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fended a dissertation, Conspectus Affectuum spasmodicorum. He then practised at Mansfeld, Dessau and Magdeburg. He afterwards relinquished the practice, and devoted himself to chemistry, and to writing on medical subjects. At this time, he conceived the first idea of the system which he afterwards developed. While engaged in translating Cullen's Materia Medica, he was dissatisfied with the explanation of the antipyretic principles in the Peruvian bark, given by that celebrated physician, and he determined to discover, by experiments, on what the power of the bark, in intermittent fevers, depended. He took it, in considerable quantity, while in perfect health, and found that it produced an ague similar to the intermittent marsh fever. He seized upon this hint of nature in his practice, which he had again commenced in the insane hospital in Georgenthal, at Brunswick and Königslutter, where, by many experiments of the effects of simple medicines on himself and his family, he acquired so much knowledge of their nature, that he effected many remarkable cures by homœopathic applications. The physicians and apothecaries immediately began to persecute him, and, at last, effected his removal by authority, on the ground of his having violated the law forbidding physicians to furnish themselves the medicines that they prescribed, which, in his way of proceeding, was necessary. He then practised in different places in the north of Germany; and, at Torgau, he wrote his Organon der rationellen Heilkunde (Dresden, 1810). A dispute was carried on, for 12 years, on the merits of his homoeopathic system. In Leipsic, where he again defended a thesis, De Helleborismo Veterum (1812), in order to obtain the privileges of a doctor in Leipsic, and taught and practised medicine, with success, for 11 years, the excitement respecting his system became, at length, so great, that government, yielding to the petition of the apothecaries, reminded Hahnemann of the above-mentioned law, forbidding physicians to administer medicines prepared by themselves a law quite common in Germany. He could, therefore, no longer practise medicine, in that city, according to his system; and duke Ferdinand of Anhalt-Cothen offered him an asylum. In 1821, Hahnemann went to Cothen, where he now resides. He has endeavored to cure the most inveterate and protracted diseases, during the last six years, by a new application of the homoeopathic remedies; but, for want of a clinical hos

pital, has not been able, properly, to exhibit his system. Hahnemann's autobiography to 1791 is contained in Elwert's Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Schriften Deutscher Aerzte (Hildesheim, 1799). Among his works are, Die Kennzeichen der Güte und Verfälschung der Arzneimittel (Dresden, 1787); Der Caffee in seinen Wirkungen (Leipsic,1803). Of his Organon, a 2d and improved edition appeared in 1819 (Dresden), under the title Organon der Heilkunst, and, in 1824, the 3d edition (translated into French, English and Italian)-Reine Arzneimittellehre (6 vols., 1811 to 1821, 2d edition, enlarged, Dresden, 1822 et seq. (See Homeopathy.)*

HAI (sea); a Chinese word, appearing in many geographical words; as, Kan-hai (Sand-sea).

HAIL appears to be a species of snow, or snowy rain, which has undergone several congelations and superficial meltings, in its passage through different zones of the atmosphere, some temperate and others frozen. It is generally formed in sudden alternations of the fine season. Hailstones are often of considerable dimensions, exceeding sometimes the length of an inch. They sometimes fall with a velocity of 70 feet a second, or about 50 miles an hour. Their great momentum, arising from this velocity, renders them very destructive, particularly in hot climates. They not only beat down the crops, and strip trees of their leaves, fruits and branches, but sometimes kill even large beasts and men. The phenomena attending the formation and fall of hail are not well understood. But it is certain that they are connected with electricity. This fact we find noticed by Moses, who relates that "the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground" (Gen. ix, 23). This has been supposed to account for the great variations of temperature to which the hail has evidently been subjected, in its passage through the different strata of the atmosphere. Artificial hail can be produced by an electrical apparatus, and volcanic eruptions are often followed by a fall of hailstones of great size. Hail-rods have been erected, at the suggestion of Volta, in countries much exposed to the ravages of hail-storms, on the same principle as light

name, which is used particularly to discover whethIn Germany, there is a mixture bearing his er wine contains lead, as spurious wines often do Its composition is as follows: 1 dram of sulphate of dissolved in 16 ounces of cold distilled water, well lime, and the same quantity of tartaric acid, are shaken and corked. After pouring off the pure liquid. 1dram of pure concentrated muriatic acid is added.

