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IT IS STATED AS A FACT, THAT WHEN THE BRITISH TROOPS WERE SENT TO PORTUGAL IN 1826, SOME PAPERS SENT REPORTERS WITH THE ARMY.

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THE STAMP DUTY ON NEWSPAPERS USED TO BE 4d.; IT is Now 1d.

A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

a nation in which it does not take part, directly or indirectly, in a war between other nations; but from such neutral position arise certain rights and obligations towards the belligerents, through the infraction of which the neutral power frequently becomes involved in hostilities with one or the other of the belligerents.

NEUTRAL SALTS, in chemistry, those salts which partake of the nature of both an acid and an alkali.

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a debate; and when they write out their report, they will fill up the chasms partly from recollection, and partly from the necessary connexion of words which the passages themselves supply, and which are the more or less those which the speaker would have used, according to the intimacy of the reporter with his style." On the nights of NEUTRALIZATION, in chemistry, the prolonged debate, when the houses sit late, process by which an acid and an alkali are some of the reporters may be compelled to so combined as to disguise each other's pro- go back and take what is called a double perties. Thus, when sulphuric acid and soda turn; and so active and able are many of are mixed together, the properties either of these gentlemen, that it is not an unfrethe one or the other preponderate, accord-quent thing for one reporter to supply from ing to the properties of each; but there are the notes of three quarters of an hour, to certain proportions, according to which, the paper upon which he is engaged, from when they are combined, they mutually de- a column and a half to two columns of stroy or disguise the properties of each closely printed matter.-By the act 38 Geo. other, so that neither predominates, or 3. c. 78, it is declared, that no person shall rather so that both disappear. When sub- print or publish a newspaper until an affistances thus mutually disguise each other's davit has been delivered at the stamp-office, properties, they are said to neutralize each stating the name and places of abode of the other. printer, publisher, and proprietor; specifying the amount of the shares, the title of the paper, and a description of the building in which it is intended to be printed. A copy of every newspaper is to be delivered within six days to the commissiouers of stamps, under a penalty of 1001. And persons publishing papers without the name and abode of the printer may be apprehended, and carried before a magistrate; and a peace officer, by warrant of a justice of peace, may enter any place to search for printing presses, types, &c. kept without the notice required by the act, and may carry them off, with all printed papers there found. It appears that the first newspaper published in modern Europe made its appearance at Venice, in 1536; but the jealousy of the government would not allow of its being printed; so that, for many years, it was circulated in manuscript! It would seem that newspapers were first issued in England by authority, in 1588, during the alarin occasioned by the approach of the Spanish armada to our shores; in order, as was stated, by giving real information, to allay the general anxiety, and to hinder the dissemination of false and exaggerated statements. From this era, newspapers, of one sort or other, have, with a few intermissions, generally appeared in London; sometimes at regular, and sometimes at irregular intervals. For more than a century past they have gone on gradually increasing in size, as well as in commercial and political importance; and when the late reductions in the advertisement and stamp duties took place, an extraordinary impetus was given to their circulation. Thus encouraged, the "broad sheets" grew still broader; till at length, when overcharged with matter, the "leading journal" occasionally issued its gratuitous supplementary papers, equalling in size their parent original, thereby astounding the world by the vastness of their contents, and puzzling many an anxious quidnune, who wandered over the mighty mass of print uncertain where to fix his inquiring eye. For our own part, although we cannot but admire the

