicity to his new doctrine of the circulation of blood, by his treatise entitled Exercitatio anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus. In a prefixed address to the college of physicians, he observes, that he had frequently, in his anatomical lectures, declared his opinion concerning the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, and had, for more than nine years, confirmed and illustrated it by reasons and arguments grounded on ocular demonstration. It speedily excited the attention of anatomists in every European school of medicine; and the theory of Harvey having been triumphantly defended against all objections, attempts were made to invalidate his claim to the discovery; but it is now admitted, that whatever hints may be found in the writings of his predecessors, Harvey first clearly demonstrated the system of sanguineous circulation, and thus produced one of the greatest revolutions in medical science. Harvey was appointed physician extraordinary to James I, and, in 1632, physician in ordinary to king Charles, by whom he was much esteemed. Adhering to the court party, on the occurrence of hostilities, he attended his majesty on his removal from London. He was with him at the battle of Edgehill, and afterwards at Oxford, where, in 1642, he was incorporated M. D. In 1651, he published his Exercitationes de Generatione Animalium (4to.). This curious work would have been still more interesting, had not the plunder of the author's museum, while he was in the king's service, deprived him of the fruits of some of his anatomical researches, especially those relative to the genera tion of insects. He presented to the col

lege of physicians his paternal estate of £56 a year, for the institution of an annual festival and other purposes. In his old age, he was subject to distressing attacks of the gout, which imbittered his existence so much, that he is said to have shortened his life with a dose of opium. He died June 3, 1658. A splendid edition of his works was published in one volume, 4to., with an account of his life, by doctor Lawrence.

HARWICH; a seaport of England, on a peninsular point of land on the Essex coast. It is the port from which the packets sail regularly, in time of peace, for Holland and Germany; the seat of a navy-yard, and also a considerable bathing place. Two light-houses have lately been erected on the Harwich side, to facilitate the entrance by night. The harbor is of great extent, and forms, united to the bay, å roadstead for the largest ships of war, and for an immense number of vessels at a time, upwards of 300 sail having anchored here with ease. Harwich sends two members to parliament. Population, 4010; 71 miles N. E. London; lon. 1° 17' E.; lat. 51° 57' N.

HASDRUBAL; the name of several distinguished Carthaginians; among others, of the brother of Hannibal. (q. v.)

léologue avec un Professeur Mahometan, in the eighth volume of the Notices et Ertraits de la Bibl. I. R. By his intercourse with Greeks in Paris, he acquired so thorough a knowledge of the modern Greek, that, in 1816, he was appointed professor of that language in the school for the living Oriental languages. This study led him, imperceptibly, to the times where its first traces are discernible-times not very remote from the classical. The style of the church fathers, and the Byzantine writers, gave him a further insight into the nature of an idiom which had been neglected by most scholars, while, at the same time, the idiom itself furnished him illustrations of the Byzantine writers. The continuation of the Corpus Hist. Byz. was the chief object of his researches. Through the patronage of the Russian imperial chancellor, count Romanzoff, Hase was enabled to publish his Leo Diaconus, and some authors of the same period, forming a continuation of the Paris edition of the Byzantines (Paris, 1819). The explanatory and critical commentary, accompanying the text, is very valuable. He has since prepared for the press a similar volume, containing Psellus, and some chronographers, in the preparation of which he examined, with great care, the French and Italian libraries. Besides these, he has collected all the fragments which have any relation to the religious opinions of the Romans. In two journeys to Italy, under the patronage of the French government, in 1820 and 1821, he became acquainted with the treasures of Italian libraries. His Laur. Lydus de Ostentis, quæ supersunt, appeared at Paris in 1823, with an introduction, commentary and a Latin version. He is at present editing an edition of Stephens's Thesaurus Lin. Græc.

