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THE PYTHAGOREANS, STOICS, CYNICS, AND PLATONISTS, RECOMMEND THE SELF-DENIAL AND QUIET OF THE SOLITARY SAGE.

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ANCHORETS CALL SOLITUDE THE DELIGHT AND SCHOOL OF GREAT MINDS.

A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

a virtuous life. In Egypt and Syria, where Christianity became blended with the Grecian philosophy, and strongly tinged with the peculiar notions of the East, the anchorets were most numerous; and from those who lived in cells, in the vicinity of a church, the convents of a later period sprung, which were filled with inmates anxious to escape from the tumult and bloodshed which marked the beginning of the middle ages.

ANCHOVY, a small sea-fish much used in sauce; it is so like the common sprat, that the latter is often pickled and sold under its name.

ANCHYLO'SIS, in medicine, a stiffness or immobility of the joints, arising from various causes, and often connected with deformities of the limbs. For the most part it is the result of inflammation in the membrane lining the joints.

ANCO'NY, in the iron works, a piece of half-wrought iron, of about three quarters of a hundred weight, of the shape of a bar at the middle, but rude and unwrought at the ends. It is afterwards sent to a forge called a chafery, where the ends are wrought into the shape of the middle, and the whole is made into a bar.

ANC'TER, in surgery, the fibula or button by which the lips of wounds are held together.

ANCUBITUS, in medicine, that affection of the eyes in which they seem to contain sand.

ANCY'LE, or ANCI'LE, in antiquity, a small brazen shield which fell, as was pretended, from heaven in the reign of Numa Pompilius, when a voice was heard, declaring that Rome should be mistress of the world as long as she should preserve this holy buckler.

ANCYLOBLEPH'ARON, in medicine, a disease of the eye which closes the eyelids. ANCY'LOGLOSSUM, in medicine, a contraction of the ligaments of the tongue, so as to hinder the speech.

ANDA'BATÆ, in antiquity, gladiators, who, mounted on horseback, or in chariots, fought blindfold, the helmet covering their

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other automata, has frequently engaged the attention of ingenious minds.

ANDROGYNOUS, in botany, an epithet for plants bearing male and female flowers on the same root, without any mixture of hermaphrodites. ANDROM'EDA, in astronomy, a small northern constellation consisting of numerous stars. It is represented by the figure of a woman chained, and is situated behind Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Perseus. ANDROMEDA, in botany, is the marsh cystus. In entomology, a species of papilio, found in Italy. ANEMOMETER, an instrument used for measuring the force and velocity of the wind. Various instruments have been invented for this purpose; the first of which is attributed to Wolfius, who described it in 1709; but considerable improvements have been since made upon its construction. In the experiments made by Dr. Lind with his anemometer, he found, in one instance, that the force of the wind was such as to be equal to upwards of 34 lbs. on a square foot, answering to a velocity of 93 miles per hour!

ANEMONE, a beautiful flower, origi nally brought from the East, but now much cultivated in our gardens. The word signifies properly wind-flower, because it was supposed that it opened only when the wind blew.

ANEM'OSCOPE, a machine showing from what point of the compass the wind blows. This is done by means of an index moving about an upright circular plate, the index being turned by an horizontal axis, and the axis by an upright staff, at the top of which is the fane moved about by the wind. Some are so made as, even in the absence of the observer, to note down the changes of the wind! But any contrivance, however simple, which indicates the direction of the wind, is properly an anemoscope.

AN'EURISM, in surgery, a diseased swelling of an artery, attended with a continued pulsation. Though aneurisms most frequently happen in the brachial artery, yet the disorder is not restrained to that part alone; for they may arise from an infinite number of cases, both external and internal, in all parts, where there are any arterial trunks or considerable branches distributed.

AN'GARI, or ANGA'RII, in antiquity, public couriers appointed for the carrying of messages, and stationed at certain distances from each other on the public roads. ANGA'RIA, in Roman antiquity, was a kind of public service imposed on the provincials, which consisted in providing horses and carriages for the conveyance of military stores, &c.

AN'GEL, the name given to those spiritual, intelligent beings, who are supposed to execute the will of God, in the government of the world. It is sometimes used in a figurative, and at others in a literal sense. The number of angels is no where

VENUS IS SAID TO HAVE CHANGED ADONIS INTO AN ANEMONE.

ONE OF THE MOST CELEBRATED ANDROIDES REPRESENTED A FLUTE-PLAYER, WHICH EXHIBITED AT PARIS A CENTURY AGO.

