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called from Africa the boldest and most powerful of its satraps, that he might exterminate the men of Greece, send their wives and children as slaves to the Nile, and spread Africans over the land of classic reminiscences. Even Frenchmen offered their aid to subjugate the Morea. Had the powerful viceroy of Egypt succeeded in uniting under one government the Egean sea, the Peloponnesus, Crete and the land of the Nile, then this Egyptian dynasty, like the ancient Fatimites, would have been in a situation to rule the Mediterranean sea, to close the Dardanelles, to give laws to the trade of the Levant, and to invade Italy. Then would Greece, that venerable ruin of classical antiquity, have been for ever annihilated.. The Porte, called the key-stone of the European arch, would hardly have been the shadow of the last caliphs of Bagdad. Europe would have numbered a new Sesostris among her monarchs. God be thanked that the result of the conflict has been more auspicious!

The Turks and Greeks never became one nation; the relation of conquerors and conquered never ceased. However abject a large part of the Greeks became by their continued oppression, they never forgot that they were a distinct nation; and their patriarch at Constantinople remained a visible point of union for their national feelings. (See Ranke's Fürsten und Völker, &c., Berlin, 1827.) The Greeks had been repeatedly called upon by Russia to shake off the Turkish yoke, as in 1769, 1786 and 1806. The last revolution broke out in March, 1821. As early as 1809, a society had been formed at Paris for the liberation of Greece. In 1814, the Hetaireia (q. v.) was formed in Vienna, but the revolution began too early for their plans. Coray (q. v.) with many others, as Mustoxydy, Gazy, Ducas, Cumas, Bambas, Gorgorios, Oiconomos, Capetanaki, exerted themselves to enlighten their nation, and to prepare it, by a better education, for a struggle for liberty. Similar views had been entertained fifty years earlier, by several Greeks, in different parts of the country, among whom were Panagiotis, Mavrocordato and Demetrius Cantemir. In Greece itself, several attempts were made to revive the study of the ancient language, and with it a taste for letters, civilization and liberty. This was particularly the case in the islands (see Hydriots), where intercourse with France, and even with the U. States, contributed to hasten the revival of a thirst for liberty. The works of Fénélon, Bec caria, Montesquieu, and those of some

German scholars; also Goldsmith's Greece and Franklin's Poor Richard, were translated into modern Greek. At Athens, Saloniki, Yanina, Smyrna, Cydonia (Aivali), Bucharest, Jassy, Kuru-Tschesmie (a village on the European shore of the Bosphorus), in Scio, &c., schools were established. But the war has destroyed all these schools, with the exception of that on mount Athos. Rhigas (q. v.) animated the spirit of his countrymen by his songs. In addition to all this, the wretched state of Turkey, weak from without and within; every thing, in short, seemed favorable, when the precipitancy of one or a few individuals, was the origin of infinite mischief, because the cause of liberty was not yet ripe. February 1, 1821, prince Charles Calimachi was appointed, by the Porte, hospodar of Walachia, in the place of the deceased Alexander Suzzo. The fear of new exactions (which take place, in that country, with every new governor), produced commotions among the people of Walachia; and this excitement seemed to the members of the Hetaireia in St. Petersburg, to afford a favorable moment for taking up arms against the Turks, in which they expected to be supported by the Russian cabinet. Without knowing any thing of this plan, a Walachian, Theodore Wladimiresko, left Bucharest, January 30, with 60 pandoors, and instigated the peasants to revolt, promising them the protection of Russia and the restoration of their old rights. The Arnaouts, who were sent against him, joined him, and he soon became master of Little Walachia, at the head of 5000 men. The Greeks in Moldavia likewise rose, under prince Alexander Ypsilanti (q. v.), a major-general in the Russian service. "This insurrection was connected with the Hetaireia. (q. v.) Perhaps the object was to hasten the threatened breach between Russia and Turkey. Besides, the Greeks always relied much on the (so called) Greek project of Catharine II. March 7, 1821 (Feb. 23, old style), a proclamation of Ypsilanti was placarded in Jassy, under the eyes of the hospodar Michael Suzzo, which declared, that all the Greeks had, on that day, thrown off the Turkish yoke; that he would put himself at their head with his countrymen; that prince Suzzo wished the happiness of the Greeks; and that nothing was to be feared, as a great power was going to march against Turkey. Several officers and members of the Hetaireia had accompanied Ypsilanti from Bessarabia and Jassy. Some Turks were murdered but Ypsilanti did all in his power to pre