ning-rods. They consist of lofty poles, tipped with metallic points, and having metallic wires communicating with the earth. By thus subtracting the superabundant electricity from clouds, he imagined that the formation of hail might be prevented. These rods are used in Germany and Switzerland, but their success is not proportionate to the expectations entertained of them. The violence with which hail is discharged upon the earth, under an oblique angle, and independently of the wind, would be explained by Volta's supposition, that two electrical clouds are drawn towards each other in a vertical direction, and by their shock produce hail, which, by the law of the composition of forces, would be projected in the diagonal of its gravity, and of the result of the direction of the clouds. In Germany, there are companies which insure against damage by hail.

HAILING; the salutation or accosting of a ship at a distance, which is usually performed with a speaking-trumpet; the first expression is Hoa, the ship ahoay, to which she answers Holloa; then follow the requisite questions and replies, &c.

HAINAUT, or HAINAULT (Hene-gowen in Dutch, Hennegau in German); a province of the Netherlands, bounded north by East Flanders and South Brabant, east by Namur, south and south-west by France, and north-west by West Flanders; population, 497,819. It sends eight members to the second chamber of the states general; the provincial estates consist of 90 members. Square miles, 1683, It is divided into three districts,-Mons, the capital, Tournay and Charleroy. It is generally level, with beautiful undulating plains and a fruitful soil. Grain is abundant, pastures excellent; minerals,-iron, lead, marble, but especially coal; in the eastern part are considerable forests. The principal rivers are the Scheldt, the Selle, the Haine, the Sambre and the Dender. In the time of the French republic and empire, it belonged to the department of Jemappes. Part of it was formerly under the Austrian government, and was called Austrian Hainault.

HAIR; the fine, threadlike, more or less elastic substance, of various form and color, which constitutes the covering of the skin, particularly of the class of mammalia. It is of a vegetative nature, and appears also in animals of the lower or ders, and, indeed in all animals which have a distinct epidermis; therefore in insects. In the crustaceous animals, it sometimes appears in particular places, as the

feet, on the margins of the shell, on the outside of the jaws, and grows in tufts. Hair is most distinctly developed in those insects-as caterpillars, spiders, bees,&c.— which have a soft skin; in this case, it even appears of a feathery form; and butterflies are covered all over with a coat of woolly hair, of the most variegated and beautiful colors. The same variety and brilliancy are displayed in the feathers of birds, which may be considered as analogous to hair, whilst the two other classes of animals-fishes and reptiles-have no hair whatever. No species of mammalia is without hair in an adult state, not even the cetacea. In quadrupeds, it is of the most various conformation, from the finest wool to the quills of a porcupine or the bristles of the hog. The hair, which is spread over almost the whole of the skin, is comparatively short and soft. On particular parts, a longer, thicker and stronger kind is found; as, for instance, the mane, fetlocks and tail of the horse, the lion's mane, the covering of man's occiput, his beard, the beard of goats. The color of the hair generally affords an external characteristic of the species or variety; but climate, food and age produce great changes in it. The human body is naturally covered with long hair only on a few parts; yet the parts which we should generally describe as destitute of it, produce a fine, short, colorless, sometimes hardly perceptible hair. The only places entirely free from it are the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet; but the body of the male often produces hair like that of the head, on the breast, shoulders, arms, &c. Each hair originates in the cellular membrane of the skin, from a small cylindrical root, which is surrounded by a covering, or capsule, furnished with vessels and nerves, called the bulb. The root is tubular, and contains a clear gelatinous fluid. The pulp on which the hair is formed, passes through the bottom of the bulb, in order to enter the tube of the hair, into which it penetrates for a short distance, never, in common hairs, reaching as far as the external surface of the skin. According to Vauquelin, black hair consists of, 1. an animal matter, which constitutes the greater part; 2. a white concrete oil, in small quantity; 3. another oil, of a grayish-green color, more abundant than the former; 4. iron, the state of which in the hair is uncertain; 5. a few particles of oxide of manganese; 6. phosphate of lime; 7. carbonate of lime, in very small quantity; 8. silex, in a conspicuous quantity; 9. lastly, a considerable quantity of sulphur.