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THE ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE, AND EVEN ENGLISH AS NOW SPOKEN, BEAR A STRIKING RESEMBLANCE TO THE LOW GERMAN.

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THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELIC BEINGS IS TERMED "ANGELOLOGY."

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mentioned in scripture; but it is always represented as immensely great, and also that there is a subordination among them. Hence ecclesiastical writers make an hierarchy of nine orders of angels. But besides these, we read of evil angels, the ministers of God's wrath; as the destroying angel, the angel of death, the angel of Satan, the angel of the bottomless pit, and the fallen angels, or those who kept not their first estate, but fell from their obedience into sin, and were expelled the regions of light. In general, good and bad angels are distinguished by the opposite terms of angels of light, and angels of darkness.ANGEL, the name of an ancient gold coin in England, so called from the figure of an angel upon it. It weighed four pennyweights.

ANGELICA, in botany, a genus of the digynia order, and pentandria class of plants. All the parts of angelica, especially the root, have a fragrant aromatic smell, and a pleasant bitterish taste. It is highly valuable in medicine.-ANGELICA, in Grecian antiquity, a celebrated dance performed their feasts; so called, because the dancers were dressed in the habit of messengers.

AN'GINA, the quinsy; an inflammatory disease of the throat.ANGINA GANGRENOSA, or AQUOSA, the ulcerated, malignant, putrid sore throat.

ANGIOSPERMIA, a term for such plants of the class didynamia as have their seeds enclosed in a capsule or seed-vessel. AN'GLE, in geometry, the opening, or mutual inclination, of two lines, or of two or more planes, meeting in a point called the vertex, or angular point. Angles are of great use in almost every branch of mathematics. They make one half the subject of trigonometry, and have much to do in geography, astronomy, &c. When they meet perpendicularly, it is called a right angle, and is 90 degrees; when less than a right angle, it is called an acute angle; and when larger than a right angle, an obtuse angle; when two circles cross each other, it is called a spherical angle; or two curves, a curvilinear angle; and the angles made by solids, are called solid angles.-ANGLES IN MECHANICS. 1. Angle of direction, is that comprehended between the lines of direction of two conspiring forces. 2. Angle of elevation, is that which is comprehended between the line of direction, and any plane upon which the projection is made, whether horizontal or oblique.-ANGLE OF INCIDENCE, in optics, the angle which a ray of light makes with a perpendicular to that point of the surface of any medium on which it falls.-ANGLE OF LONGITUDE, in astronomy, the angle which a circle of a star's longitude makes with the meridian at the pole of the ecliptic.-ANGLE OF PARALLAX, the angle made by two lines supposed to be drawn from the centre of a planet to the surface of the earth.-ANGLES, IN FORTIFICATION, are understood of those formed by the several lines used in fortifying, or making a place defensible.

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Its

AN'GLER, in ichthyology, the Lophius Piscatorius of Linnæus; a singular fish, which is also known by the name of the fishing-frog, from the resemblance it bears to that animal in the tadpole state. head is much bigger than its whole body, and its mouth is prodigiously wide. AN'GLICISM, an idiom of speech, or manner peculiar to the English. AN'GLING, the art of ensnaring fish with a hook, which has been previously baited with a small fish, a worm, or a fly, &c. The best season for angling is from April to Oc. tober: the cooler the weather, in the hottest months, the better; but in winter, on the contrary, the warmest day is the most promising. A cloudy day, after a moonlight night, is always favourable; as the fish avoid feeding by moonlight, and are therefore hungry. Warm, lowering days are always coveted by anglers.

ANGLO-SAX'ON, the name of the people called Angles, who with the Saxons and some other German tribes, flourished in England after it was abandoned by the Romans, about the year 400; and who introduced their language, government, and customs.-ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE. After the conquest of England by the Angles and Saxons, the Saxon became the prevalent tongue of that country; and after the Norman conquest, the English language exhibits the peculiar case, where languages of two different stocks are blended into one idiom, which by the cultivation of a free and active nation and highly-gifted minds, has grown to a powerful, organized whole. ANGUINEAL, denotes something belonging to or resembling a snake, anguis. Hence we say, anguineal curve, hyperbola, verse, &c. AN'GUIS, or SNAKE, in zoology, a genus belonging to the class amphibia, order serpentes.

ANGUSTURA CORTEX, a bark, which comes from the Spanish main, and is a powerful bitter.