vent excesses, and was generally successful. He wrote to the emperor of Russia, Alexander, who was then at Laybach (q. v.), asking his protection for the Greek cause, and the two principalities Walachia and Moldavia; but the revolutions in Spain and Piedmont had just then broken out, and that monarch considered the Greek insurrection to be nothing but a political fever, caught from Spain and Italy, which could not be checked too soon (besides, Ypsilanti was actually in the service of Russia, and therefore had undertaken this step against the rules of military discipline). Alexander publicly disavowed the measure, Ypsilanti's name was struck from the army rolls, and he was declared to be no longer a subject of Russia. The Russian minister, and the Austrian internuncio at Constantinople, also declared that their cabinets would not take advantage of the internal troubles of Turkey in any shape whatever, but would remain strictly neutral. Yet the Porte continued suspicious, particularly after the information of an Englishman had led to a detection of some supposed traces of the Greek conspiracy at Constantinople. It therefore ordered the Russian vessels to be searched, contrary to treaty. The commerce of Odessa suffered from this measure, which occasioned a serious correspondence between baron Stroganoff, the Russian ambassador, and the reis effendi. The most rigorous measures were taken against all Greeks: their schools were suppressed; their arms seized; suspicion was a sentence of death; the flight of some rendered all guilty; it was prohibited under penalty of death; in the divan, the total extinction of the Greek name was proposed; Turkish troops marched into the principalities; the hospodar Suzzo was outlawed; the patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem excommunicated all insurgents (March 21); and a hatti-sheriff of March 31, called upon all Mussulmans to arm against the rebels for the protection of the Islam; no Greek was, for some time, safe in the streets of Constantinople; women and children were thrown into the sea; the noblest females openly violated and murdered or sold; the populace broke into the house of Fonton, the Russian counsellor of legation; and prince Murusi was beheaded in the seraglio. After the arrival of the new grand-vizier, Benderli Ali Pacha (appointed April 10), who conduct ed a disorderly army from Asia to the Bosphorus, the wildest fanaticism raged in Constantinople. In Walachia and Moldaw', the bloody struggle (not the

devastation of the country, however) was brought to a close through the treachery, discord and cowardice of the pandoors and Arnaouts, with the annihilation of the valiant "sacred band" of the Hetaireia, in the battle of Dragashan (June 19, 1821), and with Jordaki's heroic death in the monastery of Seck. (See Ypsilanti.) In Greece Proper, no cruelty could quench the fire of liberty; the beys of the Morea invited all bishops and the noblest Greeks (proëdroi) to Tripolizza, under pretence of consulting with them on the deliverance of the people from their cruel oppression. Several fell into the snare: when they arrived, they were thrown into prison. Germanos, archbishop of Patras, alone penetrated the intended treachery, and took measures with the others for frustrating the designs of their oppressors. The beys of the Morea then endeavored to disarm the separate tribes; but it was too late; the Mainotes, always free, descended from mount Taygetos, in obedience to Ypsilanti's proclamation, and the heart of all Greece beat for liberty.

The revolution in the Morea began, March 23, 1821, at Calavrita, a small place in Achaia, where 80 Turks were made prisoners. On the same day, the Turkish garrison of Patras fell upon the Greek inhabitants; but they were soon relieved. In the ancient Laconia, Colocotroni and Peter Mavromichalis roused the people to arms. The archbishop Germanos collected the peasants of Achaia. In Patras and the other places, the Turks retreated into the fortresses. As early as April 6, a Messenian senate assembled in Calamata, and the bey of Maina, Peter Mavromichalis, as commander-in-chief, proclaimed that the Morea had shaken off the yoke of Turkey to save the Christian faith, and to restore the ancient character of their country. "From Europe, nothing is wanted but money, arms and counsel." From that time, the suffering Greeks found friends in Germany, France, Switzerland, England and the U. States, who sympathized with them, and did all in their power to assist them in their struggle. The cabinets of Europe, on the contrary, threw every impediment in the way of the Hellenists, until they were finally obliged, against their inclination, to interfere in their favor. Jussuf Selim, pacha of Lepanto, having received information of these events from the diplomatic agent of a European power, hastened to relieve the citadel of Patras, and the town was changed into a heap of ruins. The massacre of the inhabitants, April 15, was the

