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his body, what was before bread immediately became his body.

Q. 31. How is such a change possible?

A. It ill becomes us, weak mortals, to ask how any thing is possible to the almighty God. Surely he who created all things out of nothing by his word alone, can with the same ease, annihilate them again, or change one thing into another as he pleases. However, he has not been wanting to dispose the world for the belief of this mystery, by doing, on different occasions, in a visible manner, what he here does in a manner imperceptible to our senses. He turned the waters of Egypt into blood by the hand of Moses; he changed Moses's dry rod into a living serpent; he changed the water into wine at the marriage of Cana; all this he did in a visible manner, so as to be evident to the senses of the beholders, which shews that it is perfectly easy for him to change one thing into another when he pleases. And that it is no less easy for his almighty power to make one thing appear to us under the outward form of another thing, is manifest from several such instances where he has done so. Thus the angels often appeared to his holy servants of old under the appearance of young men, and spoke, and walked, and eat, and touched those they appeared to, as young men would have done. So also, the Holy Ghost appeared to men, "under the bodily shape of a dove," Luke iii. 22, at our Saviour's baptism, and as "parted tongues of fire," when he came down upon the apostles, Acts ii. 3. ; and, indeed, the art of man itself, on many occasions, does in like manner; for how often do we seecooks, apothecaries, and brewers of wine, make up dishes, drugs, and various wines, representing so exactly what they are not, that the nicest judge, upon the strictest examination, could not

distinguish them from what they represent? And shall we deny to the Almighty a power which we find in men? Now, in the blessed Eucharist, he both changes the substance of the bread and wine into the substance of the body and blood of Christ; and Christ now really present in the blessed Eucharist, is pleased to appear to us under the same outward forms which the bread and wine had before.

Q. 32. But how is it possible that the body of Christ should be in so many different places at one and the same time, as he must be, according to his doctrine ?

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A. But who are we, to ask such a question of the Almighty?-we, I say, who are perfectly ignorant of the nature of a glorified body, for such the body of Christ is, and who know not what is possible or not possible for it to do. From what we have seen, it is evident, that the real presence is a divine truth revealed by God, and, therefore, that our Saviour is actually present in many different places at once; therefore, it is certainly possible for him to be so, though we cannot comprehend how it is so. However, even in this, his infinite.goodness has condescended to shew us, by an example, that this is nowise impossible for him; for, in the miracle of feeding five thousand men with five loaves and two small fishes, it is declared, that the men "sat down in ranks, by hundreds, and by fifties," and that after "blessing the loaves, he gave to his disciples to set before them, and the two fishes he divided among them all; and they all did eat, and had their fill," Mark vi. 40. "And when they were filled he said to his disciples, gather up the fragments that remain, lest they be lost. So they gathered them. up, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above to them that had eaten," John vi. 12. The same miracle was repeated a second time, when

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he fed four thousand men with seven loaves and a few small fishes, and gathered up seven baskets of the fragments, after all were filled, Mark viii. 6. Now from these two miracles, it is at least highly probable, that it is easy for the power of God to make bodies, even in their natural state, be in many different places at one and the same time. For, if we suppose, for example sake, that these five loaves were so large, as naturally to be sufficient to serve one company of fifty men; as there were a hundred such companies in all the five thousand, the loaves must have been in a hundred different places at one and the same time, while all these hundred companies were eating of them; and the same is to be observed of the two fishes: and, what is still more, no less than twelve baskets were filled with the broken pieces, after all had eaten to their fill, which, in appearance, was a greater quantity than the five loaves were at the beginning. Now, if almighty God could so multiply these loaves, even in their natural state, as to be in so many places at one and the same time, there can be no difficulty in believing that the body of Christ, now in a glorified state, may be in as many places at the same time as he pleases.

Q. 33. But may it not be supposed, that on these occasions Christ formed new loaves in the hands of the apostles, as they were distributing them to the multitude, or that angels invisibly put other loaves into their hands?

A. I know this is the evasion that some use to avoid the force of this miracle; but it must be observed, that there are not the smallest grounds from Scripture to say so; nay, that is directly contrary to the express words of the Scripture; for there it is affirmed, that "the two fishes he divided among them all," which would be false, if he had either formed new fishes, or the angels had supplied others invisibly; it is also said, that "they filled twelve

baskets of the fragments of the five barley loaves that remained over and above to them that had eaten," which also must be false, if other loaves had been administered. Besides, Christ himself, speaking of these very miracles, said to his apostles, "When I broke the five loaves among five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took-ye up? they say to him, twelve. And when the seven loaves among four thousand, how many baskets of fragments took ye up? and they said, seven," Mark viii. 19. Where he affirms, that he broke the five loaves among the five thousand, and the seven loaves among the four thousand? which, would not have been true, if the whole five thousand and four thousand men had not partaken of the individual five and seven loaves, but the greatest number of them had been fed with other new formed, or new provided loaves.

Q. 34. There is yet another difficulty; how can the entire body of Christ be contained in the small compass of a consecrated host?

A. The answer to this is the same as in the former case; we know from revelation that it is so; but how it should be so, does not belong to us to inquire. However, we must remember what our Saviour says in the gospel, that, at the resurrection, even our bodies shall become like the angels of God, putting on the properties and qualities of spirits. But spirits are not confined to any magnitude, and, if they should appear to men in a visible form, may do it either in a larger or small size as they please. Now the body of Christ is a glorified body, not existing in the same gross mortal manner that ours are in at present, and, therefore, not confined to shape or size at all. Besides Christ himself expressly affirms, that it is possible with God to make a camel pass through the eye of a needle.

Q. 35. Are not our senses, at least, deceived in this mystery?

A. Not at all. Were the senses of the saints of old deceived when the angels appeared to them as young men? Were the senses of those deceived who saw the Holy Ghost descend upon our Saviour like a dove; or upon the apostles like fiery tongues? Certainly not; for the senses saw what was really there; the appearances and forms of young men in the first case; and the appearance of a dove and of fiery tongues in the latter. So, in the Holy Eucharist, our senses perceive the appearances of bread and wine, and these appearances are really there; consequently they are by no means deceived.

SECTION III.

OF THE HOLY COMMUNION.

Q. 36. WHAT is the holy communion ? A. It is the receiving the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist, for the food and nourishment of our souls.

Q.37. Is it a great happiness to receive this holy sacrament worthily?

A. It certainly is a very great happiness, as appears from the admirable effects which it produces in the soul of the worthy receiver.

Q. 38. What are these effects?

A. They are chiefly these following: (1.) It increases the sanctification of the soul by an increase of justifying grace; rendering the soul of the worthy receiver more pure, more holy, more beautiful, more agreeable in the eyes of God. (2.) It bestows on the soul a copious supply of actual grace, for preserving, strengthening, and perfecting her in her spiritual life, by which she advances in the love of God, and is strengthened in his service, according to the words of our Saviour, "he that eateth me,

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