NEWSPAPER, a periodical publication which appears on some stated day or days in the week, containing an account of the political and domestic occurrences of the time, and which is capable of doing good or mischief, according as it is honestly or dishonestly, ignorantly or intelligently conducted. The London newspapers, as Mr. M'Culloch very truly observes, have become remarkable for the great mass and variety of matter which they contain, the rapidity with which they are printed and circulated, and the accuracy and copiousness of their reports and debates. These results are obtained by a large expenditure and considerable division of labour. The reports of parliamentary proceedings are obtained by a succession of able and intelligent reporters, who relieve each other at intervals of three quarters of an hour, or occasionally less. A newspaper cannot aim at copious and correct reports with less than ten reporters for the House of Commons; and the expense of that particular part of a morning newspaper's establishment exceeds 3000l. per annum.-A writer in Frazer's Magazine, who appears to know his subject well, says, "the public who know nothing of the details of a newspaper, have a false notion of the mode in which reports are given. They imagine they are taken in short hand, and then faithfully transcribed from the notes of the reporter. Short hand is, however, little used by good reporters, except for striking passages of a speech which are to be given verbatim. Were the whole of a long debate in the House of Commons to be given from short hand notes, the quantity would fill a paper three times as large as 'the Times, and neither the speaker nor the reader would be the gainer. Verbatim speeches would contain a great deal of useless verbiage, and, in many cases, much nonsense which the speakers themselves would be sorry to see in print.

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porters generally take the leading points of

THE DUTY ON EACH ADVERTISEMENT WAS 38. Gd.; IT IS NOW 18. Gd.

THE LEADING FRENCH PAPERS DIFFER MUCH FROM THOSE OF BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES, BY THE ENTIRE ABSENCE OF ADVERTISEMENTS.

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NICKEL IS CONSTANTLY ATTRACTED BY THE MAGNET, AND, WHAT SEEMS STRANGE, THE LESS IRON THERE IS IN IT, THE MORE IT IS ATTRACTED.

NIG]

THE OXYDE OF NICKEL PRODUCES A DELICATE GRASS-GREEN COLOUR.

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mechanical and mental power which calls these gigantic efforts of the press into existence, we more than doubt the necessity or policy of their frequent repetition.

NEW STYLE, the method of reckoning the days of the year in accordance with the Gregorian Calendar, which adjusts the odd hours and minutes, by which the earth's revolution exceeds 365 days, and renders celestial phenomena and terrestrial reckoning equal.

NEWTONIAN SYSTEM, or Newtonian Philosophy, a phrase often applied to the Copernican or Solar system, which was generally adopted before Newton's time; and by others applied to the laws of planetary motion, first promulgated by Kepler and Hooke; but strictly applicable only to certain geometrical and analytical demonstrations of those known laws, as developed by the genius and industry of Sir Isaac Newton. The chief parts of the Newtonian philosophy are explained by the author in his "Principia."

NICE NE CREED, in ecclesiastical affairs, a particular creed, or confession of faith, drawn up by the clergy in the council of Nice, and since adopted by the church of England.

NICHE, in architecture, a hollow or recess in a wall, for the reception of a statue

or bust.

NICK'EL, in mineralogy, a hard silverlike metal, which, combined with copper, forms the petit-or of the shops; it is slightly magnetic, and forms a large proportion of the meteoric masses which fall to the earth. The ore in which it was first found, and from which it is principally obtained at present, is the Kupfer nickel, or sulphuret of nickel, mixed also with arsenic, iron, and cobalt. Sulphuret of nickel is of a yellow colour, like iron pyrites, and brittle.Chloride of nickel is prepared by evaporating the muriate to dryness. When calcined in a retort, one portion, of an olive-green colour, remains in the bottom of the vessel, while another sublimes, and crystalizes in small brilliant plates of a gold-yellow colour; these are the deutochloride. The nitric and nitro-muriatic acids are the most appropriate solvents of nickel.

NICOTINE, in chemistry, a peculiar principle, highly poisonous, obtained from tobacco. It is precipitated from its solution by the tincture of nutgalls. NIC TATING, or NIC'TITATING MEM'BRANE, a very thin and fine skin, chiefly found in the bird and fish kind, which covers the eyes of these creatures, sheltering them from dust or from too much light, yet is so thin and pellucid that they can see pretty well through it.