signal for a struggle of life and death. Almost the whole war was thenceforward a succession of atrocities. It was not a war prosecuted on any fixed plan, but merely a series of devastations and murders. The law of nations could not exist between the Turks and Greeks, as they were then situated. The monk Gregoras, soon after, occupied Corinth, at the head of a body of Greeks. The revolution spread over Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, Etolia and Acarnania. The ancient names were revived. At the same time, the islands declared themselves free. In the beginning of April, the wealthy merchants and ship-owners, the bold nariners of Hy dra, Spezzia and Ipsara (see Hydriots), long before gained over to the cause of liberty by Bambas* and other patriots, erected an independent government in Hydra. They fitted out their vessels for war, and the blue and red flag of the Hetaireia soon waved on 180 vessels, mostly of 10 or 12 guns. It must be remembered that the inhabitants of the islands, particularly those just mentioned, and the heroic population of Suli, are very different from the people of the Morea and Livadia, if we wish to form a correct understanding of the Greek struggle. While the conduct of the Moreots has but too often drawn on them the just reproach of their compatriots, the former have gained a name in history, which will be honored as long as an invincible love of liberty and bold and inflexible courage in an unequal struggle are prized. Even women, among the islanders, took arms for liberty, and, among them, Lascarina Bobolina, of Spezzia, was distinguished. The Hydriots cruised in the Turkish waters, and blockaded the ports. In some islands, the Turks were massacred in revenge for the murder of the Greeks at Patras, and, in retaliation, the Greeks were put to death at Smyrna, in Asia Minor, and in those islands which had not yet shaken off the Turkish yoke. The exasperation was raised to its highest pitch by the cruelties committed against the Greeks in Constantinople, after the end of March. On mere suspicion, and often merely to get possession of their property, the di

* Neophytos Bambas, teacher of natural phi1osophy and mathematics in the school of Scio, published, in 1818, in Venice, a manual of moral philosophy, which is one of the most valuable

productions of modern Greek literature. He has since been professor in the Ionian university, in Corfu, established by the influence of lord Guilford. According to Pouqueville, the mercantile marine of the Greek islands consisted of 615 vessels, with 17,500 sailors and 5878 guns

van caused the richest Greek merchants and bankers to be put to death. The rage of the Mussulmans was particularly directed against the Greek clergy. April 22, Gregory (q. v.) the patriarch of Constantinople, was murdered, with his bishops, in the metropolis. In Adrianople, May 3, the venerable patriarch Cyrillus, who had retired to solitude, and Præsos, archbishop of Adrianople, and others, met the same fate. Several hundred Greek churches were torn down, without the divan paying any attention to the remonstrances of the Christian ambassadors. The savage grand-vizier, indeed, lost his place, May I, and soon after his life; but Mahmud (q. v.), and his favorite Halet Effendi, persisted in the plan of extermination. The courageous Stroganoff (q. v.) was yet less able to make his remonstrances heard, after the grand seignior, in order to save his favorite, who was hated by the janizaries, on account of his plan of reform in the military department, gave a seat, in the divan, to three members of those riotous troops, The commerce of Russia, on the Black sea, was totally ruined by the blockade of the Bosphorus, and the ultimatum of the ambassador was not answered. Baron Stroganoff, therefore, broke off all diplomatic relations with the reis effendi, July 18, and, July 31, embarked for Odessa. He had declared to the divan, that if the Porte did not change its system, Russia would feel herself obliged to give "the Greeks refuge, protection and assistance." The answer of the reis effendi to this declaration, given too late, was sent to Petersburg; but it was only after the most atrocious excesses committed by the janizaries and the troops from Asia (for instance, in Constantinople, June 27 and July 2), that the foreign ministers, particularly the British minister, lord Strangford, succeeded in inducing the grand seignior to recall the command for the arming of all Mussulmans, and to restore order The Porte even promised an amnesty, ou condition of the submission of the Greeks; but what guarantee was there for the fulfilment of it? Individual executions still continued. Prince Calimachi, hospodar of Walachia, was sent, with his family, to Asia Minor, where he suddenly died on hearing of the execution of his brother. The old families of the Fanariots (q. v.) no longer existed in Constantinople, and, after all the cruelties they had suffered, the Greeks could not trust the amnesty of the sultan. They remembered, too the 300,000 Moreots, who had been mur

