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lively, and full of fire. His face had nothing pleasing in it. "I am very ugly," said he when a youth; "I can never please the ladies; but I shall at least know how to make myself terrible to the enemies of my king." He rose entirely through his own exertions. At the age of seventeen, he won the prize at a tournament at Rennes, where he had gone against the will and without the knowledge of his father. From this time he was always in arms. After the disastrous battle of Poitiers, in 1356, he came, while king John was yet a prisoner, to give assistance to his eldest son, Charles, who then held the regency. Melun surrendered; those of his party obtained their freedom, and many other towns yielded to him. Charles V, who, in 1364, had succeeded his father, rewarded in a suitable manner the services of Gucsclin, who, in the same year, gained a victory at Cocherel over the king of Navarre. These successes hastened the peace. He next supported Henry, who had assumed the title of king of Castile, against his brother, Peter the Cruel. He deprived this prince of his crown, and secured it to Henry, who rewarded him with a large sum of money, and raised him to the dignity of constable of Castile. Bertrand soon after returned to France, to defend his country against England. The English, hitherto victorious, were now every where beaten. Advanced to the rank of constable of France, he attacked them in Maine and Anjou, and even made their leader prisoner. He brought Poitou and Saintonge under the dominion of France, so that the English retained only Bo deaux, Calais, Cherbourg, Brest and Bayonne. He died in the midst of his triumphs, before Chateau-neuf-de-Randon, July 13, 1380. His body was buried with royal honors, near the tomb which Charles V had designated for himself. France, since hin, has had among her many generals but a single one who can be compared to him,-Turenne. Both were equally brave, modest and generous. Du Guesclin was twice married, but left no children, except a natural son, Michael du Guesclin.

GUEUX (beggars). This title was, in the time of Philip II, under the government of the blood-thirsty duke of Alba, given to the allied noblemen, and the other malcontents in the Netherlands. In 1654, Philip sent nine inquisitors there, to execute the decrees of the council of Trent, and occasioned thereby a great excitement among both Protestants and Catholics. The nobles hound themselves by a compact, known under the name of the

compromise, not to appear before the nine inquisitors, and, in solemn procession, made known their resolution, in 1565, to Margaret, duchess of Parma, then at the head of government. Their declaration was received with contempt. The princess, during the audience, happening to show some embarrassment, the earl of Barlaimont, president of the council of finance, whispered to her that she ought not to manifest any fear of such a mob of beggars (tas de gueux). Some of the confederates overheard this, and, on the evening of the same day, communicated it at meeting of their members, who inmediately drank to the health of the gucur, and agreed thereafter to be called by that name.

GUEVARA, Louis Valez de las Duenes y, a dramatic poet, who, for his wit and humor, deserves to be called the Spanish Scarron, was born at Ecija in Andalusia, in 1574. He applied himself to the study of the law, and lived as a lawyer in Madrid. By his inexhaustible fund of humor, he often excited the laughter of his numerous hearers, and of the judges, even in the most serious causes. It is related of him, that by this means he once saved a criminal from death, and obtained the nequaintance of the king (Philip IV). The monarch, who knew his talent for poetry, induced him to write comedies. (Philip IV himself sometimes wrote pices, which were given to Guevara to revise, and afterwards often exhibited at court.) In this new career Guevara obtained no small success. His pieces deserve, for their excellent delineations of character, and their richness in strokes of ge nuine comic humor, the praise which Lope de Vega has given them. That, however, which especially established the poetical fame of Guevara, was his Diablo Cojuelo, o Memorial de la otra Vida, a romance written with equal elegance and wit; in which the poet describes with great humor and spirit, and lashes with inimitable satire, the manners of his countrymen and life in Madrid. This Spanish romance afforded the idea of Le Sage's fumous Diable Boiteur. It was literally translated into French (by the author of Lectures amusantes), and into Italian. Guevara died at Madrid in January, 1646, at the age of 72, to his last day enjoying the favor of the monarch, and to his last day a warm, and often extravagant admirer of the other sex. Many of his witty sayings have become familiar to the people in his country, and to this day are often heard as proverbs in Spain. There are sev

