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through Hanover and the Elbe, had to be accompanied with certificates that it did not come from British hands, for which certificates the French authorities asked a high price. The city was obliged to advance 2,125,000 marcs banco to the states of Hanover. After the battle of Lübeck, Mortier entered Hamburg (19th Nov. 1806), and, although the French troops evacuated it again after the peace of Tilsit, and it yet retained, for a few years, the shadow of its former independence, it was still, during this period, oppressed in a thousand ways by French commanders. Then came the decrees of Napoleon, which gave, as far as was possible, a final blow to the commerce and industry of Hamburg. At last, Hamburg, with the whole north-western part of Germany, was formally incorporated in the French empire (13th Dec., 1810), and became the capital of the newly created department of the Mouths of the Elbe. But at the beginning of the year 1813,, the approach of Tettenborn obliged the French to fly (13th March). This encouraged Hamburg to reestablish its free constitution, which had been overthrown, and to prepare to take a part in the great struggle. More than 2000 men enlisted for military service; and they were to form a Hanseatic legion with the bands already raised by Lübeck, and those expected from Bremen. In addition to this, a guard of citizens was formed, at first of volunteers, and afterwards by a formal decree of the council and citizens. About 7000 men were enlisted for this purpose. In April, a part of the Hanseatic troops was able to take the field, and their cavalry distinguished itself at Ottersberg on the 22d. But the French, being reinforced, drove back the troops of the allies. They made themselves masters of the left bank of the Lower Elbe, and, May 12, took Wilhelmsburg the castle of Harburg had voluntarily surrendered to them), and on the night of the 20th, they began to bombard the town. The hope of deliverance, awakened on the 21st, by the entrance of two Swedish battalions, vanished on the 25th, when the Swedes retreated. Misunderstandings arose between the military commanders and the senate, which sought, for the mediation of the Danes. On the 29th, Tettenborn evacuated the city; and Von Hess, the commander of the guard of citizens, dismissed them. Before a capitulation had been signed, the Danes entered the city as allies of the French, and, on the evening of the 31st, Eckmühl and Vandamme appeared with

a large number of French troops. Partly to secure possession of the city, and partly to punish its resistance, the severest measures were taken. A contribution of 48,000,000 francs was levied upon the citizens, and a part of it was exacted immediately. At the end of the year, 40,000 persons, of every age and sex, had been driven from the city, and exposed to all the rigors of winter. At the same time, the dwellings of about 8000 persons, in the nearest environs of the city, were consumed by fire with such rapidity, that these poor people could only escape with their lives. As the troops which approached Hamburg, first under Wallmoden, and afterwards under Bennigsen, were too weak to undertake a siege, the city could not obtain deliverance from its oppressors, until after the end of the war in France. In the latter part of May (1814), the French troops first left the city, carrying with them the fruits of their exactions. A rent of 500,000 francs was the trifling compensation which France made to Hamburg, for its disastrous ravages within and without the city. The Russians, under Bennigsen, entered in the place of the French, and remained till the end of the year. Then first was the quiet of Hamburg restored.


HAMILCAR. (See Hannibal.)

HAMILTON, Anthony, count; a poet, courtier and man of letters in the 17th century. He was descended from a younger branch of the family of the dukes of Hamilton, in Scotland, but was born in Ireland about 1646. His parents were Catholics and royalists, in consequence of which they removed to France, after the death of Charles I, and young Hamilton became domiciliated in that country. He, however, made frequent visits to England, in the reign of Charles II. His sister was married to count Grammont. It is said that the count, after having paid his addresses to the, lady, and been accepted, changed his mind, and set off for the continent. Her brother followed him, and, overtaking him at Dover, asked him if he had not forgotten something to be done,previously to his leaving England. "O, yes," replied Grammont, "I forgot to marry your sister;" and he immediately returned and fulfilled his engagement. When James II was obliged to contend for his crown in Ireland, he gave count Hamilton a regiment of infantry, and made him governor of Limerick; but, on the ruin of the