AN'HIMA, in ornithology, a Brazilian bird, resembling in some degree a crane; from which, however, as well as from all other birds, it is distinguished by a slender horn, inserted a little above the origin of its beak; its wings too have each a horn of this kind, growing out of the fore-part of the bone.

ANHIN'GA, in ornithology, an extremely beautiful water-fowl of the Brazils, about the size of a common duck. It feeds on fish, and is a species of the plotus. AN'IMA, among divines and naturalists, denotes the soul, or principle of life in animals.-ANIMA MUNDI, a phrase formerly used to denote a certain pure ethereal substance or spirit which is diffused through the mass of the world, organizing and actuating the whole and the different parts.-ANIMA, among chemists, denotes the volatile or spirituous part of bodies.ANIMA is also used for the principle of vegetation in plants.

AN'IMAL, a living body endued with sensation and spontaneous motion. In its

ANIMAL APPETITES, ARE THE APPETITES OF THE BODY, AS HUNGER AND THIRST.

BY "ANIMAL ECONOMY," IS UNDERSTOOD THE SYSTEM OF LAWS BY WHICH THE BODIES OF ANIMALS ARE GOVERNED.

THE LARGER KINDS OF POLYPI ARE CALLED ANIMAL-FLOWERS, AND WHEN SEEN ON ROCKS THEY OFTEN RESEMBLE A FLOWER GARDEN.

THE URTICA MARINA, OR SEA-ANEMONE, IS ALSO CALLED THE ANIMAL-FLOWER.

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A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

limited sense, any irrational creature, as distinguished from man.- -ANIMAL, according to the definition of Linnæus, is an organized, living, and sentient being. If, however, the term be disputed, it is very difficult to define what classes of created things are strictly animal: in a general sense, it is applied to every thing that is supposed to be alive to the sensations of pain and pleasure. Under the name of animal, therefore, are included men, quadrupeds, birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects. Linnæus has formed a climax of the grand departments of creation: thus, says he, stones grow; vegetables grow and live; animals grow, live, and feel. Still, the animal and vegetable kingdoms are blended in so many ways, and separated from each other by such imperceptible gradations, that it is impossible to draw a line, at which we can affirm that animal life ends and vegetable begins. We can, however, point out certain general characteristics, which clearly distinguish this from the other kingdoms of nature: for instance, they are composed of bones for strength, of muscles for motion, of nerves for sensation, and of fluids for distributing heat and food, within the package of a skin, which evacuates superfluities. The Linnæan system comprehends six classes of animals; namely, Mammalia, or such as suckle their young, mostly quadrupeds; Aves, birds, which are oviparous; Amphibia, amphibious animals; Pisces, fishes, such as live only in the water, and are covered with scales; Insecta, insects, which have few or no organs of sense, and a bony coat of mail; and Vermes, worms, which have mostly no feet. In this systematic classification man was included; but Cuvier has assigned him a distinct order, which he terms Bimana, thus separating him from monkeys, with whom he had been derogatively classed.

ANIMAL FUNCTIONS, are those by which the materials that constitute and support the bodies of animals, are prepared and supplied. The principal of these functions are the following: circulation, digestion, nutrition or assimilation, respiration, and secretion, which are employed in producing animal matter from the substances that compose it. But, besides these, there are others, which though they do not act chemically, like the foregoing, are in many animals subservient to various important

purposes.

ANIMAL HEAT, is that property of all animals by which they preserve a certain temperature, which is quite independent of that of the medium by which they are surrounded, and is essentially necessary to life. That of a man in health is from about 94° to 100° Fahrenheit. It appears to depend upon the absorption of oxygen in the lungs, and is most intimately connected with the state of the nervous system; for the heat of the human body remains the same when exposed to the most extreme degrees of temperature.

ANIMAL CULA, (ANIMALCULUM, sing. a little animal), is a term which may be ap

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plied to any living creatures, whose existence cannot be discovered without the aid of glasses. Naturalists suppose, and with great reason, that there is a farther order of animalcules which escape the cognizance of even the best microscopes. The naked eye takes in a series from the elephant to the mite: at this point commences