NIDIFICATION, the act or operation of building a nest, and the hatching and feeding of young in the nest. NI'DUS, among naturalists, signifies a nest, or proper repository for the eggs of birds, insects, &c. wherein the young of these animals are hatched and nursed. NIGHT, that part of the diurnal period during which either hemisphere is turned

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away from the sun; the time of darkness. Night was originally divided by the Hebrews, and other eastern nations, into three parts, or watchings. The Romans, and afterwards the Jews from them, divided the night into four parts, or watches, the first of which began at sunset and lasted till nine at night, according to our way of reckoning; the second lasted till midnight; the third till three in the morning; and the fourth ended at sunrise. In scripture language, this word is sometimes used for the times of heathenish ignorance, as Rom. xiii. 12; for adversity and affliction, as Isaiah xxi. 12; and for death, as John ix. 4. NIGHTINGALE, in ornithology, a species of motacilla; a bird more eminent for the sweetness of its note, than for its beauty. It is of the size of the linnet, but in shape it more resembles the red-breast; the head is small, the eyes are large, and their iris pale; the beak is dusky, slender, and moderately long; the head, neck, and back are of a greyish-brown; the upper parts of the wings, and about the tail, have a reddish tinge mixed with this; and the throat, breast, and belly are of a pale ash colour. This bird is well known in the southern counties of England for the fineness of its tones, especially in the evening. It is equalled only by the sky-lark in sprightliness, compass, and execution; but the latter is greatly inferior in mellowness and plaintiveness, in which two qualities the wood-lark alone approaches the nightingale. It is the constant theme of the eastern poets; and by these is represented as attached, in a most extraordinary degree, to the rose, their favourite flower. It is very generally supposed that the nightingale will live but a very short time in a state of confinement. Our own experience, however, proves the contrary; having kept one upwards of three years in a cage, which delighted us with its song during eight months of the year. It was regularly fed with meal worms, as well as with boiled eggs and raw meat chopped very fine. But this is nothing to what Dr. Weissenborn relates. He says that a nightingale which had been caught in Germany in its adult state, lived nearly thirty years confined in a cage. One of the bird's owners, a tradesman at Weimar, who kept it for sixteen years, paid great regard to the bird's cleanliness, and always fed it on pupa of ants, either fresh or dry, according to the season, with a few meal worms a day; and whenever the bird appeared unwell, a spider, if it could be obtained. It sung beautifully throughout the year, except in April and May, when it moulted.

NIGHTSHADE, or Deadly Nightshade, in botany, a poisonous plant, bearing a bell-shaped corolla. [See ATROPA.]The Atropa belladonna is supposed to have been the plant which the Roman soldiers, urged by hunger, ate in the Parthian war. Plutarch tells us, that on this occasion it produced loss of the memory and senses; and that the unfortunate victims of it were prone to move every stone that they met with, as though in some important pursuit ;

THE SOLUTIONS OF NICKEL IN ALL THE ACIDS ARE GREEN.

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THE NIGHTINGALE PERHAPS OWES SOME OF ITS FAME TO ITS SINGING IN THE SILENCE OF NIGHT, WHEN EVERY SOUND IS HEARD TO ADVANTAGE.

NITRATE OF LIME ABOUNDS IN THE MORTAR OF OLD BUILDINGS, PARTICULARLY THOSE WHICH HAVE BEEN MUCH EXPOSED TO ANIMAL EFFLUVIA.

NITROGEN IS THE GAS THAT REMAINS AFTER AIR HAS LOST ITS OXYGEN.

NIT] A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

It

till, ultimately, the poison subdued their strength, and they died. Buchanan also relates, that the Scots mixed the juice of this plant with the food which they sup. plied to the Danes, their invaders. had an intoxicating effect, and the Scots became their destroyers. The deleterious principle of the belladonna has been ascer tained by Vauquelin to be a bitter, nauseous matter, soluble in spirit of wine, forming an insoluble combination with tannin, and yielding ammonia when burnt.