royal cause, he accompanied James to France, where he passed the rest of his life. His wit and talents secured him admission into the first circles, where he was generally esteemed for his agreeable manners and amiable disposition. He died at St. Germain, in 1720. Count Hamilton is chiefly known as an author by his Memoirs of Count Grammont, a lively and spirited production, exhibiting a free, and, in the general outline, a faithful delineation of the voluptuous court of Charles II. The count's other works are Poems and Fairy Tales, which, as well as the Memoirs, are in French, and display elegance of style and fertility of invention. HAMILTON, Elizabeth, a lady of considerable literary attainments, was born at Belfast, in Ireland, 25th July, 1758. Having become an orphan at an early age, she was brought up under the care of her uncle, who resided near Stirling, in Scotland, and, during her residence in his family, made herself intimately acquainted with those national peculiarities which she afterwards delineated so admirably in her Cottagers of Glenburnie. Besides this little work, which attracted much attention, she wrote the Letters of a Hindoo Rajah (2 vols. 8vo.); the Life of Agrippina (3 vols. 8vo.); and Memoirs of Modern Philosophers; works which, under the popular form of novels, are replete with sound sense and information. Her other writings are, Hints for Public Schools; Popular Essays (2 vols. 8vo.); Rules of the Annuity Fund, &c.; Exercises in Religious Knowledge (12mo.); Letters on the Formation of the Religious and Moral Principle (2 vols.); and On the Elementa ry Principles of Education. She was never married, but enjoyed an extensive acquaintance, especially among the talented of her own sex, one of whom, Miss Benger, after her decease, printed a selection from her correspondence, with a prefatory account of her life and habits. She died July 23, 1816.

HAMILTON, Sir William, K. B., was born in Scotland, in 1730. His mother having been nurse to George III, that prince, before his accession to the throne, extended his patronage to young Hamilton, and made him his equerry. In 1764, he received the appointment of ambassador to the court of Naples, where he resided 36 years, returning to England in 1800. A considerable part of this term being a season of political repose, he devoted his leisure to science, making observations on Vesuvius, Etna, and other volcanic mountains of the Mediterranean; and the re

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ault of his researches is detailed in the Philosophical Transactions, and in his Campi Phlegrai, or Observations on the Volcanoes of the Two Sicilies (2 vols. fol.). His communications to the royal society were also republished, with notes, in 1772 (8vo.). He drew up an account of the discoveries made in Pompeii, printed in the fourth volume of the Archeologia, and collected a cabinet of antiquities, of which an account was published by D'Hancarville. The French revolution gave rise to a treaty of alliance between his Britannic majesty and the king of the Two Sicilies, which was signed by sir Williain Hamilton, July 12, 1793. By this treaty, the Neapolitans engaged to furnish 6000 troops, four ships of the line, &c., for war against France in the Mediterranean; but Ferdinand IV made peace with the French republic in 1796, without having taken any active part in the contest. On this occasion, and in the subsequent events of 1798 and 1799, when the court emigrated to Sicily, sir William appears to have acted but a secondary part as a political agent, and he was recalled not long after. He died in London, April 6, 1803. After his death, his collection of antique vases was purchased by parliament for the British museum.

HAMILTON, lady (before her marriage, Emma Lyon or Harte). According to the memoirs which appeared under her name in 1815, her mother was a poor servant woman, who, with her child in her arms, wandered back, in the year 1761, from the county of Chester, to her home in Wales. Her memoirs say, that she went into service as a children's maid at the age of 13. At 16, she went to London, and served a shop-keeper, and soon after be came chambermaid to a lady of rank. The leisure which she here enjoyed, she devoted to novel reading. She soon acquired a taste for the drama. She studied the attitudes and motions of the actors, and exercised herself in representing by attitudes and gestures the different passions. She thus laid the foundation of her extraordinary skill in pantomimic representations. Her attention to these studies caused her to lose her place, and she became a maid servant in a tavern, frequented by actors, musicians, painters, &c. According to her own memoirs, she retained her virtue in the midst of this scene of licentiousness, and the subsequent saerifice of it she represents as an act of generosity. A countryman and relation of hers had been pressed upon the Thames. To obtain his release, she has

