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Ajax and Teucer, sons of Telamon, Patroclus, son of Mencetius, Menelaus, son of Atreus, Thoas, Idomeneus and Merion. At the proposal of Ulysses, Tyndarus bound all the suitors, by a solemn oath, to approve of the choice which Helen should make of one among them, and engage to unite together to defend her person and character, if ever any attempts were made to ravish her from the arms of her husband. Helen chose Menelaus., Hermione was the early fruit of this union, which continued for three years with mutual happiness. After this, Paris, son of Priam king of Troy, came to Lacedæmon on pretence of sacrificing to Apollo. He was kindly received by Menelaus, and, in his absence in Crete, he corrupted the fidelity of Helen, and persuaded her to follow him to Troy. At his return, Menelaus assembled the Grecian princes, and reminded them of their solemn promises. They resolved to make war against the Trojans; but they previously sent ambassadors to Priam, to demand the restitution of Helen. The influence of Paris at his father's court prevented the restoration. Soon after, the combined forces assembled, and sailed for the coast of Asia. When Paris was killed, in the ninth year of the war, she voluntarily married Deiphobus, one of Priam's sous; and, when Troy was taken, she made no scruple to betray him, and to introduce the Greeks into his chamber, to ingratiate herself with Menelaus. She returned to Sparta, and Menelaus received her again. Some' writers, however, say that she obtained even her life with difficulty from her husband. After she had lived for some years at Sparta, Menelaus died, and she was driven from Peloponnesus by Megapenthes and Nicostratus, the illegitimate sons of her husband; she retired to Rhodes, where, at that time, Polyxo, a native of Argos, reigned over the country. Polyxo, whose husband, Tlepolemus, had been killed in the Trojan war, meditated revenge on Helen. While Helen, one day, retired to bathe in the river, Polyxo disguised her attendants in the habit of furies, and sent them with orders to murder her enemy. Helen was tied to a tree and strangled, and her misfortunes were afterwards remembered, and the crimes of Polyxo expiated by the temple which the Rhodians raised to Helen Dendritis, or tied to a tree. There is a tradition mentioned by Herodotus, which says that Paris was driven, as he returned from Sparta, upon the coast of Egypt, where Proteus, king of the country, expelled him from his dominions

for his ingratitude to Menelaus, and confined Helen. Priam therefore informed the Grecian ambassadors, that neither Helen nor her possessions were in Troy, but in the hands of the king of Egypt. In spite of this assertion, the Greeks besieged the town, and took it after ten years' siege; and Menelaus, visiting Egypt as he returned home, recovered Helen at the court of Proteus, and was convinced that the Trojan war had been undertaken upon unjust grounds. Helen was honored, after death, as a goddess, and the Spartans built her a temple at Therapne, which had the power of giving beauty to all the deformed women that entered it. Helen, according to some, was carried into the island of Leuce, after death, where she married Achilles, who had been once one of her warmest admirers.

HELENA, ST.; an island in the Atlantic ocean, standing entirely detached from any group, and about 1200 miles from the nearest land, on the coast of Southern Africa; lon, 15° 55′ W.; lat. 5° 49′ S. It was discovered by the Portuguese, in 1501. It was afterwards possessed by the Dutch, and finally came into the possession of the English about the year 1651, in whose possession it has, with a short interval, ever since remained. It was granted to the East India company by Charles II. St. Helena is 103 miles long by 6 broad, and about 28 miles in circumference. It presents to the sea, throughout its whole circuit, nothing but an immense wall of perpendicular rock, from 600 to 1200 feet high, like a castle in the midst of the ocean. On entering, however, and ascending by one of the few openings which nature has left, verdant valleys are found interspersed with the dreary rocks. There are only four openings in the great wall of rock which surrounds St. Helena, by which it can be approached with any facility. These are all strongly fortified. The climate of St. Helena is not liable to the extremes of heat or cold; but it is moist, and liable to strong gusts of wind. There is only one place in the island which ce be called a town, situated in a narr valley, between lofty mountains, cred James's Valley. The principal ple in the island, called Longwood, situr the eastern part, has become cerated by the residence of Napoleon. e illustrious captive arrived at St. elena in November, 1815, and died the May 5, 1821. His tomb is in a sceled recess, near Longwood. It is sur unded by a fence, enclosing a piece cground con

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taining weeping willows, and by an interior iron fence. The tombstone is about nine inches high, without an inscription. The body is deposited in a mahogany coffin, which is placed within three other cases: on the external one is the inscription, General of the French. By his side lies the sword which he wore at Austerlitz.