The same experiments show that red hair differs from black only in containing a red oil instead of a blackish-green oil; and that white hair differs from both these only in the oil being nearly colorless, and in containing phosphate of magnesia, which is not found in them. The human hair varies according to age, sex, country and other circumstances. The foetus has, in the fifth month, a fine hairy covering, which is shed soon after birth, and appears again at the age of puberty. With the seventh month, the first traces of hair on the head are visible in the embryo. At birth, an infant generally has light hair. It always grows darker and stifler with age. The same is the case with the eyelashes and eyebrows. At the age of puberty, the hair grows in the armpits, &c., of both sexes, and on the chin of the male. At a later period, it begins gradually to lose its moisture and pliability, and finally turns gray, or falls out. These effects are produced by the scanty supply of the moisture above mentioned, and a mortification of the root. But age is not the only cause of this change; dissipation, grief, anxiety, sometimes turn the hair gray in a very short time. It begins to fall out on the top of the head. The hair of men is stronger and stiffer; that of females longer (even in a state of nature), thicker, and not so liable to be shed. Blumenbach adopts the following national differences of hair:-1. brown or chestnut, sometimes approaching yellow, sometimes black, soft, full, waving; this is the hair of most nations of central Europe; 2. black, stiff, straight and thin, the hair of the Mongolian and native American races; 3. black, soft, curly, thick and full hair; most of the inhabitants of the South Sea islands have it; 4. black, curly wool, belonging to the negro race. The hair, with the nails, hoofs, horns, &c., is one of the lower productions of animal life. Hence, in a healthy state, it is insensible, and the pain which we feel when hairs are pulled out arises from the nerves which surround the root. It grows again after being cut, and, like plants, grows the more rapidly if the nutritive matter is drawn to the skin by cutting; yet, in a diseased state, and particularly in the disease called the plica polonica, it becomes sensitive and inflamed to a certain degree, bleeds, and is clotted by a secretion of lymph, which coagulates into large lumps. Hair not only serves as a cover or orament to the body, but exercises an important influence on absorption and perspiration; where the hair is thick, the per

spiration is freer. If the root is destroyed, there is no means of reproducing the hair; but if it falls out, without the root being destroyed, as is often the case after nervous fevers, the hair grows out again of itself. If the skin of the head is very dry and scurvy, mollifying means will be of service; strengthening ointments should be applied, in case the skin is weak. This shows how little reason there is in recommending oils in all cases, while the falling out of the hair may be owing to very different causes. Though hair, in a healthy state, grows only on the external parts of the body, cases are not unfrequent in which it is formed inside of the body in diseased parts. How much the hair differs in its character from the other parts of the body (being, as we have said, of a vegetable nature), is strikingly shown from the circumstance that it continues to grow after death. As the hair is a very conspicuous object, and capable of much alteration, the arrangement of it has always been one of the most important duties of the toilet. The comb is one of those simple and yet useful inventions, which must have naturally suggested themselves in the early periods of our race. (See Comb.) For some rules respecting the dressing of the hair, and an account of some curious customs connected with it, we refer the reader to the Young Ladies Book (London, 1830; Boston and Philadelphia, 1831). The ancient Hebrews esteemed fine hair a great beauty, as several passages of Scripture show; and baldness is even threatened as a sign of God's anger. (Isaiah iii, 17, 24). The Mosaic law gives rules respecting the hair (third book of Moses, xix, 27). The Hebrew women paid very great attention to their hair; plaited it, confined it with gold and silver pins, and adorned it with precious stones. (Isaiah iii, 22). The misfortune of Absalom shows that men also valued long fine hair highly. (2 Samuel, xiv, 26.) Strong hair, as many passages show, was considered a proof of strength, and means were used to strengthen it; it was anointed with perfumed oil. According to Josephus, the body-guard of Solomon had their hair powdered with gold dust, which glittered in the sunshine. Artificial hair is a very early invention. It was used by the Greeks and Carthaginians, and particularly by the Romans, among whom artificial tresses were sold. In the time of Ovid, the Romans imported much blond hair, which was then fashionable, from Germany; and those Koman ladies who did not wear wigs, and yet wished to con