NIGHTMARE. [See INCUBUS]

NIHIL CAPIAT PER BRE'VE, in law, the judgment given against the plaintiff in an action either in bar thereof, or in abate. ment of the writ.-Nihil dicit, a failure in the defendant to put in an answer to the plaintiff's declaration, &c. by the day assigned for that purpose, by which omission judgment of course is had against him. Nihil debet, the usual plea in an action of debt but it is no plea in an action of covenant, in a breach assigned for non-payment of rent, &c.-Nihil habuit in tenementis, a plea that can be pleaded only in an action of debt brought by a lessor against a lessee without deed.

NIM'BUS, in antiquity, the circle of luminous rays observed on certain medals, round the heads of emperors and demigods, answering to the glory painted round the head of our Saviour, or a saint.Nimbus, is also a word used to express that combination of clouds which condense into rain.

NI'SI PRIUS, in law, a term often given to trials by jury in civil actions. By it is meant a commission directed to the judges of assize, empowering them to try all questions of fact issuing out of the courts of Westminster, that are then ready for trial; and as by the course of the court all causes are heard at Westminster, the clause is added in such writs, Nisi prius justiciarii domini regis ad assisas capiendas venerint; that is, Unless before the day fixed the justices come thither to hold assizes-whence the writ, as well as the commission, have received the name.

NITRATES, in chemistry, salts formed of nitric acid with salifiable bases, as the nitrate of potash, soda, &c.

NITRATE OF SILVER, in chemistry, is prepared by saturating pure nitric acid with pure silver, evaporating the solution, and crystalizing the nitrate. When swallowed, it is a very powerful poison; but it may be readily counteracted by the administration of a dose of sea-salt, which converts the corrosive nitrate into the inert chloride of silver. Properly prepared, it forms an excellent indelible ink for writing on linen with a pen. NITRE, or SALT PETRE, a simple salt, crystalized, pellucid, but somewhat whitish, and of an acrid bitterish taste. It is found immersed in imperceptible particles in earthy substances, as the particles of metals in their ores; but sometimes it is gathered native and pure, in the form of an cfflorescence, or shapeless salt, either on its

[NIT

ore, or on old walls. The earth from which nitre is obtained, both in Persia and the East-Indies, is a kind of marl, found on the bare sides of hills exposed to the northern or eastern winds, and never in any other situation. The people of those countries collect large quantities of this earth, and having a large and deep pit, lined with a hard and tenacious kind of clay, they fill it half full of water, and into this they throw the earth; when this is broken and mouldered to powder, they add more water, and mixing the whole together, suffer it to remain four or five days: after this, they open a hole made in one of the sides of the pit, which lets out all the clear water into a channel of about a foot wide, which is also lined with clay, and through which it runs into another very wide and shallow pit, which is prepared in a level ground, secured by slight walls on all but the north-east side, and open to the sun at the top here the water evaporates by degrees; and the salt which it had imbibed from the earth crystalizes into small brownish-white, hexahedral, but usually imperfect crystals. Much of the nitre in common use is, however, in suitable situations, which tend to produce nitric acid, particularly where animal matter becomes decomposed by the air, such as slaughter-houses, drains, and the like. Nitre is of great use in the arts and in various manufactures: besides being the basis of gunpowder, it is employed in making white glass, and is of the same use as common salt in preserving meats. It is also of considerable importance in medicine, as a febrifuge, diuretic, and antiphlogistic remedy. -Several interesting phenomena, arising from the crystalization of nitre after fusion, are given by Mr. H. F. Talbot, in the Philosophical Magazine, to which the reader is referred.

NITRIC ACID, a heavy yellow liquid, procured by the chemical combination of oxygen and nitrogen gas. The nitric acid. is of considerable importance in the arts. Diluted with the sulphuric and muriatic acids it forms the well known liquid, aquafortis, which is used for the purpose of etching on copper, &c.; also as a solvent of tin to form with that metal a mordant for some of the finest dyes. It is also of great use in medicine and various chemical pro

cesses.

