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of the latter is called kizlar-aga. There are two kizlar-agas, one of the old, the other of the new palace, each of which has its harem. The one is occupied by the women of former sultans, and those who have incurred the displeasure of the reigning prince; the other, by such as still enjoy his favor. Doctor Clarke, who visited the summer palace during the absence of the occupants, has given a particular description of it in his Travels (vol. iii, pp. 20-37). The women of the imperial harem are all slaves, generally Circassians or Georgians; for no free born Turkish woman can be introduced into it as an odah-lic, or concubine. Their number depends solely on the pleasure of the sultan, but is very considerable. His mother, female relations and grandees, vie with each other in presenting him the handsomest slaves. Out of this great number he chooses seven wives, although but four are allowed by the prophet. These are called cadins, and have splendid appointments. The one who first presents him with a male heir is styled the sultana, by way of eminence. She must then retire into the eski serai (old palace); but if her son ascends the throne, she returns to the new palace, and has the title of sultana valide. She is the only woman who is allowed to appear without a veil; none of the others, even when sick, are permitted to lay aside the veil, in the presence of any one except the sultan. When visited by the physician, their bed is covered with a thick counterpane, and the pulse felt through gauze. The life of the ladies of the imperial harem is spent in bathing, dressing, walking in the gardens, witnessing the voluptuous dances performed by their slaves, &c. The women of other Turks enjoy the society of their friends at the baths or each other's houses, appear in public accompanied by slaves and eunuchs, and enjoy a degree of liberty which increases as they descend in rank. But those of the sultan have none of these privileges. When transferred to the summer residences on the Bosphorus, they are removed at break of day, pass from the garden to the boats between two screens, while the eunuchs, for a considerable distance round, warn every one off, on pain of death. Each boat has a cabin covered with cloth, and the eunuchs keep the boatmen or bostandjis at a distance. It is, of course, only the richer Moslems who can maintain harems; the poorer classes have generally but one wife.

HARIOT, or HERIOT, in law; a due 15


belonging to a lord at the death of his tenant, consisting of the best beast, either horse, ox, or cow, which he had at the time of his death; and, in some manors, the best goods, piece of plate, &c., are called hariots.

HARLEM. (See Haarlem.)

HARLEQUIN (arlecchino, Italian). It is not in our power to determine the etymology of the name of this dramatic personage. Ménage derives it from a comedian, who was so called because he frequented the house of M. de Harlay, in the reign of Henry III of France. Batteux derives it from the satirical drama of the Greeks. Riccobini conjectures (History of the Italian Theatre) that the dress of the harlequins is no other than the centunculus of the old Roman mimi, who had their heads shaved, and were called planipedes (barefooted). To the reasons adduced by Riccobini, we may add the ridiculous sword of the ancient mimi, which, with the harlequin, has been converted into a stick. Harlequins and buffoons are also called zanni, by the best Tuscan writers, probably from the Latin sannio, of which Cicero (De Oratore, ii, 61) gives a description applying so strongly to the harlequin, that it places his derivation from the planipedes almost beyond a doubt. The character of the ancient harlequin was a mixture of extravagant buffoonery with great corporeal agility, so that his body seemed almost constantly in the air. He was impudent, droll, satirical and low, and often indecent in his expressions. But, in the middle of the 16th century, his character was essentially changed. The modern harlequin laid aside the peculiarities of his predecessor. He became a simple, ignorant servant, who tries very hard to be witty, even at the expense of being malicious. He is a parasite, cowardly, yet faithful and active, but easily induced, by fear or interest, to commit all sorts of tricks and knaveries. He is a chameleon, who assumes all colors, and can be made, in the hands of a skilful actor, the principal character on the stage. He must excel in extempore sallies. The modern harlequin plays many droll tricks, which have been handed down, from generation to generation, for centuries. This account applies more particularly to the Italian harlequin. Italy, in fact, particularly in the commedia dell'arte, is his natural scene of action. He can only be properly appreciated when seen in that department of the drama, and distinct from all other similar personages. Whether he