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new class of animals, which comprehends all those from the mite to such as are said to be many millions of times smaller than the mite! As to the origin and propagation of animalcula, we find naturalists extremely at a loss, and therefore advancing conjectures and hypotheses, each more chimerical than the other. The system of putrefaction solves the difficulty quickly: but the supposition is unphilosophical, and contrary to observation and analogy. Yet how such vast numbers of animals can be, as it were, at pleasure produced, without having recourse to something like equivocal generation, is very difficult to say! To produce a million of living creatures in a few hours, by only exposing a little water in a window, or by adding to it a few grains of some seed, or leaves of a plant, seems dif. ficult to believe. We therefore must sup pose them to have been pre-existent. With regard to their structure and economy, auimalculæ are found of various sorts; some formed like fishes, others reptile, others hexapedal; some horned, &c. In several kinds, however small, it is easy to discover the form of their mouths, their proboscides, horns, &c. the motions of their hearts, lungs, and other parts. Lewenhoek computed that three or four hundred of the smallest animalcules which he had at the time under his observation, if placed contiguous to each other in a line, would only equal the diameter of an ordinary grain of sand!

or

ANIMAL CULA INFUSO'RIA, ANIMALCULES OF INFUSION, take their name from being found in all kinds, either of vegetable or animal infusions. Indeed, there is scarcely any kind of water, unless impregnated with some mineral substance, but what contains living creatures; and so exquisitely minute are they, that the most powerful microscopes can only discover points in motion in the fluid, gradually decreasing till they become imperceptible to the view!-ANIMALCULES are said to be the cause of various disorders. The itch, from several experiments, is affirmed to be a disorder arising from the irritations of a species of animalcula found in the pustules of that disease, whence the communication of it by contact from one to another is easily conceived, as also the reason of the cure being effected by cutaneous applications.

ANIMATED, or AN'IMATE, in a general sense, denotes something endowed with animal life. It also imports a thing to be impregnated with vermin, or animalcules; in which sense, all terrestrial bodies whatever may be said to be animated.ANIMATE POWER, in mechanics, signifies a power in animal beings, in distinction from that which exists in inanimate bodies, as

THE SOUL OF THE WORLD OR UNIVERSE IS TERMED

ANIMA MUNDI."

SPONGES ARE CITIES OF ANIMALCULA, THEIR POROSITIES BEING LIKE STREETS AND LANES, AND THE ANIMALS LIVING IN THE HOLES.

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THE WORD ANNALS COMES FROM THE FIRST ANNUAL RECORDS OF THE ROMANS, THE "ANNALES PONTIFICUM," OR "ANNALES MAXIMI."

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THE EXTREME FRAGILITY OF GLASS IS PREVENTED BY ANNEALING.

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springs, &c.-ANIMATED MERCURY, a chemical term for quicksilver impregnated with some subtile and spirituous particles, so as to render it capable of growing hot when mixed with gold.

ANIMATION, in physiology, signifies life itself: to the complete existence of which, the healthful condition of all the organs of the body, and the due concur. rence of all the elements, are necessary. -SUSPENDED ANIMATION. Life may suffer considerable diminution of its powers, and even a total suspension, without being absolutely destroyed. The action of the lungs, and consequently all the functions of the body, depend upon the free use of air. The want of this great principle of life causes faintings in crowded assemblies; and it is from the same privation of air, that drowning and suffocation produce death.

AN'IME', or GUM ANʼIME', a resinous substance imported from New Spain and the Brazils, which is obtained by incision from a tree. It is said to be an inferior kind of myrrh, and is good for pains in the head.ANIME, in heraldry, a term used when the eyes of any rapacious creature are borne of a different tincture from the creature itself.

AN'IMUS, in metaphysics, the mind or reasoning faculty, in distinction from anima, the being or faculty in which the faculty exists.

ANİN'GA IBIS, an Indian bulbous aquatic plant, five or six feet high, with leaves similar to the water-lily. From its root is expressed an oil of great medicinal use for fomentation.

AN'ISE-SEED, in the materia medica, a small seed, of an oblong shape, ending each way in an obtuse point, with a surface very deeply striated, and of a lax and brittle substance. It is the production of an umbelliferous plant (pimpinella unesum) which grows wild in Egypt, Syria, and other countries of the East. Anise-seeds are imported from Spain and Italy, where they are cultivated to a considerable extent. AN'LACE, a falchion or sword, shaped like a scythe. AN'NALS, a species of history, in which events are related in the exact order of chronology. They differ from perfect history in this, that annals are a bare relation of what passes every year, as a journal is of what passes every day; whereas history relates not only the transactions themselves, but also the causes, motives, and springs ANNA'TES, in ecclesiastical law, firstfruits paid out of spiritual benefices to the pope, being the value of one year's profit. ANNEALING, the process of heating steel and other metal bodies, and then suffering them to cool again gradually. The greater number of metals diminish in bulk when they pass from a fluid to a solid state; iron, on the contrary, expands. AN'NO DOM'INI, abbreviated A. D., the year of our Lord; the computation of time from our Saviour's incarnation. It is used

of actions.