NITROGEN, or Azore, in chemistry, the principle of nitre in its gaseous state, which constitutes four-fifths of the volume of atmospheric air, and is remarkable for the properties of extinguishing flame and animal life. [See AZOTE.]-In a paper, read to the Royal Society last year, entitled "An Experimental Inquiry into the influence of Nitrogen on the Growth of Plants," by R. Rigge, Esq., it was uniformly found that barley and other grains germinated earliest when containing the largest quantity of nitrogen; this quantity being always greatest in the spring, and a powerful agent in the chemical action going on in the growth of the plant. An excess of nitrogen is always found in sap-wood, and largest in

NITROGEN GAS IS INVISIBLE, INSIPID, AND INODOROUS.

NITRATE OF SULPHUR AND HYPO-SULPHATE OF SODA ARE BOTH BITTER, YET THEY PRODUCE WHEN MIXED THE SWEETEST SUBSTANCE KNOWN.

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NITRE WAS USED IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE GREEK FIRE, BECAUSE IT KEPT ALIVE THE SULPHUR, RESIN, AND OTHER COMBUSTIBLES.

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THE NOBILITY OF FRANCE RENOUNCED THEIR PRIVILEGES, MAY 23, 1789.

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those timbers which grow the quickest, and smallest in hard woods: for example; in satin-wood, it is almost inappreciable; so, likewise, in Malabar teak, and in good old English oak, it is very small. It appears also, that nitrogen and residual matter are invariably the most abundant in those parts of plants which perform the most important offices in vegetable physiology; and hence the author is disposed to infer that

nitrogen (being the element which more than any other is permanent in its character) when coupled with residual matter, is the moving agent, acting under the living principle of the plant, and moulding into shape the other elements. The method of ultimate analysis adopted by the author, enables him, as he conceives, to detect very minute errors, and therefore to speak with certainty as to the accuracy and value of every experiment.

NITRO MURIATIC ACID, in chemistry, a compound of nitric and muriatic acids: the aqua regia of the alchemists, which has the property of dissolving gold and platina.

NITROUS OXYDE, a gas which, inhaled by respiration, produces a sense of exhilaration and intoxication. It is popularly called laughing gas, because it produces a certain degree of pleasurable excitement, often accompanied by laughter, in those who inhale it. It was discovered by Dr. Priestley, in 1772, but was first accurately investigated by Sir H. Davy, in 1779, who describes its effects upon himself as follows:-" Having previously closed my nostrils and exhausted my lungs, I breathed four quarts of nitrous oxyde from and into a silk bag. The first feelings were similar to giddiness; but in less than half a minute, the respiration being continued, they diminished gradually, and were succeeded by a sensation analogous to gentle pressure on all the muscles, attended by a highly pleasurable thrilling, particularly in the chest and the extre mities. The objects around me became dazzling, and my hearing more acute. Towards the last inspiration the thrilling increased, and at last an irresistible propensity to action was indulged in. I recollect but indistinctly what followed: I know that my motions were various and violent. These effects very soon ceased after respiration. In ten minutes I had recovered my natural state of mind. The thrilling in the extremities continued longer than the other sensations. Almost every one who has breathed this gas has observed the same things. On some few, indeed, it has no effect whatever, and on others the effects are always painful." To this we may add, that the excitement it occasions is not unfrequently productive of consequences dangerous to life, and therefore the experiment should not be indulged in.-The best mode of procuring it is to expose nitrate of ammonia to the flame of an argand lamp, in a glass retort. When the temperature reaches 400° Fahrenheit, a whitish cloud will begin to project itself into the neck of the retort,

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accompanied by the copious evolution of gas, which must be collected over mercury for accurate researches, but for common experiments may be received over water. NIZAM', the title of great officers of state in the Asiatic governments.