is to be tolerated or not, is a question of importance. He has found an able advocate in Möser (Harlequin, or Defence of the Grotesque-Comic). (See Mask.) The gallant, obsequious French harlequin is an entirely national mask. In the Vaudeville theatre, he is silent, with a black half mask, and reminds one, throughout the representation, of the grace and agility of the cat. (See Carlin.) In England, he became a lover and a magician; and, in exchange for the gift of language, of which he was there deprived, he was invested with the wonder-working wand, from the possession of which Mr. Douce pronounces him to be the "illegitimate successor of the old Vice" (On Shakspeare, i, 458). (See Punchinello.) A standing grotesque character, on the German stage, was called Hanswurst (Jack-Pudding), and answered to the Dutch Pickled-Herring, the French Jean-Potage, the Italian (more properly Neapolitan) Maccaroni, and the English Jack-Pudding. This family was a race of gourmands, clowns, coarse and rude in their wit.

HARLEY, Robert; earl of Oxford, and earl Mortimer, a distinguished minister of state, in the reign of queen Anne. He was born in London, in 1661, and was the son of sir Edward Harley, a Herefordshire gentleman, who had been an active partisan of the parliament during the civil war. The subject of this article, though of a Presbyterian family, adopted tory principles in politics, and joined the high church party. In the reign of William III, he acted with the whigs; but, after the accession of Anne, he, as well as his more celebrated colleague, St. John, afterwards lord Bolingbroke, deserted the party with which they had acted, and became leaders of the tories. Harley was chosen speaker of the house of commons in 1702, and afterwards was secretary of state. He resigned his post in 1708. The cabals of their political opponents having effected the removal of the duke of Marlborough and his friends from office, Harley was nominated a commissioner of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer, in 1710. In 1711, Harley was raised to the peerage, and constituted lord high treasurer. After the peace of Utrecht, in 1713, the tory statesmen, having no longer any apprehensions of danger from abroad, began to quarrel among themselves; and the two chiefs, Oxford and Bolingbroke, especially, became personal and political foes, actuated by different views and sentiments. The former resigned the treasurership just before the

death of the queen in 1714. Whatever projects may have been formed by others of the party, there seems to be no ground for believing that lord Oxford had engaged in any measures to interrupt the Protestant succession. Early in the reign of George I, he was, however, impeached of high treason by the house of commons, and was committed to the Tower. He remained in confinement till June, 1717, when, at his own petition, he was brought before the house of peers, and, after a public trial, acquitted of the crimes laid to his charge. The rest of his life was spent in adding to his literary stores, in the collection of which he expended a considerable portion of the wealth which his public employments had enabled him to accumulate. He died May 21, 1724. His patronage was extended to Swift, Pope, and other literary men. Lord Oxford published a Letter to Swift for correcting and improving the English Tongue; an Essay on public Credit; an Essay upon Loaus; and a Vindication of the Rights of the Commons of England. He was succeeded in his titles by his son Edward, who augmented the collection of printed books and manuscripts formed by his father. On the death of the second earl of Oxford, in 1741, the library of printed books was sold to Osborne, a bookseller, who published a catalogue of them, compiled by William Oldys and Samuel Johnson (4 vols., 8vo., 1743). The MSS. are preserved in the British museum, where they form the Bibliotheca Harleiana.

HARMATTAN; a wind which blows periodically from the interior parts of Africa, towards the Atlantic ocean. It prevails in December, January and February, and is generally accompanied with a fog or haze, that conceals the sun for whole days together. Extreme dryness is the charac teristic of this wind; no dew falls during its continuance, which is sometimes for a fortnight or more. The whole vegetable creation is withered, and the grass becomes, at once, like hay. The human body is also affected by it, so that the skin peels off; but it checks infection, and cures cutaneous diseases.

HARMODIUS. (See Hippias, and Aristogiton.)

HARMONIA, or HERMIONE; a daughter of Mars and Venus, the fruit of an amour, in which they were surprised by Vulcan. Her name was at first used to indicate music in general. She emigrated with her husband, the Phoenician Cadmus, into Greece, where she is said to have introduced music.