HASE, Charles Benedict, professor of the Oriental languages at Paris, and, since 1824, member of the academy of inscriptions, born May 11, 1780, at Sulza, near Naumburg, studied at Weimar, under Böttiger. The eloquence and learning of that distinguished scholar attracted him to philological studies, to which he applied himself during his residence in Jena and Helmstädt. In 1801, he went to Paris, where Millin and Villoison introduced the young German Hellenist into their literary circle. By Villoison, Hase HASENCLEVER, Peter, a distinguished was introduced to the acquaintance of merchant, was born at Remscheid, in the Choiseul Gouffier, who, on the death of duchy of Berg, in 1716. In 1748, he esVilloison (1805), intrusted to him the pub- tablished himself at Lisbon, and afterwards lication of John Laur. Lydus's treatise at Cadiz, whence he returned to GermaDe Magistratibus Romanorum. For this ny, and had a great influence in promotpublication Hase only wrote the introduc- ing the manufacture of linen in Silesia. tion, the translation being by Fuss. At Frederic the Great used to ask his adthe same time, he began a catalogue of vice in important commercial affairs. the classical manuscripts, which the suc- 1761, he returned to Cadiz, and, though a cesses of the French arms at that time Protestant, was the intimate friend of Vebrought from all quarters to Paris; but sub- lasquez, the grand inquisitor. He aftersequent circumstances prevented its ap- wards established a company in London, pearance. These researches carried him for exporting hemp, potash and iron to into the Byzantine literature, as appears North America, which was connected, in by his Notices du Traité de Dracon de 1765, with a house at New York, where Stratonicée sur la Métrique des Anciens; he built a great many vessels. The specalso, De l'Histoire de Leon-le-Diacre; and ulations of his partner having caused the the Entretiens de l'Empereur Manuel Pa- bankruptcy of the firm, he went to Eu

In

rope, but soon after returned to America. He then settled in Landshut in Silesia, where he carried on an important linen trade. He died there in 1793.

HASER, Charlotte Henrietta, a celebrated singer, born at Leipsic, in 1789, daughter of the director of music in the university of Leipsic. In 1804, she was engaged at the Italian opera at Dresden. In 1807, she went through Prague and Vienna to Italy. Her fine voice, her execution, and her persevering efforts to combine the advantages of the Italian and German methods, gave her a brilliant success. In private life, she was distinguished for the correctness of her morals, and her uncommon modesty. The most celebrated theatres in Italy contended for her. She was repeatedly called to Rome, where she obtained great applause. She was the first female singer in Italy who appeared in male characters, and ventured to cope with the celebrated artists Crescentini, Veluti, &c. In Naples, she was engaged at the theatre of San Carlo for a year, and was commonly known by the name of La Divina Tedesca. She afterwards married Vera, a respectable advocate in Rome, and now displays her splendid talents only among a select circle of friends.

HASSE, John Adolphus, chapel-master of Augustus, king of Poland and elector of Saxony, one of the most eminent musical composers of the 18th century, was born at Bergedorf, near Hamburg (1699). His extraordinary talents were soon observed by König, afterwards poet laureate to the king of Poland, who recommended him as tenor singer for the Hamburg opera, where the celebrated Kaiser was then composer. His masterpieces served as models for Hasse, who, in the course of four years, became distinguished as a musician and singer. He brought out his first opera, Antigonus, which was received with great applause, in 1723. To perfect himself in counterpoint, he determined to study in one of the celebrated Italian schools. In 1724, he went to Italy, and studied at Naples under Porpora. Scarlatti was so pleased with his talents and modesty, that he voluntarily offered him his instruction, and called him his son. An opera which he set to music for the theatre royal, was the foundation of his reputation, and procured him from the Italians the title of il caro Sassone. All the theatres of Italy contended for the honor of having him as leader of the orchestra. He went to Venice, in 1727, where his future wife, Faustina Bordoni,

was at that time in the bloom of her beauty, and the object of universal admiration. Having once heard Hasse play upon the harpsichord, she immediately fell in love with him. He was here appointed chapel-master in the conservatorio degli incurabili. His reputation now procured him the situation of chapel-master at Dresden, with a yearly salary of $9000 for himself and wife; but as he was pressed to remain in Italy, he divided his time, until 1740, between the two countries. After repeated invitations, he went to England, in 1733, where he was received with great distinction, and his opera Artaxerxes met with the highest, applause. He soon, however, returned to Dresden. He went, in 1763, to Vienna, where he composed his last opera, Ruggiero, and finally removed to Venice (1770), in which city he died, in 1783. Hasse is deservedly celebrated as the most natural, elegant and judicious composer of his time. He always regarded the voice as the chief object of attention, and, without being ignorant of harmony, he made the instrumental accompaniment as simple as possible. A pupil of Leo, Vinci, Pergolese and Porpora, he was contented with being simple and natural. His compositions are so numerous, that he himself said, there were many which he should not recognise. He set all the operas of Metastasio, except Themistocles, and most of them twice or oftener. His sacred compositions (masses, Te Deums, &c.), are still favorites at Dresden, where the greatest collection of them is to be found. His wife, Faustina Bordoni, born at Venice (1700), was one of the most celebrated and beautiful singers of the 18th century. She made her debut on the stage of her native city, in her 16th year; and, wherever she was heard, she was called the modern Siren. Medals were struck in honor of her at Florence. The effect of her musical talents was increased by her beauty. In 1726, she received an appointment of 15,000 florins at Vienna. In Dresden, where she was married to Hasse, she sang for the first time in 1731, and was ever after the faithful companion of her husband.