HELENUS; Son of Priam, and twinbrother of Cassandra, endowed with the gift of prophecy. After the death of Paris, he wished to marry Helen; and, irritated by the failure of his suit, he betrayed Troy into the hands of its enemy. The invention of the wooden horse is ascribed to him. After the destruction of Troy, he fell into the hands of Pyrrhus, son of Achilles, who gave him Andromache; his brother Hector's widow, in marriage. He was the only one of Priam's sons who survived the ruin of his country. After the death of Pyrrhus, he reigned over a part of Epirus. He received Æneas on his voyage to Italy.

HELIACAL, as applied to the rising of a star, planet, &c., denotes its emerging out of the sun's rays, in which it was before hid. When applied to the setting of a star, it denotes the entering or immerging into the sun's rays, and thus becoming lost in the lustre of his beams. A star rises heliacally when, after it has been in conjunction with the sun, and on that account invisible, it gets at such a distance from the sun as to be seen in the morning before the rising of that luminary.

HELIADES; 1. the seven sons of Helios (Sol), the god of the sun, who were born when the warm beams of Helios dried up all the moisture of the island of Rhodes. Their only sister, Electrione, died a virgin, and received divine honors from the Rhodians. The brothers distinguished themselves by their knowledge of the sciences, particularly of astronomy; they improved ship-building, and divided the day into hours. Thenages excelled all his brothers in intellect; on which account they put him to death. When the act became known, they all fled from the island, except two, whose hands were not stained with the blood of Thenages.-2. The daughters of Helios and the nymph Merope or Clymene were also called Heliades. (See Phaeton.)

tain, also, were the fountains of the muses Aganippe and Hippocrene, and the fountain in which the unhappy Narcissus saw his own image. The region around was extremely fertile, and so healthy that even the serpents were fabled to be harmless. (See Parnassus.)

HELIANTHUS. (See Sunflower.) HELICON (now Sagara); a celebrated mountain in the western part of Boeotia, where the Greeks placed the residence of the muses, who, together with Apollo, had temples and statues here. In this moun

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HELIGOLAND, or HEILGOLAND (anciently Hertha); an island in the North sea, about nine miles in circumference, on the coast of Holstein, about 28 miles from the mouths of the Weser, Elbe, and Eyder; formerly belonging to Denmark, now to Great Britain. It is divided into Klif and Duhnen, or high and low land. It produces barley and oats, but not enough for the consumption of the inhabitants, who chiefly subsist by fishing. On the highest part of the west Klif, in lon. 7° 53′ 13′′ E., and lat. 54° 11′ 34′′ N., is a light-house, which is of great use in guiding ships amidst the surrounding rocks and shoals, and also as a mark for directing vessels to the mouths of the nearest rivers. Population, 2200, subsisting chiefly by fishing and acting as pilots. It was taken, in 1807, by admiral Russel, from the Danes, and since the peace of Kiel, has belonged to England, which exacts no taxes from it, and takes no concern in its internal administration. The British ceased to occupy it as a military post in 1821. The inhabitants are of Frisian descent, and the old Frisian dialect is still spoken here. During the last general war in Europe, great magazines of colonial goods were formed on the island, in order to be smuggled to the continent, as occasions offered; and it is so favorably situated to be the centre of a contraband trade, that it did much to defeat the exclusive system in the north of Europe.

HELIOCENTRIC PLACE of a Planet is that place in the ecliptic in which the planet would appear if viewed from the centre of the sun; and consequently the heliocentric place coincides with the longitude of a planet, as viewed from the same centre.