HARMONICA, or ARMONICA, is a name which doctor Franklin has given to a musical instrument constructed with drinking glasses. It is well known that a drinking glass yields a sweet tone, by passing a wet finger round its brim. Mr. Pockrich, of Ireland, was the first who thought of playing tunes formed of these tones. He collected a number of glasses of different sizes, fixed them near each other on a table, and tuned them by putting into them water, more or less, as each note required. Mr. Delaval made an instrument in imitation, and from this instrument doctor Franklin took the hint of constructing his armonica. The glasses for this musical instrument are blown as nearly as possible in the form of hemispheres, having each an open neck or socket in the middle. The thickness of the glass near the brim is about one tenth of an inch, increasing towards the neck, which, in the largest glasses, is about an inch deep, and an inch and a half wide within; but these dimensions lessen as the size of the glasses diminishes: the neck of the smallest should not be shorter than half an inch. The diameter of the largest glass is nine inches, and that of the smallest three inches. Between these there are 23 different sizes, differing from each other a quarter of an inch in diameter. The largest glass in the instrument is G, a little below the reach of a common voice, and the highest G, including three complete octaves; and they are distinguished by painting the apparent parts of the glasses within side, every semitone white, and the other notes of the octave with the seven prismatic colors; so that glasses of the same color (the white excepted) are always octaves to each other. When the glasses are tuned, they are to be fixed on a round spindle of hard iron, an inch in diameter at the thickest end, and tapering to a quarter of an inch at the smallest. For this purpose, the neck of each glass is fitted with a cork, projecting a little without the neck. These corks are perforated with holes of different diameters, according to the dimension of the spindle in that part of it where they are to be fixed. The glasses are all placed within one another; the largest on the biggest end of the spindle, with the neck outwards; the next in size is put into the other, leaving about an inch of its brim above the brim of the first; and the others are put on in the same order. From these exposed parts of each glass the tone is drawn, by laying a finger upon one of thein as the spindle and glasses turn round. The spindle, thus prepared, is fixed horizontally in the middle of a box,

and made to turn on brass gudgeons at each end by means of a foot-wheel. This instrument is played upon by sitting before it, as before the keys of a harpsichord, turning the spindle with the foot, and wetting the glasses, now and then, with a sponge and clean water. The fingers should be first soaked in water, and rubbed occasionally with fine chalk, to make them catch the glass, and bring out the tone more readily. Different parts may be played together by using both hands; and the tones are best drawn out when the glasses turn from the ends of the fingers, not when they turn to them. The advantages of this instrument, says doctor Franklin, are, that its tones are incomparably sweet, beyond those of any other, and that they may be swelled or softened at pleasure, by stronger or weaker pressures of the finger, and continued to any length; and when it is once tuned, it never wants tuning again. From the effect which it is supposed to have upon the nervous system, it has been suggested that the fingers should not be allowed to come in immediate contact with the glasses, but that the tones should be produced by means of a key, as upon the harpsichord. Such a key has been invented in Berlin or Dresden, and an instrument constructed on this plan. It is called the harpsichordharmonica. But these experiments have not produced any thing of much value; and it is impossible that the delicacy, the swell and the continuation of the tone should be carried to such perfection as in the first mentioned method. The harmonica, however much it excels all other instruments in the delicacy and duration of its tones, yet is confined to those of a soft and melancholy character, and to slow, solemn movements, and can hardly be combined to advantage with other instruments. In accompanying the human voice, it throws it in the shade; and in concerts, the accompanying instruments lose in effect, because so far inferior to it in tone. It is therefore best enjoyed by itself, and may produce a charming effect, in certain romantic situations. Besides the proper harmonica, there is a pegged or nailed harmonica, the pegs of which are of steel, and, being placed in a semicircle, are played with a strung bow. This has no resemblance to the proper harmonica, except some similarity in tone.

HARMONY; 1. a town in the western part of Pennsylvania, where Rapp first settled with his Harmonists from Würtemberg, in 1803. He afterwards removed to Indiana, but has since returned again to Pennsylvania, with his 700 followers,

where he founded the village of Economy, The Harmonists are frugal and industrious, and hold their property in common. (See Rapp. 2. A village in Indiana, on the Walsh, about 25 miles from its mouth, founded by Rapp. Mr. Owen's society afterwards attempted to carry the new social system into execution here, but it is now broken up. (See Owen.)