HASSEL, John George Henry, a distinguished German geographer and statistical writer, was born in 1770, at Wolfenbüttel, in Brunswick, and died Jan. 18, 1829, at Weimar. He was, from 1809 to 1813, director of the statistical bureau, &c., in Cassel, then the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia. After 1816, he lived a private life at Weimar. He wrote many works of much reputation; among others,

General Geographico-Statistical Lexicon (2 vols., Weimar, 1817 and 1818); Statistical Sketch of all the European States, and the most important of the other Parts of the World (3 numbers, Weimar, 1823 and 1824); Genealogical-Statistical-Historical Almanac (annually, from 1824 to 1829, Weimara work which contains very extensive statistical information. It will be continued by doctor Dede, who edited the number for 1830. Hassel was coeditor of the Complete Manual of the latest Geography (Weimar, 1819 to 1829), and, in connexion with W. Müller, edited the second chief division of the Encyclopædia of Ersch and Gruber, from H to O, and contributed largely to Pierer's Encyclopædic Dictionary (Altenburg, 1824 to 1828), from A to K.

HASSELQUIST, Frederic, a Swedish naturalist, was one of the most eminent among the disciples of Linnæus. He was born in the province of Ostrogothia, in 1722. The death of his father, who was vicar of a parish, leaving him without the means of support, he exerted his faculties, and obtained friends, by whose assistance he was supplied with the means of instruction. In 1741, he went to the university of Upsal, where his talents and industry drew the attention of Linnæus. In 1747, he published a dissertation De Viribus Plantarum. Soon after, he formed the scheme of making researches, on the spot, into the natural history of Palestine; and the university having furnished him with pecuniary resources, he embarked for Smyrna in August, 1749, and arrived there about the end of November. After exploring the environs of that city, he went to Egypt, whence, in March, 1751, he took the route to Palestine, by Damietta and Jaffa. He staid some time at Jerusalem, and afterwards visited other parts of the country. Returning to Smyrna, he brought with him a most noble collection of plants, minerals, fishes, reptiles, insects, and other natural curiosities. He died there, Feb. 9, 1752. The Swedish queen, Louisa Ulrica, purchased the whole of Hasselquist's acquisitions, which were deposited in the castle of Drottningholm. Linnæus, from the papers and specimens of natural history collected by his pupil, prepared for the press the Iter Palastinum, or Travels in Palestine, with Remarks on its Natural History (Stockholm, 1757, 8vo.), which has been translated into English and other European languages.

HASTINGS; an ancient borough and market-town of England, on the eastern extremity of Sussex, famous for being the

place near which William the Conqueror landed in England, and for the battle of Hastings, fought in the neighborhood. It is now in great repute for sea-bathing. It is one of the Cinque Ports. Its situation is beautiful; and the environs also abound with picturesque scenery and delightful walks and rides. A walk, called the marine parade, has been formed on the west of the town. The public buildings are, two very ancient churches; the town hall, built in 1823, with the market-place under it; the custom-house, and two excellent free schools. The remains of an ancient castle are still to be seen. Two miles from the town is the stone on which William is said to have dined when he landed here; it is called the conqueror's stone. Hastings sends two members to parliament. Population, 8000; 36 miles S. E. Tunbridge.

HASTINGS, Warren, was born in 1732 or 1733, at the village of Churchill, in Oxfordshire,where his father was clergyman of the parish. He was educated at Westminster school, and, in 1750, went out to Bengal as a writer in the East India company's service. After having filled some of the principal offices under the British government, and made himself acquainted with Oriental literature and public affairs, he returned to England in 1765, with a moderate fortune. In 1768, he received the appointment of second in council at Madras; and, in 1771, he was removed to Bengal, to the presidency of which he was raised the following year. In 1773, he was appointed governor-general of India. He held this situation for 13 years, during which he had to encounter many serious difficulties, increased and strengthened the power of the company at the expense of the native princes, and, undoubtedly, was guilty of much oppression and injustice to attain this end. He raised the revenue of the company from 3,000,000 to £5,000,000 sterling. On the removal of lord North from office, in 1782, his opponents exerted themselves to displace those on whom he had conferred appointments. Upon the motion of Dundas, Hastings was recalled in 1785, and immediately loaded with accusations. The most prominent orators of the opposition, Fox, Burke, Sheridan and others, were arrayed against him. He was accused of having governed, in the East Indies, arbitrarily and tyrannically; of having extorted immense sums of money; of having accomplished the ruin of many princes; in short, of having exercised oppression of every description. Feb. 17, 1786, Burke laid the

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