HELIODORUS; one of the best Greek amatory writers. He was a native of Emesa, in Syria, and lived near the end of the fourth century. He was a believer in the Christian religion, and bishop of Tricea (Tricala), in Thessaly; but towards the close of his life, he was deposed. His youthful work, Ethiopica (i. e. Æthiopic History), or the Loves of Theagenes and Chariclea, in poetical prose, and an almost epic tone, is distinguished by its strict morality from the other Greek romances, and interests the reader by the wonderful ad

ventures it recounts. The best editions are those of Bourdelot (Paris, 1619; Leipsic, 1772), of Coray (Paris, 1804, 2 vols.; Leipsic, 1805, 2 vols.).

HELIOGABALUS, M. Aurelius Antoninus; a Roman emperor, son of Varius Marcellus. He was called Heliogabalus, because he had been priest of that divinity in Phoenicia. After the death of Macrinus, he was invested with the imperial purple, and the senate, however unwilling to submit to a youth only 14 years of age, approved of his election, and bestowed upon him the title of Augustus. Heliogabalus made his grand-mother Mosa, and his mother Sœmias, his colleagues on the throne, and, to bestow more dignity upon the sex, he chose a senate of women, over which his mother presided, and prescribed all the modes and fashions which prevailed in the empire. Rome now displayed a scene of cruelty and debauchery; the imperial palace was full of prostitution, and the most infamous of the populace became the favorites of the prince. He raised his horse to the honors of the consulship, and obliged his subjects to pay adoration to a god called Heliogabalus. This was no other than a large black stone, whose figure resembled that of a cone. To this ridiculous deity temples were raised at Rome, and the altars of the gods plundered to deck those of the new divinity. In the midst of his extravagances, Heliogabalus married four wives. His licentiousness soon displeased the populace, and Heliogabalus, unable to appease the seditions of the soldiers, whom his rapacity and debaucheries had irritated, hid himself in the filth and excrements of the camp, where he was found in the arms of his mother. His head was severed from his body, A. D. 222, in the 18th year of his age, after a reign of three years, nine months and four days. He was succeeded by Alexander Severus. Heliogabalus burdened his subjects with the most oppressive taxes, his halls were covered with carpets of gold and silver tissue, and his mats were made with the down of hares, and with the soft feathers which were found under the wings of partridges. He was fond of covering his shoes with precious stones, to draw the admiration of the people as he walked along the streets, and he was the first Roman who ever wore a dress of silk. He often invited the most common of the people to share his banquets, and made them sit down on large bellows full of wind, which, suddenly emptying themselves, threw the guests on the ground, and left them a prey to wild beasts. He often tied

some of his favorites on a large wheel, and was particularly delighted to see them whirled round like Ixions, and sometimes suspended in the air, or sunk beneath the water.

HELIOMETER (called, also, Astrometer); an instrument for measuring small distances on the sky, particularly the apparent diameters of the sun and of the moon, more conveniently than can be done with the micrometer. There are different ways of constructing it. The heliometer of Bouguer is an astronomical telescope, provided with two object-glasses, one of which is movable, and which form two distinct images of the same object, visible through the same eye-glass. If, in contemplating a celestial body, the object-glasses are placed so as to bring the images to touch each other, the distance of the centres of the glasses gives the diameter of the image. In this manner, the instrument gives, for instance, the difference of the diameter of the sun in the perigee and apogee. (See Lalande's Astronomie, second edition, § 2433).

HELIOPOLIS, in Colosyria. (See Bal


HELIOPOLIS (city of the sun), which, in the Egyptian language, was called the city of On, was situated a little to the north of Memphis, and was one of the most extensive cities of Egypt, during the reign of the Pharaohs, and so adorned by monuments as to be esteemed among the first sacred cities of the kingdom. The temple dedicated to Re was a magnificent building, having in front an avenue of sphinxes, celebrated in history, and adorned by seyeral obelisks, raised by order of Sethosis Rameses, 1900 years B. C. By means of lakes and canals, the town, though built upon an artificial eminence, communicated with the Nile, and, during the flourishing ages of the Egyptian monarchy, the priests and scholars acquired and taught the ele ments of learning within the precincts of its temples. At the time of Strabo, who visited this town soon after the death of our Savior, the apartments were still shown, in which, four centuries before, Eudoxus and Plato had labored to learn the philosophy of Egypt. Here Joseph and Mary are said to have rested with our Savior. It is now called Metarea. Near the village stands the pillar of On, s famous obelisk, supposed to be the oldest monument of the kind existing. Its height is 67 feet, and its breadth at the base 6 feet. It is one entire mass of reddish granite. Hieroglyphical characters are rudely sculptured upon it. A bloody battle was

fought here, March 20, 1800, between the French and the Turks.