tened to the captain; she pleased him, and her request was granted. The captain loaded her with presents, and had her natural capacity improved by instruction. She then found a new admirer, who, with the consent of her former lover, took her to his country seat. But at the close of the summer, disgusted by her extravagance, and induced by domestic considerations, he dismissed her. Again thrown helpless upon the world, she wandered through the streets of London, in the lowest stage of degradation. She then met with a quack doctor, who made her his goddess Hygeia, and exhibited her as such, wrapped in a light veil. Painters, sculptors and others paid their tribute of admiration at the shrine of this new goddess, and among them the celebrated painter Romney, who fell in love with her. With him she practised all the reserve of modesty and virtue. But she ensnared Charles Greville, of the family of Warwick, who had three children by her, and was on the point of marrying her, when he was suddenly disgraced, in 1789, and deprived of all his offices. Unable to support her any longer, he sent her to Naples, where his uncle, sir William Hamilton, was ambassador. Sir William was so charmed with her, that he made an agreement with Greville, to pay his debts, on condition that he would give up his mistress. She now behaved with more decorum; she supplied, as far as possible, all the deficiencies in her education, and soon became remarkable for her social talents. Artists of all kinds, who had access to sir William Hamilton's house, began to pay their court to her, and she displayed before them her skill in attitudes. A piece of cloth was all she needed to appear as a daughter of Levi, as a Roman matron, or as a Helen or an Aspasia. It was she who invented the seducing shawl dance. Hamilton, who became each day more and more enamored of her beauty, at last determined to marry her; and their naptials were celebrated in London, in 1791. Soon after his return to Naples, he presented her at court, and she soon took an active part in the festivals of the queen. She was the only witness of the secret suppers of the queen and Acton, and often slept in the chamber of her royal friend. This favor, and her haughtiness, displeased the ladies of the court, who could not conceal their jealousy; some of them were, on that account, treated as criminals of state. At that time began her acquaintance with Nelson, who soon became intimate with the ambassador and

his wife. Through them the English government received information, that the king of Spain had determined to declare war. After the victory of Aboukir, Nelson was received in Naples with extravagant rejoicings. Lady Hamilton was the heroine of the crowd, to whom Nelson appeared as a liberating deity. Several months passed in festivities, until the advance of the French obliged the royal family, in December, 1798, to escape, with Nelson's assistance, to Sicily. Some months after, Italy was delivered by the victories of the Austrians and the Rus sians, and Nelson's fleet returned to the bay of Naples. Lady Hamilton accompanied the slave of her charms; and it is asserted, that the violent measures then used, contrary to the capitulation, were partly intended as acts of vengeance upon her personal enemies. When the court returned to Naples, in 1800, things were replaced upon their former footing, and remained so till the English cabinet recalled sir William Hamilton. Nelson resigned his command at the same time, and appeared in London with the lady and the ambassador. But the intimacy between Nelson and lady Hamilton here attracted general disapprobation. She was delivered of a daughter, which bore the name of Nelson. Soon after, sir William died, and his widow retired to Merton place, a country seat which Nelson had bought for her. Abandoned to herself after his death, in 1805, she again gave herself up to her corrupt inclinations, and was soon reduced to poverty. Limited to a small pension, she left England, took her daughter with her, and hired a house in the country, near Calais, where she died, in 1815. Lady Hamilton was without education, but full of art. To her beauty, and her skill in heightening its effect by the voluptuous attitudes of the dancing girl, she owed her fame and her good fortune. In violation of all sensibility and decency, she sold or published, the secret letters of Nelson to her, and thus threw a merited stain upon the memory of this hero.