HARMONY (from the Greek); the agreement or consonance of two or more united sounds. Harmony is either natural or artificial. Natural harmony, properly so called, consists of the harmonic triad, or common chord. Artificial harmony is a mixture of concords and discords, bear ing relation to the harmonic triad of the fundamental note. The word harmony being originally a proper name, it is not easy to determine the exact sense in which it was used by the Greeks; but from the treatises they have left us on the subject, we have great reason to conclude that they limited its signification to that agree. able succession of sounds which we call air, or melody. The moderns, however, do not dignity a mere succession of single sounds with the appellation of harmony: for the formation of harmony, they require a union of melodies, a succession of combined sounds, composed of consonant intervals, and moving according to the stated laws of modulation.

HARMONY, OF EVANGELICAL HARMONY, is the title of various books, composed to show the uniformity and agreement of the accounts given by the four evangelists, by reducing the events recorded in the different evangelists to the order of time in which they happened.

HARMONY, FIGURED. Figured harmony is that in which, for the purpose of melody, one or more of the parts of a composition move, during the continuance of a chord, through certain notes which do not form any of the constituent parts of that chord. These intermediate notes not being reckoned in the harmony, considerable judgment and skill are necessary so to dispose them that, while the ear is gratified with their succession, it may not be offended at their dissonance with respect to the harmonic notes.

HARMONY OF THe Spheres; a hypothesis of Pythagoras and his school, according. to which the motions of the heavenly bodies produced a music imperceptible by the ears of mortals, He supposed these motions to conform to certain fixed laws, which could be expressed in num bers, corresponding to the numbers which give the harmony of sounds. The un

mortal Kepler, in his Harmonices Munti, endeavors to apply the Pythagorean ideas on numbers and musical intervals to astronomy, and in this work, as also in lus Prodromus, sets forth eternal laws respweting the distances of the planets, which were not fully appreciated, until Newton, a long time after, showed their importance and connexion. It is in the Harmonies Mundi, proëmium to the 5th book, De Mətibus Planetarum, that Kepler, in his enthasiasm, pronounces these bold words concerning his discovery: Eighteen months ago, I saw the first ray of light; three months since, I saw the day; a few days ago, I saw the sun himself, of most admirable beauty. Nothing can restrain me; Iyield to the sacred frenzy. I dare ingenuously to confess, that I have stolen the golden vessels of the Egyptians (alluding to the ideas of Ptolemy on the same subject), and will build of them a tabernacle to my God. If you pardon me, I rejoice; if you reproach me, I can endure it; the die is thrown. I write a book to be read; whether by the present or future ages, it matters not. It can wait for a reader a century, if God himself waited s thousand years for an observer of bes works."* To understand this enthusiasın fully, we must recollect the errone62S ideas with which the world had teemed from the time of Ptolemy..


HARMOTOME, or CROSS-STONE; the name of a substance curious in mineralogy, on account of the cruciform figure of its crystals, and the peculiarity of its composition. It sometimes occurs in rigt rectangular prisms terminated by four rhombic planes, corresponding to the solad angles of the prisms; but more frequentiN in twin-crystals formed by the intersection of two flattened prisms at right angles tə each other, and in such a manner that a common axis and acumination is formed. The crystals yield to cleavage parallel :> the planes and both diagonals of a right rectangular pristn, which is their primary form. Its prevailing color is white; it is translucent or semi-transparent, with a somewhat pearly lustre, and hard enoug's to scratch glass. Specific gravity 21 It consists of silex 49,00, alumine 10ua

Si ignoscitis, gaudebo; si surcenartis ram; jacio en aleim, librumque scribo, arus per sentibus seu posteris legendum, mal ent venti expectet ille suum lectorem per annos contum Deus ipse per annorum sexx molts conten rem prestolitus est. Joana Kepler Ha migrées Mundi, Libri v. Linen, A.?« MDCXIX.

barytes 18.00, and water 15.00. It chiefly eccurs in metalliferous veins, as at Andreasberg, in the Hartz, and at Strontian in Scotland. It has also been found in

amygdaloid at Oberstein.