HELIOS; the god of the sun (in Latin, Sol), in the Greek mythology; son of Hyperion and Theia, and brother of Eos (Aurora, the dawn) and Selene (Luna, the moon). He dwells with Eos in the ocean, behind Colchis. From the portals of the morning, he rides through the air, in an oblique curve, to the gates of evening; and, after having cooled his horses in the ocean, he drives his chariot into a self-moving golden vessel, made by Vulcan, which, with wonderful rapidity, bears him along the northern shore of the ocean back to Colchis, where he bathes his horses in the lake of the sun, and rests during the night, till the dawn of the morning. Later authors assign him a palace in the west, where he refreshes himself and his horses with ambrosial food. Respecting the history of Helios, the poets relate his contest with Neptune for the isthmus of Corinth, his revealing the secret amours of Mars and Venus, and his disclosure to Ceres of the ravisher of her daughter. In Sicily, he had a herd of cattle dedicated to him, with the sight of which he was delighted, as he rode through the sky. His vengeance fell heavily upon the companions of Ulysses, who slaughtered some of them. He threatened to descend into Orcus, and to give light to the dead, if Jupiter did not punish the criminals. The thunder dashed their vessel to pieces, and sunk them in the wayes. As he was descended from the race of the Titans, he is often called Titan. His worship was very extensively diffused, and he had many temples and statues; for instance, in Corinth, Argos, Træzene, Elis, but particularly in Rhodes, where a team of four horses was annually sacrificed to him, by being precipitated into the sea. White lambs were also sacrificed to him. Horses, wolves, cocks and eagles were sacred to him. He is represented as a youth, with most of his body covered with clothing, and having his head surrounded with rays. Sometimes he rides upon a chariot drawn by four horses. (See Apollo.)

HELIOSCOPE is a telescope,' behind which the image of the sun is received upon a plane surface. An astronomical telescope is drawn out a little farther than is necessary for common use, and directed towards the sun. The image which is formed, is received in a dark place. For this purpose, a dark chamber is employed, or the telescope is placed in a dark funnel shaped enclosure, the bottom of which is covered with oiled paper, or closed with

ground glass, on which the sun's image is formed. Upon this paper or glass a circle is described equal to the image, and divided, by five concentric circles, into 12 digits. With this instrument the spots on the sun, eclipses, &c., may be observed without injuring the eyes. For greater exactness, however, it is better to observe the sun through a télescope, the glasses of which are smoked or colored. Astronomical telescopes are commonly provided with colored plane glasses, which may be screwed on when the sun is to be observed.

HELIOTROPE. (See Quartz.)

HELL, Maximilian, a learned astronomer, was born in 1720, at Chemnitz, in Hungary, and first educated at Neusohl. Having, in 1738, entered the society of the Jesuits, he was sent to the college at Vienna, where he exhibited a genius for mechanics. He then applied to mathematics with great diligence, and became assistant at the observatory belonging to his order. In 1750, he published Adjumentum Memoria Manuale Chronologico-Genealogico-Historicum, which has been translated into various languages. In 1752, he became professor of mathematics at Clausenburg. From 1757 to 1786, he published, annually, the Ephemerides, which is much esteemed by astronomers. He was soon after recalled to Vienna, to be astronomer and director at the new observatory. In 1769, at the desire of the king of Denmark, he went to observe the transit of Venus, in an island in the Frozen ocean. He died in 1792. Hell is to be ranked among those who have rendered essential services to astronomy.