HAMILTON, William Gerard; a statesman and parliamentary orator of the last century, who, on account of the extraor dinary impression produced by the first and almost the only speech he ever delivered in the English house of commons, obtained the appellation of Single Speech Hamilton. He was born in 1729. In 1754, he obtained a seat in parliament, when he made his memorable speech; and he was subsequently made one of the lords of trade and plantations. On the appoint

ment of lord Halifax to the vice-royalty of Ireland, Hamilton went thither as his secretary, and was accompanied by the celebrated Edmund Burke as his own serretary. In the Irish parliament, he supported the reputation he had previously gained as an orator, and for many years held the office of chancellor of the exchequer in that kingdom. He relinquished that post in 1784, and spent the latter part of his life in literary retirement. His death took place in 1796. The letters of Junius have also been attributed to this gentleman. His works were published in 1:08.

HAMILTON, Alexander, was born in 1757, in the island of Nevis. His father was a native of England, and his mother of the island. At the age of 16, he became a student of Columbia college, his mother having emigrated to New York. He had not been in that institution more than a year, before he gave a brilliant manifestation of the powers of his mind in the discussion concerning the rights of the colonies. In support of these he published several essays, which were marked by such vigor and maturity of style, strength of argument, and wisdom and compass of views, that Mr. Jay, at that time in the meridian of life, was supposed, at first, to be the author. When it had become necessary to unsheath the sword, the ardent spirit of young Hamilton would no longer allow him to remain in academic retirement; and before the age of 19, he entered the American army, with the rank of captain of artillery. In this capacity, he soon attracted the attention of the commander-in-chief, who appointed hin his aid-de-camp, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. This occurred in 1777, when he was not more than 20 years of age. From this time, he continued the inseparable companion of Washington during the war, and was always consulted by him, and frequently by other eminent public functionaries, on the most important occasions. He acted as his first aid-de-comp at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth, and, at the siege of Yorktown, he led, at his own request, the detachment that carried by assault one of the enemy's outworks, Oct. 14, 1781. In this affair, he displayed the most brilhant valor. After the war, colonel Hamilton, then about 24, commenced the study of the law, as he had at that time a wife and family depending upon him for support. He was soon admitted to the bar. In 1782, he was chosen a member of congress from the state of New York, where

he quickly acquired the greatest influence and distinction, and was always a member and sometimes chairman of those committees to which were confided such subjects as were deemed of vital interest to the nation. The reports which he prepared are remarkable for the correcties and power which characterize every elfort of his pen. At the end of the session, he returned to the practice of his profe sion in the city of New York, and becau eminent at the bar. In 1786, he was chos en a member of the legislature of h state, and was mainly instrumental in preventing a serious collision between Vermont and New York, in consequence of a dispute concerning territorial jurisdiction He was elected a delegate of New Yor to the convention which was to meet at Philadelphia, in order to form a constitu tion for the U. States. As the doors of the convention were closed during its sitings, and its records have never been given to the world, it is not possible to stat the precise part which he acted in tha body. It is well ascertained, however, that the country is, at least, as much debted to him for the excellences of thr constitution, as to any other member of the illustrious assembly.

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Madison were the chief oracles and art ficers. After the adoption of the cous tution by the convention, he associate himself with Mr. Madison and Mr. Jay, for the purpose of disposing the public i receive it with favor. The essays whe they wrote with that design, addressed t the people of New York, during the years 1787 and 1788, are well known under u name of the Federalist, and contributes": powerfully to produce the effect which they were composed. The larg portion of them was written by Hamilton In 1788, he was a member of the stat convention of New York, which met à deliberate on the adoption of the federa constitution, and it was chiefly in cons quence of his efforts that it was accept On the organization of the federal go ernment, in 1789, he was appointed to : « office of secretary of the treasury. T was a situation which required the ex cise of all the great powers of his mata. for the public credit was, at that time, à the lowest state of depression; and, as i statistical account of the country had ever been attempted, its fiscal resources were wholly unknown. But before Ham retired from the post, which he did after filling it during somewhat more than to years, he had raised the public eredt 1a height altogether unprecedented in the