form to the fashion, powdered their hair Among the Frankish kings, it was at first with a kind of gold dust. The art of dye- a privilege of the princes of the blood ing hair has been ascribed to Medea, and to wear the hair long; and, on the dewas, of course, much practised by the thronement of a Frankish prince, his hair Romans. (For more information respect- was cut, and he was sent into a convent. ing this point, see Böttiger's Sabina, or Long hair soon became a privilege of the Morning Scenes at the Toilette of a Ro- nobility. Women, in the beginning of the man Lady (written in German, and trans- Frankish monarchy, wore the hair loose, lated into French)-a work of great inter- but soon after began to wear caps. From est.) A hair-dresser was called, in Greek, the time of Clovis, the French nobility BOCTOUXÓRNOKOS, TOIXIBoorovxos; in Latin, ciniflo, wore short hair; but, as they became less cinerarius; the female hair-dresser, orna- martial, they allowed the hair to grow trix. Circular pins of silver have been longer. In the time of Francis I, king of found in Herculaneum, which served to France, long hair was worn at court; but keep together the different rows of curls the king, proud of his wound on the head, arranged all round the head; this being, himself wore short hair, in the Italian and among the Roman ladies, the most gene- Swiss fashion, which soon became general fashion; and the higher the hair could ral. In the reign of Louis XIII, the be towered up, the better; though they also fashion of wearing long hair was revived, wore the Spartan knot behind (for a well- and, as it became desirable to have the formed head, a very graceful and becoming hair curl, the wigs were also restored. dress). They likewise wore hanging curls We hasten to close this history of fashion on the side. Fashion also regulated the and folly, lest our article should become as dress of the hair of the men, in the later long as one of the peruques of the begintimes of Rome. It was cut, for the first ning of the last century, or that of the time, when a boy had attained his seventh lord chancellor of England. It was reyear, and the second time when he was served for the French revolution, which fourteen years old. On the introduction overturned so many institutions of the of Christianity, the apostles and fathers "good old time," to bring back Europe of the church preached against the pre- to natural and unpowdered hair. The vailing fashion of dressing the hair. It French, the leaders in almost all fashions, became more common for men to cut the are preeminent in hair-dressing. hair short, at least it was considered more may remark that, in the north of Amerproper; hence the clergy soon wore the ica, hair does not grow so full as in hair quite short, and afterwards even Europe, and hence much more artificial shaved their heads in part. (See Ton- hair is worn. In southern Asia, the men sure. But even the excommunications turn their whole attention to the beard, fulminated in the middle ages against long and shave the head. But the women culhair and the extravagant ornamenting of tivate their hair with great care, and dye it, could not put a stop to the custom. It and ornament it in every possible way. must be remembered that, among the an- The African tribes generally grease their cient Greeks and Romans, cutting the hair hair. (See the travels of Caillé and others.) was a great dishonor. Hence prisoners of war, and slaves who had committed any offence, had their heads shaved or hair cut. With the Lombards, it was a punishment for theft under a certain small sum; and, according to the old law of the Saxons (Sachsenspiegel), for stealing three shillings in the day time. Hence the former expression in Germany, jurisdiction of the skin and hair, that is, jurisdiction over minor offences, the highest punishment of which was flogging and cutting the hair; and jurisdiction of the neck and hand, that is, jurisdiction over aggravated offences, with the right to punish by death. The ancient Gauls wore their hair short, but the Franks long, and combed back, or in a knot behind; the magistrates wore it on the top in a tuft, as some North American Indians still do.


HAIR'S BREADTH; a measure of length, being the 48th part of an inch.

HAKE (gadus merluccius). This fish belongs to that division of the genus which has two dorsal fins. In shape, it is not very unlike a pike, and has hence been termed the sea-pike by the French and Italians. The mouth is large, and is furnished with double rows of sharp teeth. The back part of the tongue, the palate, and the throat, are also armed with sharp spines or teeth. Hakes are very abundant in particular situations on the Irish coast; but, after appearing for a number of years, they seem to take a dislike to their accustomed haunts, and seek others. This is not peculiar to the hake, as the herring and various other fish are in the habit of relinquishing their stations for a considerable time. and then reappearing. Natu

ralists have not given any satisfactory explanation of this singularity in the migration of fish. It may, in some instances, be occasioned by the close pursuit of an unusual number of predatory fish, to avoid the voracity of which, they may be driven upon shores that they were formerly unaccustomed to frequent; or a deficiency of their usual food may force them to abandon a residence where they could no longer be supported.