HARMS, Klaus, archdeacon of Kiel, celebrated as a preacher and author, born May 25, 1778, at Fahrstedt, a village in Holstein, was the son of a miller. Till his twelfth year, he studied in the village school, after which he learned the rudiments of the Latin and Greek languages, from the preacher of the village. He was then obliged to attend to the mill and to the farm. From his seventeenth year, when his father died, he assumed the duties of the head of the family. In his nineteenth year, his mother having sold the mill, he entered the school at Meldorf, in Ditmarsh, studied, 1799, at Kiel, and became a tutor. In 1806, he was chosen by the society at Lunden, in North Ditmarsh, deacon, and, in 1816, was elected archdeacon at Kiel. As a pulpit orator, he is eminent; his words flow with ease and facility, often rushing, powerful and energetic, as a torrent, and his style is simple, original and perspicuous. All classes of hearers, the learned as well as the rustic, listen with edification to his preaching. He has published Summer and Winter Sermons, and The 95 Theses of Doctor Martin Luther, with 95 other Positions accompanying them, by Kl. Harms (Kiel, 1817), in which he exposes many defects of the Protestant church. He is also the author of many other works.

HARNESS. (See Mail.)

HAROLD I, Harfagar (fair-haired); king of Norway, son of Hafdan the Black; one of the greatest monarchs of that country. At the time of his father's death (863), he was in the Dofrefield mountains, and had already evinced great talent and personal prowess in several battles. Love made him a conqueror. He had offered his hand to Gida, the daughter of a neighboring king; but the proud beauty replied to Harold's ambassadors, that she would only consent to become his wife when he had subjected all Norway. Harold swore he would not cut his hair till he had accomplished Gida's desire, and, in ten years, succeeded in obtaining sole possession of Norway. In the mean time, his hair had grown long and beautiful, from which circumstance he derived his surname. While he reduced the lesser kings, he left them, with the title jarl, the administration of their territories, and the third part of their in

come; but many of them emigrated and founded Norwegian colonies. Hrolf, or Rollo, emigrated to Neustria (France). Others, with their followers, established themselves in Iceland, the Shetland Isles, Faroe and the Orcades, all which were then uninhabited. When Harold found that the emigrants often extended their incursions into his dominions, he embarked, with a naval force, to subdue them. After a bloody war, he conquered Scotland, the Orcades, &c., and returned home. He fixed his residence at Drontheim, and died there in 930, after having raised his country to a prosperous state, by wise laws and the encouragement of commerce.

HAROLD I, surnamed Harefoot, king of England, succeeded his father, Canute, in 1035, notwithstanding a previous agreement, that the sovereignty of England should descend to the issue of Canute by his second wife, the Norman princess Emma. His countrymen, the Danes, maintained him upon the throne against the efforts of earl Godwin, in favor of Hardicanute; but, Harold gaining over that leader by the promise of marrying his daughter, a compromise was effected, and they united to effect the murder of prince Alfred, son to Etheldred II. After a reign of four years, in which nothing memorable occurred, Harold died, in 1039.

HAROLD II, king of England, was the second son of Godwin, earl of Kent. He succeeded his father in his government and great offices, and, upon the death of Edward the Confessor, in 1066, stepped without opposition into the vacant throne, without attending to the more legal claim of Edgar Atheling, or the asserted bequest of Edward in favor of the duke of Normandy. The latter immediately called upon him to resign the crown, and, upon his refusal, prepared for invasion. He also instigated Harold's brother, Tosti, who had retired in disgust to Flanders, to infest the northern coasts of England, in conjunction with the king of Norway. The united fleet of these chiefs sailed up the Humber, and landed a numerous body of men, who defeated the opposing forces of the earls of Northumberland and Mercia, but were totally routed by Harold, whose brother, Tosti, fell in the battle. He had scarcely time to breathe after this victory, before he heard of the landing of the duke of Normandy at Pevensey, in Sussex. Hastening thither, with all the troops he could muster, a general engagement ensued at Hastings, Oct. 14, 1066, in which this spirited prince, after exerting every effort of

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