dered by the orders of a former sultan, though their pardon had been stipulated with Catharine II. Their hopes were also strengthened by the war which broke out between Turkey and Persia, and they never gave up the confidence that the "Moscoviti" would at last arm for their protection, which Russia had taken upon herself in the three last treaties with the Porte. Meanwhile the Turkish general in Epirus, Khurshid Pacha, who was besieging the rebel Ali (q. v.), in Yanina, had sent troops against the Suliots, into the Morea and to Thessaly. But the Etolians under Rhangos, and the Acarnauians under the brothers Hyscus, obliged the Turks to shut themselves up in Arta, and made themselves masters of Salona. Ulysses put himself at the head of some Armatolics (q. v.), in Thes saly, and the archimandrite, Anthymos Gazis, called the peasants to arms. In Euboea (Negropont), all the peasants took up arms, and obliged the Turks to shut themselves up in the fortified cities; but these move ments were not decisive, because they took place without coöperation; and, in fact, nothing was effected, but the driving the Turks from the country into the cities. The pacha of Saloniki delivered the pacha who was besieged in Larissa. Omer Vrione, the lieutenant of Khurshid Pacha, entered Livadia; the inhabitants of Athens fled to the islands; the Acropolis was garrisoned by Turks. The Greeks afterwards retook Athens, and attempted to reduce the Acropolis by famine; but it was relieved by Omer Vrione, July 30, 1821, and the inhabitants of Athens again fled to Salamis. On the Achaian sea, Greek and other pirates frustrated the plans of the navarchs (admirals) in Hydra, and the European powers were obliged to protect their vessels by cruisers. In the general confusion, the islanders distinguished themselves by their valor in battle, and their greater order in the organization of government; and if much complaint has been made against their piracies, it must be remembered, that the convulsed state of things offered great temptations to piracy; that the government was too weak to repress it; and that, privateering being lawful against the Turks, it was not strange that a people, so much removed from the Influence of European civilization, exreeded the legitimate limits of private warfare. The Greek sailors were bolder and much more expert than the Turkish, their vessels much swifter. In fact, we can hardly imagine a navy in a more

wretched state of discipline than the Turkish. When, therefore, the first Turkish squadron left the Dardanelles, May 19, the Greeks constantly pursued it with their fire-ships, avoiding, at the same time, a general engagement; and, June 8, they attacked a vessel of the line, which had got ashore at Tenedos, burned it, and compelled the rest of the squadron to put back to the Dardanelles. June 15, the Ipsariots landed on the coast of Asia Minor, and took possession of the ancient Cydonia, now the Greek city of Aivali; but, after they had retired, the Turks burned the city, and 35,000 inhabitants either perished or were driven from their homes. The ill success of their expedition added fresh fuel to the rage of the Turks. The Greeks in the island of Candia, who had avoided all participation in the insurrection, were disarmed, and their archbishop and several clergymen executed. But the peasants in the mountains, and the inhabitants of the small island Sphakia, called the Suliots of Candia, refused to give up their arms, collected, and drove the Turks back again into the towns. From that time, the struggle continued, and the Turks, though supported by several thousand men from Egypt, were never again able to make themselves masters of the highlands. They, however, maintained themselves in the cities. Madden, in his Travels in Egypt, &c., gives some interesting details of the Egyptian expedition to Candia. On the island of Cyprus, where also there had been no appearances of an insurrection, the Greeks were disarmed in November, 1821, and almost all the inhabitants of Larnica, with the archbishop and other prelates, murdered. The peasants united for mutual protection; as a punishment for which 62 villages were burned in August, 1822. Since that time, the stillness of the grave has brooded over Cyprus. Similar atrocities were committed by the Turks at Scala Nuova, in Rhodes and at Pergamos, after the Greeks had surprised the latter place. In Smyrna, also, new cruelties were committed; and the European consuls did not succeed until November, 1821, in inducing the pacha to put a stop to the enormities of the Turks. Since that time, the public security has rarely been interrupted in that place.* But in the European prov

* Here, and in other places, the commanders of French, English, Austrian and American ves sels, and the European consuls, among whom the French consul, David, deserves to be particularly mentioned saved the lives of many aufortunate

inces of Turkey, the cruelties against Christians continued, as the sultan had Issued a hatti-sheriff (September 20, 1821), calling upon all Mussulmans to take arms against the Giaours. This order was not published in Constantinople, for which the populace, in that place, revenged themselves by setting fire to the city, whenever news of ill success exasperated them against the Greeks.