HAKIM; a Turkish word, originally signifying sage, philosopher, and then, very naturally, a physician, as medicine and natural philosophy, among all nations in a low degree of civilization, are the same. Hakim bashi is the physician of the sultan, that is to say, the chief of the physicians, always a Turk; whilst the true physicians in the seraglio under him are western Europeans, Greeks and Jews. Under Achmet I, there were 21 physicians in the seraglio, besides 40 Jews. How well a Christian physician is received in the Turkish empire, in comparison with other infidels, may be seen from the travels in that country; for instance, in Madden's.

HAKLUYT, Richard, one of the earliest English collectors of voyages and maritime journals, was born in 1553. He entered Christ-church college, Oxford, and became so eminent for his acquaintance with cosmography, that he was appointed public lecturer on that science. In 1582, he published a small Collection of Voyages and Discoveries, which formed the basis of a subsequent work, on a larger scale. About 1584, he went to Paris, and staid there five years. After his return home, he was chosen, by sir Walter Raleigh, a member of the corporation of counsellors, assistants and adventurers, to whom he assigned his patent for the pros ecution of discoveries in America. In consequence of this appointment, he prepared for the press his collection of The principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, made by Sea, or over Land, within the Compass of these 1500 Years. The first volume, in folio, was published in 1589, and the third and last in 1600. Besides narratives of nearly 220 voyages, these volumes comprise patents, letters, instructions and other documents, not readily to be found elsewhere. He died in 1616, and was interred in Westminster abbey. He published several other geographical works; among them is Virginia richly valued, by the Description of Florida (London 1609, 4to.). An edition of his works was published in London, 1809-1812, 5 vols. 4to.


manuscript papers of Hakluyt were used by Purchas. (q. v.)

HALBARD, or HALBERT, in the art of war, a well known weapon carried by the sergeants of foot, is a sort of spear, the shaft of which is about six feet long. Its head is armed with a steel point, edged on both sides; but, besides this sharp point, which is in a line with the shaft, there is a cross piece of steel, flat, and pointed at both ends, but generally with a cuttingedge at one extremity, and a bent sharp point at the other, so that it serves equally to cut down or push with.

HALBERSTADT, a Prussian city, in the province of Saxony and government of Magdeburg, has 14,700 inhabitants, and manufactures cloth, linen and leather. It was the capital of the ci-devant principality of Halberstadt. It has 10 churches, besides the cathedral of St. Stephen. It is a place of great antiquity, and is supposed to have been built by the Cherusci The buildings are in the Gothic style, and of antique appearance. A remarkable diet of the German empire was held here in 1134. It is a walled city. Lat. 51° 53 55" N.; lon. 11° 4′ E.

HALDE, John Baptiste du, a learned Jesuit, was born at Paris in 1674. He was intrusted by his order with the care of collecting and arranging the letters sent by the society's missionaries from the various parts of the world. He was also secretary to father Le Tellier, confessor to Louis XIV. He died in 1743, much esteemed for his mildness, piety and patient industry. He is chiefly known as the editor of the Lettres édifiantes et curieuses, from the 9th to the 26th collection, to which he wrote useful prefaces; and also for his compilation entitled Description historique, géographique, et physique, de l'Empire de la Chine, et de la Tartarie Chinoise (4 vols. folio, Paris, 1735). The lat ter work, which, with some retrenchments, has been translated into English, is deemed the most complete general account of that vast empire which has appeared in Europe.

HALDENWANG, Christian; born May 14, 1770; one of the most distinguished living engravers of Germany. He was obliged, when a boy, to labor in the vineyards and on the fields of his father, a surgeon at Durlach. After he was admitted to the drawing school of his native place, he made great exertions to improve himself. In 1796, he received an invitation to Dessau, from the chalcographic society, where he remained eight years, devoting himself to aquatinta; but, at a later period, he was recalled, by his sovereign, to

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