NOBILES, among the Romans, were such as had the jus imaginum, or the right of using the pictures or statues of their ancestors; a right which was allowed only to those whose ancestors had borne some curule office, that is, had been curule ædile, censor, prætor, or consul. For a long time, none but the Patricii were the Nobiles, because no person but of that superior rank could bear any curule office. The Roman nobility, by way of distinction, wore a half moon upon their shoes, especially those of patrician rank.

NOBILITY, in civil institutions, rank conferred by express authority of the governing power. British nobility consists only of five degrees, viz. that of a duke, marquis, earl, viscount, and baron [each of which see under their proper articles.] In Britain these titles are only conferred by the sovereign, and that by patent, in virtue of which it becomes hereditary. The privileges of the nobility are very considerable: they are all esteemed hereditary counsellors of the crown, and are privileged from all arrests, unless for treason, felony, breach of the peace, condemnation in parliament, and contempt of the sovereign authority. They enjoy their seats in the house of peers by descent, and no act of parliament can pass without their concurrence: they are the supreme court of judicature, and even in criminal cases give their verdict upon their honour, without being put to their oath. An hereditary nobility is found in the infancy of most nations, ancient and modern. Its origin is to be attributed to various causes; for the most part to military despotism; in some cases, to the honours paid to superior ability, or to the guardians of the mysteries of religion. The priestly nobility of the remotest antiquity has everywhere yielded to the superiority of military chieftains. In France and Germany, the first hereditary nobility begins with the downfall of the Carlovingian dynasty; in England, with the conquest of the Normans, in the tenth and eleventh centuries; and was afterwards spread over all Europe; for, since that time, dignities, as well as lands, have become hereditary.-A cotemporary writer has remarked, that "it is a curious particular in the history of nobility, that among the natives of Otaheite, rank is not only hereditary, but actually descends to the son, to the degradation of the father while yet alive: thus, he who is a nobleman to-day, if a son be born to him, is a commoner tomorrow, and his son takes his rank." NO'BLE, in numismatics, a gold coin value 68. 8d. which was struck in the reign of Edward III., and stamped with the impression of a ship, which emblem is supposed to have been commemorative of a naval victory obtained by Edward over the French at Sluys, in 1340.

"A NOBLEMAN IS HE WHOSE NOBLE MIND IS FILLED WITH INBORN WORTH."

TO THOSE WHO ARE SUBJECT TO A DETERMINATION OF BLOOD TO THE HEAD, THE INHALING OF "LAUGHING GAS" IS A DANGEROUS EXPERIMENT.

NORTH AFRICA, THE INTERIOR OF NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA, AND THE NORTHERN PARTS OF ASIA, ARE STILL OCCUPIED BY NOMADES.

NON]

THE NOMADES OF ASIA DWELT ON THE COASTS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

NOCTIL'UCA, a species of phosphorus which shines in darkness without the previous aid of solar rays.

NODES, in astronomy, the two points in which the orbit of a planet intersects the

ecliptic. These are called the ascending and descending nodes. The line in which the two circles intersect is called "the line of the nodes." This line, as it refers to all the planets, shifts its situation from east to west, contrary to the order of the signs.Node, in surgery, a hard tumour rising out of a bone.Node, in dialling, a point or hole in the gnomon of a dial, by the shadow or light of which is shown either the hour of the day, or the parallels of the sun's declination, &c.

NOLI ME TAN'GERE, in medicine, a species of herpes affecting the skin and cartilages of the nose, very difficult to cure, because it is retarded by most applications. tiens.

NOM DE GUERRE, a French term commonly used to denote an assumed or fictitious name.

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becomes of age to manage his own con

cerns.

