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A. The substance of the bread and wineis changed, by the almighty power of God, into the body and blood of Christ; but all the outward appearances of the bread and wine, and all their sensible qualities remain the same.

Q. 10. At what time is this change made?

A. About the middle of the Mass, when the priest, taking into his hand, first the bread and then the wine, pronounces over each separately, the sacred words of consecration. For it is the office of the priest in this, as in all the other sacraments, only to perform the outward sensible part; but the inward invisible effect, is the work of the great God, who accordingly changes the substance of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, the very instant that the sacred words of consecration are pronounced by the priest over them.

Q. 11. To whom has Jesus Christ left power to consecrate the holy Eucharist ?

A. To the bishops and priests of his Church only; and this is one of the most excellent and distinguishing powers annexed to the sacred character of the priesthood, and in which that sacred character properly consists.

Q. 12. Is the receiving this sacrament necessary for salvation ?

A. The necessity of receiving it is so great, for those who are come to an age capable of discerning our Lord's body, that Jesus Christ himself says, "except you eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you." And on the other hand, "he that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life, and I will raise him up in the last day," John vi. 54.

Q. 13. What are the principal things to be established and explained concerning the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist ?

A. These five things; the real presence, transubstantiation, the communion, the communion in one kind, and the sacrifice of the Mass.



Q. 14. What does our holy faith teach us concerning the real presence?

A. It teaches us, (1.) that after the consecration, our Lord Jesus Christ, true God and true man, is truly, really, and substantially contained under the outward appearances of the bread and wine; and, (2.) that under each kind is contained Jesus Christ, whole and entire, his body and blood, his soul and divinity. See the Council of Trent, Sess. xiii. ch. 1, and 3.

Q. 15. How can it be proved that Christ is truly and really present in the holy Eucharist ?

A. The first proof is taken from what is related. in the sixth chapter of St. John's gospel, where we are told, that after the great miracle of feeding five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes, our Saviour went over to the other side of the lake, and that the next morning the multitude missing him, went over after him; and, when they found him, he took occasion, from the impression which that miracle had made upon their minds, to bring on the discourse about the heavenly food which he was to give to the world in the holy Eucharist, and said, "Labour not for the meat that perisheth, but for that which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of Man will give you," ver. 27. Here he

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declares, that the meat he was to give, was such as would bring eternal life. Their curiosity being, by these words, raised to know more about this heavenly food, they asked a sign by which they might believe him, and wished to know if the food he spoke of was better than the manna which God gave their fathers from heaven in the desert. "Then Jesus said unto them, Amen, amen, I say to you, Moses gave you not bread from heaven, but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven; for the bread of God is that which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life to the world," ver. 32. In which words he shews the supereminent excellency of his bread above the manna, saying, it is the "true bread from heaven,' and such as produces the most wonderful effects, so as to give life to the world." The Jews hearing of such wonderful bread, said to him, "Lord, give us always this bread," ver. 34. Upon which he replied, "I am the bread of life;" and then goes on to declare, that those who come to him, and believe in him, should be fed with this bread, and obtain everlasting life. The Jews hearing this, instead of believing his words, "murmured at him, because he had said, I am the living bread which came down from heaven," ver. 41. Yet Jesus, instead of explaining away the literal meaning of what he had said, and in which they had understood him, shewed no surprize at their unbelief; but added, that to believe in him was a gift of God; for no man can come to me,' says he, except my Father, who hath sent me, draw him," ver. 44. And then goes on to repeat what he had said before, and shews what his bread is in the plainest terms: "I am the bread of life," says he: " your fathers did eat manna in, the desert, and are dead. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that, if any man eat of


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it, he may not die. I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever, and the bread that I will give is my flesh, for the life of the world,” ver. 48. Here he repeats again the excellency of. his heavenly bread, declares that he himself is that living bread; and concludes by assuring us, that the bread which he promises to give, is his flesh; that very flesh which he gave "for the life of the world." Which assertion, in its plain and obvious. sense so clearly establishes his real presence in the heavenly bread he speaks of, that it seems impossible to find words to express it more strongly. In fact, the Jews naturally understood him in this sense, that he meant to give them his real flesh to eat; but as they could not understand how this should be done, and would not, in the simplicity. of faith, believe it upon his word, they strove among themselves, saying, how can this man give us his flesh to eat?" ver. 53. Now, from this text and what follows, we have the most convincing proof of the real presence; and that the literal, plain, and obvious sense of Christ's words, in which the Jews understood him, was the very sense and meaning which he intended by them; for it is evident from what the Jews here say, that they understood him in the literal sense, as promising to give them his real flesh to eat; and it was from his own words that they were induced to understand him so. If, therefore, the literal sense, importing the real presence, had not been his meaning; if he meant the above expression only in a figurative sense, then the Jews were in a mistake as to his true meaning, and he himself had led them into that mistake, by the way he expressed himself. Seeing, therefore, that this mistaken sense of his words scandalized them, he was certainly bound, by the most sacred ties, to undeceive them, and to take away the scandal he

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had given, by explaining his figurative meaning to them. But instead of this, and to shew beyond reply, that the literal sense, in which they had understood him, was the very thing which he himself meant, and that it was his real flesh he promised to give in this heavenly bread, and not a figure only, he immediately replies, with his usual asseveration, "Amen, amen, I say unto you, except you eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you, ver. 54. By which words he manifestly confirmed them in the idea they had of his meaning; and assures all mankind, that his very flesh and blood is the life-giving food contained in this heavenly bread. Now, would the eternal wisdom of God have sported with his poor creatures in so egregious a manner, if the literal sense had not been his true meaning? Would he who came to seek and to save those that were lost, and to enlighten them who sat in darkness, and in the shadow of death, have so positively led poor sinners into so gross a mistake, and in a matter of such importance for their salvation, if he had not meant what his words implied? It would certainly be the height of blasphemy to suppose it..

But our Saviour, not content with the above strong asseveration of the real presence, and foreseeing the great opposition which the pride of man would make against it in after ages, goes on in the following verses to repeat it again and again, and to inculcate it in different lights, every one more strongly affirming it than another; "he that eateth my flesh," says he, "and drinketh my blood, hath life everlasting, and I will raise him up at the last day," ver. 55. The body and blood of Christ is alone the true life of our souls, the source of all grace, life, and benediction to us in this world, and of everlasting life in the world to come; consequently, the possessing this life everlasting, by

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