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as the date for all public deeds and writings in England, on which account it is called the " Vulgar Era."

ANNO'NA, in Roman antiquity, signi fied properly, a year's produce from land; but it is also taken for the yearly quantum of food necessary for the sustenance of man.-ANNONA is likewise the allowance of oil, salt, bread, flesh, corn, wine, hay, and straw, which was annually provided by contractors for the maintenance of an army.-ANNONA, in botany, the custardapple, of which there are eight species. ANNO'NÆ PRÆFECTUS, in antiquity, an extraordinary magistrate, whose business it was to prevent a scarcity of provisions, and to regulate the weight and fineness of bread.

ANNONA'RII, in antiquity, forestallers of the market, who bought up all the provisions before-hand, in order to raise the prices. ANNOTATION, a brief commentary, or remark upon a book or writing, in order to clear up some passage, or draw some conclusion from it.-ANNOTATION, in medicine, is the beginning of a febrile paroxysm, when the patient grows chilly, yawns, shudders, or the like.

ANNOTTO, or ARNOTTA, in dyeing, an elegant red colour, formed from the pellicles or pulp of the seeds of the bixa, a tree common in South America. It is also called Terra Orleana, and roucou. To rec. tified spirit of wine it very readily communicates a high orange or yellowish red, and hence is used as an ingredient in varnishes for giving an orange cast to the simple yellows. Alkaline salts render it perfectly soluble in boiling water, without altering its colour. Wool or silk boiled in the solution acquires a deep, but not a very durable, orange dye. It is used for colouring cheese. ANNUAL, an epithet for whatever happens every year, or lasts a year; thus we say, the annual motion of the earth, annual plants, annual publications, &c.

ANNU'ITY, the periodical payment of money, either yearly, half-yearly, or quar terly; for a determinate period, as ten, fifty, or a hundred years; or for an indeterminate period, dependant on a certain contingency, as the death of a person; or for an indefinite term, in which latter case they are called perpetual annuities. As the probability of the duration of life at every age is known, so annuities may be purchased for fixed sums during the life of the party. An annuity is said to be in arrear when it continues unpaid after it is due, and in reversion, when it is to fall to the expectant at some future time. AN'NULAR, anything in the form of, or resembling, a ring. Hence, ANNULAR, in anatomy, is an appellation given to several parts of the body: thus, the annular car tilage is the second cartilage of the larynx; the annular ligament is a strong ligament encompassing the wrist, after the manner of a bracelet; and annular process is that which surrounds the medulla oblongata. AN'NULATE, in botany, an epithet for

THE PROPORTION OF ANNOTTO IN COLOURING CHEESE IS ONE OUNCE TO ONE CWT.

OUR SPLENDID "ANNUALS" ARE THOUGHT TO EXTEND THE NATIONAL TASTE FOR WORKS OF ART; BUT CYNICS CALL THEM SAFETY-VALVES FOR POETS.

ANTS WILL FIGHT IN LARGE BODIES, WITH THE REGULARITY OF SOLDIERS, AND PRACTICE THE ARTS OF ATTACK AND DEFENCE.

THE LARGE BLACK ANTS OF AMERICA BUILD THEIR NESTS OF EARTH IN TREES.

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A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

a capsule, stem, and root, according as either
of them is surrounded by apparent rings,
or annular elevations.

ANNULATUS, in entomology, the name
of several species of insects.

ANʼNULET, in architecture, a small square member in the Doric capital, under the quarter-round. Also a narrow flat moulding, encompassing other parts of the column, as in the base, capital, &c., which is variously termed fillet, cincture, &c.

ANNUNCIATION, the delivery of a message, particularly the angel's message to the Virgin Mary, concerning the birth of our Saviour. The festival in commemoration of that event is called Lady-day, and falls on the 25th of March.

AN'ODYNES, medicines so called because they ease pain and procure sleep, such as the medicinal preparations of the poppy. They are divided into three classes: Paregorics, or such as assuage pain; soporifics, or such as relieve by procuring sleep; and narcotics, or such as ease the patient by stupifying him.

ANOMA'LIA, in medicine, inequality or irregularity as applied to the pulse.