NON-ASSUMP'SIT, in law, is a general plea in a personal action, by which a man denies that he has made any promise.The following legal terms or phrases, beginning with non, properly follow in this place; viz.-Non compos mentis, a phrase to denote a person's not being of sound memory and understanding. A distinction is made between an idiot and a person non compos mentis, the former being constitutionally destitute of reason, the latter deprived of that with which he was naturally endowed: but, to many purposes, the law makes no distinction between the two. Non distringendo, a writ granted not to distrain. Non est inventus, that is, literally, "He has not been found:" the answer made by the sheriff in the return of the writ, when the defendant is not to be found in In botany, a plant of the genus Impa- his bailiwick.-Non liquet, "it does not appear;" a verdict given by a jury, when a NO'MADS, or NO'MADES, a name given matter is to be deferred to another day of to nations whose chief occupation consists trial. Non obstante, a clause in statutes in feeding their flocks, and who have no and letters patent, importing a license from fixed place of abode, but shift their resi- the king to do a thing which at common dence according to the state of pasture. law might be lawfully done, but being reNomadic tribes are seldom found to quit strained by act of parliament, cannot be their wandering life, until they are compel-done without such license.-Non pros, or led to do so by being surrounded by tribes Nolle prosequi, is a term made use of to sigin settled habitations, or unless they can nify that the plaintiff will proceed no farther make themselves masters of the settlements in his action. In criminal cases it can only of a civilized nation. be entered by the attorney-general. NON-CONDUCTOR, a substance, or fluid, which does not conduct or transmit another substance or fluid, or which transmits it with difficulty. Thus, glass is a nonconductor of the electric fluid; wool is a non-conductor of heat. [See ELECTRICITY.] NONCONFORM'IST, one who refuses to conform to the rites and worship of the established church. The name was at first particularly applied to those clergymen who were ejected from their livings by the act of uniformity in 1662. [See DISSENTERS.] NONES, in the Roman calendar, the fifth day of the months January, February, April, June, August, September, November, and December; and the seventh of March, May, July, and October; these four last months having six days before the nones, and the others only four. March, May, July, and October had six days in their nones; because these alone, in the ancient constitution of the year by Numa, had thirty-one days a-piece, the rest having only twenty-nine, and February thirty: but when Cæsar reformed the year, and made other months contain thirty-one days, he did not allot them six days of nones. The nones, like the calends and ides, were reckoned backwards. NON-NATURALS. Under this term ancient physicians comprehended air, meat and drink, sleep and watching, motion and rest, the retentions and excretions, and the affections of the mind; or, in other words, those principal matters which do not enter into the composition of the body, but at the same time are necessary to its existence. NON'SUIT, in law, the default, or non

NO'MANCY, the art or practice of divining the destiny of persons by the letters which form their names.

NOM'BRIL, in heraldry, the centre of an escutcheon.

NOMENCLATOR, in Roman antiquity, was usually a slave who attended upon persons that stood candidates for offices, and prompted or suggested to them the names of all the citizens they met, that they might address them by their names; which, among that people was esteemed an especial act of courtesy.

NOMENCLATURE, a systematic classification of words, by which they designate the divisions and dependencies of a science. NOM'INATIVE, in grammar, the first case of nouns that are declinable. The nominative case is the subject of a proposition or affirmation: thus, in the words, "the house is repaired," house is the nominative of the noun; but in the words "repair the house," which contain no proposition or affirmation, house is used in the accusative

case.

NOMOPHY LACES, in antiquity, Athenian magistrates who were appointed to see the laws executed.

NON (Latin, not). This word is used in the English language as a prefix only, for giving a negative sense to words; as in nonability, non-residence, non-payment, nonappearance, and the like.

NON'AGE, the time of life before a person, according to the laws of his country,

THE NOMADES OF SCYTHIA INHABITED LITTLE TARTARY.

THE REPEAL OF THE CORPORATION AND TEST ACTS IN 1828, REMOVED THE CIVIL DISABILITIES UNDER WHICH DISSENTERS WERE FORMERLY PLACED.

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