The great Turkish fleet, under the capudan pacha, Kara Ali, strengthened by Egyptian, Tunisian and Algerine vessels, had, indeed, driven away the Greek flotillas, supplied the Turkish garrisons in the Morea with troops, arms and provisions, burned the small village of Galaxidi, in the gulf of Lepanto, October 2, 1821, and taken some small Greek fishing craft in the harbor of this place. Yet the fleet had effected nothing decisive. Hardly had it returned to the Dardanelles, October 22, 1821, when the Greek fleets renewed their system of blockade, and became, as formerly, masters of the Egean sea and the gulf of Saloniki. Meanwhile, Demetrius Ypsilanti had arrived at Hydra, with prince Alexander Cantacuzeno, with authority from his brother, Alexander Ypsilanti. In Hydra, the unfortunate result of the struggle in Walachia was not yet known. Demetrius promised the aid of Russia, and announced the restoration of the Greek empire. Yet it was with great difficulty that he succeeded in being appointed, on July 24, 1821, archistrategos (commander-in-chief) of the Peloponnesus, the Archipelago, and all the liberated provinces, and, as such, in being placed at the head of the Greeks in the Morea, where the dissensions among the capitani, and the undisciplined state of the soldiery, had a most injurious effect. Soon after (August 3), the principal Turkish fortress, Monembasia (Napoli di Malvasia) surrendered to prince Cantacuzeno, and Navarino to Demetrius Ypsilanti; but the ra pacious Moreots did not observe the articles of capitulation. Some details of what happened after the capitulation of Navarino are related in the editor's Journal in Greece (in German, Leipsic, 1823). Demetrius, disgusted at this disorder, declared his intention to leave Greece, unless he were invested with power to put a stop to this licentiousness, which he received at least nominally. At the same time, the senate of Calamata united with persons, who would otherwise have become the Victims of Turkish or Greek fanaticism.

that of Hydra, in order to assemble a con gress of deputies from all Greece, at Calamata. Whilst Mavrocordato and others were making these preparations, Deme trius Ypsilanti was closely besieging Tripolizza, the chief fortress of the Turks, situated in the plain of Mantinea, in the centre of Greece. The garrison was on the point of surrendering, when the appear ance of the Turkish fleet, in the waters of the Peloponnesus, gave them new cour age. But in order to induce the Turkish troops to make an obstinate_resistance, from fear of the vengeance of the Christians, the Turkish commanders, at Tripolízza, ordered 80 priests and noble Greeks, who had been brought there, in part, by the treacherous invitations of the beys, to be all murdered, excepting two. October 5, after 2000 Albanians had received permission to depart, and the negotiations with the Turks were broken off, Tripolizza was taken by storm. The last post was surrendered, on terms of capitulation, by the gallant Kiaja Bey; but the Moreots could not be restrained, and 8000 Turks perished. Even the Albanians were at tacked, and some of them plundered. In Tripolizza, the Moreots gained their first heavy cannon, and the place became the seat of the soi-disant Greek government, until it was transferred to Argos.

Ulysses was equally successful in Thessally. He and some other guerilla leaders, or capitani, among whom was Perevos, on September 5 and 6, near Ther mopylæ, defeated a Turkish army, which had advanced from Macedonia. January 26, 1822, the Acrocorinthus (q. v.) fell into the hands of the Greeks by capitulation. On the other hand, the pacha of Saloniki took the peninsula of Cassandra, Nov. 11, by storm, the Greeks having become enfeebled by dissensions. 3000 Greeks were put to the sword, women and children carried into slavery, and the flourishing peninsula made a desert. The monks and hermits on mount Athos (Monte Santo), alone saved themselves by a heavy ransom, and remained undisturbed, because the Turks consider these rocky hermitages sacred. At the same time, Khurshid Pacha, November 13, assaulted Ali's fortress Zathariza, and the old tyrant of Epirus in vain expected succor from the Greeks in his last place of refuge, a castle in the lake near Yanina. The Greeks, towards the end of November, having occupied Arta, without obtaining possession of the citadel, were obliged to leave the city in the middle of December, when Omer Vrione returned from Livadia, and dis

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