ANOMALOUS, in a general sense, is applied to whatever is irregular, or deviates from the rule observed by other things of the like nature.-ANOMALOUS VERBS, in grammar, such as are irregularly formed, of which the Greek language furnishes numerous examples.

ANOM'ALY, any irregularity or peculiar phenomena of motion.ANOMALY, in astronomy, is an irregularity in the motion of a planet, by which it deviates from the aphelion or apogee.

ANOMALISTICAL YEAR, in astronomy, the time that the earth takes to pass through her orbit.

ANO'MIA, or BOWL-SHELL, in conchology, a genus of insects belonging to the order of vermes testacea. They are bivalve, the shells unequal, and one valve is perforated near the hinge, and affixed by that perforation to some other body. Twenty-five species are enumerated.

ANOMORHOMBOI'DIA, in mineralogy, a genus of pellucid crystalline spars, of no regular external form, but always breaking into regular rhomboidal masses, and cleav ing into plates which always consist of rhomboidal concretions.

ANOREX'IA, a term in the medical art, for the loathing of food; and is either original, or symptomatic of some disorder. ANOS'MIA, in medicine, a disease attended with a diminution or loss of smell. AN'SER, a star of the fifth magnitude in the Milky Way. AN'SÉRES, the third order of birds in the Linnæan system, including such as have the bill somewhat obtuse, covered with a skin, and gibbous at the base; as the goose, duck, swan, &c.

ANT, (formica) in entomology, a wellknown insect, much celebrated for its industry and economy. The ant makes a distinct genus of insects, of the order of the hymenoptera, or those with membranaceous

ANT

wings; and is distinguished from the other genera of this order, by having an erect squama, or scaly body, placed between the thorax and abdomen. They are divided, like the bees and wasps, into males, females, and neutrals, which last constitute the great mass of this tribe, and appear to conduct the business of the nest. They feed both on animal and vegetable substances. The WHITE ANTS, which are found in the East Indies, Africa, and South America, are described as far exceeding in wisdom and policy, the bee, the ant, or beaver. They build pyramidal structures, divided into chambers, magazines, &c. These hills, or houses, are so strong as to bear four men to stand upon them; and in the plains of Senegal they appear like villages. Their social economy is of the most regular kind, and when large masses of them make an attack on any animal, their assault is so vigorous, that even men and large quadru peds often become their victims. At Sierra Leone the travelling ants or marchers, as they are called, will sometimes approach the settlements in lines of two or three miles in length; they will cross considerable streams; and, entering a house, are perfectly irresistible except by fire. ANTARCTIC, in a general sense, denotes something opposite to the arctic, or northern pole. Hence, Antarctic circle, in geography and astronomy, is one of the lesser circles of the sphere, and distant only 23° 30′ from the south pole, which is likewise called antarctic for the same reason. The stars near the antarctic pole never appear above our horizon.

ANTA'RES, a star of the first magnitude, otherwise called the Scorpion's Heart. ANTANACLA'SIS, in rhetoric, a figure which repeats the same word, but in a different sense; as "dum vivimus, vivamus." ANTECEDENCE, in astronomy, an apparent motion of a planet towards the west, or contrary to the order of the signs, viz. from Taurus towards Aries, &c. ANTECE'DENT, in grammar, the word to which a relative refers: thus, "God whom we adore," the word God is the antecedent to the relative whom.-ANTECEDENT, in logic, is the first of the two propositions in an enthymeme.-ANTECEDENT, in mathematics, is the first of two terms of a ratio, or that which is compared with the other, as in the ratio of 2 to 3, or a to b, 2 and a, are each antecedents. ANTECEDENT SIGNS, in medicine, such as are observed before a distemper is so formed as to be reducible to any particular class, or proper denominations. ANTECE'NIUM, in antiquity, the first course at supper, consisting of eggs, herbs, &c., customary among the Greeks and RoANTECURSORES, in the Roman armies, a party of horse detached before, partly to get intelligence, provisions, &c., and partly to choose a proper place to encamp in. These were otherwise called ANTECESSORES, and by the Greeks, PRO

mans.

DROMI.

THE LITTLE WHITE BALLS WE CALL ANT-EGGS, ARE THE YOUNG WRAPPED IN FILMS.

THE ICE IS COLDER, AND EXTENDS FOUR OR FIVE HUNDRED MILES FURTHER FROM THE ANTARCTIC OR SOUTH POLE, THAN FROM THE NORTH.

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