eral other Spanish poets of the same


GUGLIELMI, Peter, was born in 1727, at Massa Carrara, where his father, Giacomo Guglielmi was chapel-master of the duke of Modena. He studied music with his father until his eighteenth year, and afterwards went to Naples to the conservatorio di Loretto, then under the direction of the celebrated Durante. Guglielmi showed little taste for music, but Durante kept him to the study of counterpoint and of composition. He left the institution in his twenty-eighth year, and immediately began to compose comic and heroic operas for the Italian theatre. In each he was equally successful. He was invited to Vienna, to Madrid, and to London, and returned to Naples about the fiftieth year of his age. Here he made a most brilliant display of his talents. Two masters, Cimarosa and Paesiello had taken possession of the great theatre in Naples, and contended for the palm. He took a noble revenge upon the latter, of whom he had some cause to complain. To every work of his adversary he opposed another, and was always victorious. In 1793, Pius VI named him chapel-master of St. Peter's, which gave him an opportunity of distinguishing himself in sacred music. He has left more than 200 pieces, remarkable for their simple and beautiful airs, for their clear and rich harmony, and for their spirit and originality. He died in 1804, in his 77th year. His son, Peter Charles, is likewise a distinguished composer.

GUIANA; a country of South America. This name was formerly given to the country extending from the Orinoco on the north to the Amazon on the south; but the part called Spanish Guiana now forms a province of Colombia, and Portuguese Guiana now belongs to Brazil. The rest of the country belongs to the English, Dutch and French. English Guiana contains three small colonies, viz. Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice. The principal town is Stabroek. Dutch Guiana, often called Surinam, is watered by the river Surinam. Parimaribo, the capital, is a pleasant town. French Guiana, called also Cayenne, is noted for produring the Cayenne pepper. Cayenne, the capital, is situated on an island. Guiana is of a mild climate for a tropical country. Along the sea-shore, and for a considerable way into the interior, the country is an extensive and uniform plain of unequalled fertility. In the interior, it rises into mountains, which frequently contain. a great variety of mineral sub

stances. Rich and fertile valleys are interspersed throughout these mountainous tracts. These uncultivated parts are covered with immense forests, which are intersected with deep marshes, and by extensive savannas or plains covered with luxuriant herbage. The country is watered by the tributary streams of the Orinoco and the Amazon. Guiana is overspread with the most luxuriant vegetation, abounding in the finest woods, in fruits of every description, and in an infinite variety of both rare and useful plants. Many of the trees grow to the height of 100 feet; they consist of every variety, of such as are valuable for their hardness and durability, as well as of others, which are richly veined, capable of taking the finest polish, and well adapted for all sorts of ornamental furniture; while others yield valuable dyes, or exude balsamic and medicinal oils. The fruit trees are in great variety, and the fruits they yield are of the most exquisite delicacy and flavor. Wild animals and beasts of prey are abundant. These are the jaguar, which is a powerful and ferocious animal; the cougar, or red tiger, resembling a greyhound in shape, but larger in size; the tiger cat; the crabbodago, not much larger than a common cat, and exceedingly ferocious; the coatimondi, or Brazilian weasel; the great ant-bear; the porcupine; the hedgehog; the armadillo; the sloth; the opossum of different kinds; the deer; the hog; the agouti; the lizard; the chameleon. In the rivers are to be found the alligator; the tapir, resemFling the hippopotamus of the old continent, but of much smaller size, not being larger than a small ass, but much more clumsy; the manati, or sea-cow, about 16 feet in length; the paca, or spotted cony; and the pipa, a hideous and deformed animal. Of the serpent tribe there are various species, from the large aboma snake, which grows to the length of 20 and 30 feet, to those of the smallest size. The woods of Guiana are filled with every variety of the feathered species, many of which, there is reason to believe, are but imperfectly known to naturalists. Those most commonly seen are the crested eagle, a very fierce bird, and very strong; the vulture; the owl; the black and white butcher-bird; parrots of different kinds, and of the most brilliant plumage; the toucan; the pelican; the tiger-bird; herons of different kinds; the flamingo; the humming-bird of various species; the plover; the woodpecker · the mocking-bird. The vampire bat is also