history of the country, and, by the admirable system of finance which he established, had acquired the reputation of one of the greatest financiers of the age. His official reports to congress are considered as masterpieces, and the principles which he advocated in them still continue to exercise a great influence in the revenue department of the American government. Whilst secretary of the treasury, he was, er officio, one of the cabinet counsellors of president Washington; and such was the confidence reposed by that great man in his integrity and ability, that he rarely ventured upon any executive act of moment without his concurrence. He was one of the principal advisers of the proclamation of neutrality issued by Washington in 1793, in consequence of an attempt made by the minister of France to cause the U. States to take part with his country in the war then waging between it and England. This measure he defended in a series of essays, under the signature of Pacificus, which were successful in giving it popularity. In 1795, Hamilton resigned his office, and retired to private life, in order to be better able to support a numerons family by the practice of his profession. In 1798, however, when an invason was apprehended from the French, and a provisional army had been called into the field, his public services were again required. President Adams had offered the chief command of the provisional army to Washington, who consented to accept it on condition that Hamilton should be chosen second in command, with the title of inspector-general. This was accordingly done; and, in a short time, he succeeded in bringing the organization and discipline of the army to a high degree of excellence. On the death of Washington, in 1799, he succeeded, of course, to the chief command. The tithe of heutenant-general, however, to which he was then entitled, was, from some unexplained cause, never conferred on him. When the army was disbanded, after the cessation of hostilities between the U. States and France, general Hamilton returned again to the bar, and continued to practise, with increased reputation and success, until 1804. In June of that year, he received a note from colonel Burr,-between whom and himself a political had become a personal enmity, in which he was required, in offensive language, to acknowledge or disavow certain expressions derogatory to the latter. The tone of the note was such as to cause him to refuse to do either and a challenge was

the consequence. July 11, the parties met at Hoboken, and on the first fire Hamilton fell, mortally wounded, on the same spot where, a short time previously, his eldest son had been killed in a duel. He lingered until the afternoon of the following day, when he expired. The sensation which this occurrence produced throughout the U. States, had never been exceeded on this continent. Men of all political parties, felt that the nation was deprived of its greatest ornament. His transcendent abilities were universally acknowledged; every citizen was ready to express confidence in his spirit of honor and his capacity for public service. Of all the coadjutors and advisers of Washington, Hamilton was, doubtless, the one in whose judgment and sagacity he reposed the greatest confidence, whether in the military or civil career; and, of all the American statesmen, he displayed the most comprehensive understanding and the most varied ability, whether applied to subjects practical or speculative. A collection of his works was issued in New York, in three octavo volumes, some years after his death. His style is nervous, lucid and elevated; he excels in reasoning, founded on general principles and historical experience. General Hamilton was regarded as the head of the federalists in the party divisions of the American republic. He was accused of having preferred, in the convention that framed the federal constitution, a government more akin to the monarchical; he weakened the federal party by denouncing president Adams, whose administration he disapproved, and whose fitness for office he questioned. But his general course, and his confidential correspondence, show that he earnestly desired to preserve the constitution, when it was adopted, and that his motives were patriotic in his proceedings towards Mr. Adams. Certain it is, that no man labored more faithfully, skilfully and efficiently, in organizing and putting into operation the federal government.

HAMILTON COLLEGE. (See Clinton.) HAMMER; a well-known tool used by mechanics, of which there are various sorts; but they all consist of an iron head fixed crosswise to a handle of wood. Among blacksmiths, there are the handhammer, the uphand sledge, the about sledge (which is swung over head with both arms), &c.

HAMMER, in German geographical names, means forge.

HAMMER, Joseph von, one of the first Orientalists of the present day, interpreter

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