HELLAS, HELLENES, HELLENISM ('EXλas, 'EXAves). Hellas, in a narrower sense, was Greece Proper, with its eight states (the modern Livadia, q. v.); in a more extensive sense, it signified all Greece, with the islands and colonies.-Hellenes is the general name of the Grecians. (See Greece.) They are said to have derived their name from Hellen, who contributed to the civilization of the Pelasgi, the earliest inhabitants of Greece. The term Hellenes is therefore used sometimes in opposition to Pelasgi, and then we understand by it that cultivated race of men, who inhabited Greece, and have beconfe immortal in history. The first dawn of civilization was spread from Thessaly among the Pelasgian savages, by the descendants of Prometheus. It is not therefore strange, that with the name of Hellenes were associated the ideas of greater refinement and superior genius. The question, How did the

savage tribes of Greece acquire the improved character of Hellenes? may be answered by a consideration of the following causes: 1. The influence of a favorable climate. In a land abounding in natural beauties, in a climate which is neither relaxing by heat, nor contracting by cold, the mental faculties are naturally develop ed with greater energy. 2. A finer original organization of the Greek race. 3. From these causes arose the natural activity, vivacity and inquisitiveness of the nation, a lively imagination, ingenuous feeling, a fine sense of the beautiful and the true in science and in the arts. Curiosity became the mother of knowledge. Opportunities for satisfying it were afforded by the conflux of so many tribes, general emigrations, voyages, and early intercourse with civilized nations. 4. The political freedom, and the peculiar constitution of the nation, which was divided into many small republics. This circumstance facilitated the developement of every talent according to its natural bent. 5. The situation of the country, and the frequent intercourse of the people with other nations. 6. The comforts and pleasures of life, and the spirit of social intercourse which existed among them. By the exemption of the people from heavy taxes and other public burdens of despotic governments, the number of persons enjoying competency was increased. 7. Their education, according to which man was not made a mere machine of the state and of prejudices, and his faculties were allowed to unfold freely and harmoniously. 8. Freedom of thought. As there was no separate class of priests, the intellect and imagination expatiated freely on the subject of religion. Their religion gave them a form of worship, but imposed no constraint. It was less mystical in its tendency than plastic, and was formed and refined by poetry. Hence their fanciful and bright conceptions, and traditions of their gods, from which the plastic art created its divine forms and beautiful ideals. Even what the Greeks borrowed from foreign nations, became Grecian in their hands. From the shapeless fetiches, they first made images in the human form, and obtained from their national traditions a race of gods in the shape of men. 9. By this their attention was directed to what constitutes the true dignity of man. Frequent political and social intercourse cultivated a practical knowledge of man, which formed and strengthened in the Greeks a spirit of observation, for which their poets, orators and philosophers are so highly distin

guished. The forms of their political constitutions, which caused every thing to be transacted in public, afforded them a full field for exercise. How otherwise could be explained, at so early an age, those striking representations of character, that rich knowledge of mankind, that power of creating and developing ideas, that expressive and pathetic language? This is therefore a main point in Greek civilization and refinement, which explains some of the most beautiful traits of Grecian genius. 10. Some great geniuses, who fortunately sprung up in this nation. Where free observation is united with natural feelings and a lively imagination, there are the elements of poetry and art, which, however, can reach perfection only by a particular favor of nature. Great minds appeared of a truly Grecian character, and the effect they have produced, by their creations, is well known. It was under so rare a union of favorable circumstances, that the genius which characterized the inhabitants of ancient Greece, as Hellenes, was developed ; and it is not strange that the word Hellenic or Grecian immediately awakens in us an idea of something beautiful in literature or art.

HELLE; a daughter of Athamas and Nephele, sister to Phryxus. She fled from her father's house with her brother, to avoid the cruel oppression of her mother-in-law, Ino. According to some accounts, she was carried through the air on a golden ram, which her mother had received from Neptune, and, in her passage, she became giddy, and fell from her seat into that part of the sea, which, from her, received the name of Hellespont. Others say that she was carried on a cloud, or rather upon a ship, from which she fell into the sea, and was drowned. Phryxus, after he had given his sister a burial on the neighboring coasts, pursued his journey, and arrived safe in Colchis. (See Phryxus.)

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HELLEBORE (helleborus); a genus of plants allied to and resembling the ranunculus, but the large green, whitish or purplish flowers of the different species give them a different aspect. Ten species are known, all natives of the northern parts of the eastern continent. These plants have a bitter and somewhat aerid taste, and a nauseous, disagreeable odor. The root of one of them has been employed as a purgative from remote antiquity, and was a very celebrated remedy with the Greeks and Romans, particularly in mania. So far was this superstition carried, that the most celebrated philoso


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