found in Guiana, and grows to an enormous size, measuring about 32 inches between the tips of the two wings. It sucks the blood of men and cattle when they are fast asleep. After it is full, it disgorges the blood, and begins to suck afresh, until it reduces the sufferer to a state of great weakness. The rivers of Guiana abound with fish, many of which are highly prized by the inhabitants; and, owing to the heat and moisture of the climate, insects and reptiles of all sorts are produced in such abundance, that the annoyance from this source is inconceivable. These insects are flies, ants, mosquitoes, cockroaches, lizards, jack-spaniards, a large species of wasp, fire-flies, centipedes, &c. The native inhabitants of Guiana are continually receding from the districts which are occupied by the Europeans. They chiefly consist of the following tribes, viz., the Caribbees, the Worrows, the Accawaws, the Arrowauks. From the earliest period, the Dutch colonies in Guiana have been exposed to depredations from fugitive Negroes, who, at different periods, have been driven, by the cruelty of their masters, to take refuge in the woods. At one time, the colony was threatened with destruction from these bands of deserter slaves. As the European troops who were sent against this enemy generally fell a prey to the climate, a corps of manumitted Negroes was formed, by whom the slaves were pursued into the woods; and the colony has been since freed from this source of annoyance. GUIBERT, Jacques-Antoine-Hippolite, count of, was born at Montauban in 1743, educated at Paris, and accompanied his father to Germany, during the seven years' war, at the age of 13. In the battle of Bellinghausen, in 1761, finding that the orders which he carried were rendered unseasonable by a change of circumstances, he had the boldness to alter them, and adapt them to the existing state of affairs. In the Corsican war in 1766, he obtained the cross of St. Louis, and soon after, with the rank of colonel, the chief command of the newly-levied Corsican legion. He employed his leisure hours in literary occupations, and his Essai général de Tactique, précédé d'un Discours sur PÉtat de la Politique et de la Science militaire en Europe (London, 1772), probably written during the German campaigns, attracted the more attention, as at that tine a reform was going on in almost all the armies. He afterwards travelled for military purposes through Germany. His journal, Journal d'un Voyage en Allemagne,

fait en 1773, Ouvrage posthume de Guibert, publié par sa Veuve, et précédé d'une Notice historique sur la Vie de l'Auteur, par Toulongeon, avec Figures (1803), was but a mere sketch for the author's use, but is interesting for its descriptions and anec dotes of celebrated men, especially of Frederic II, whose great character Guibert passionately admired. His tragedies have not retained their place upon the stage. In 1779 appeared his Défense du Système de Guerre moderne. In 1786, he became a member of the French academy. In 1787, he wrote his famous eulogy on Frederic II, one of the most splendid monuments ever raised to the memory of this great king. Guibert's eulogies, among which are one upon Thomas, and another upon l'Espinasse, are among his most finished works. Vigor, fancy, clearness, and a certain artlessness, engage the reader, and cause him to excuse many instances of negligence. Guibert was a field-marshal, and member of the council of war-an office which gave him much trouble. He died in 1790, in the 47th year of his age. He was distinguished for ambition and for activity of spirit.

GUICCIARDINI, Francis, a celebrated historian, was born March 6, 1482, at Florence, where his family was of distinguished rank. He obtained so great a reputation as a jurist, that in his 23d year he was chosen professor of law, and, although he had not yet reached the lawful age, was appointed ambassador to the court of Ferdinand the Catholic, of Spain. When Florence (1512) had lost her liberty through the usurpation of the Medici, he entered the service of that family, which soon availed themselves of his talents. He was invited by Leo X to his court, and intrusted with the government of Modena and Reggio. This office he discharged also under Adrian VI, to the general satisfaction; and afterwards, when Clement VII (de' Medici) ascended the papal chair, Guicciardini was sent, as luogotenente of the pope, to Romagna, then torn by the factions of the Guelfs and Gibelines, and infested by robbers, where, by a severe and upright administration of justice, he soon succeeded in restoring tranquillity. He also contributed here in other ways to the public good, by constructing roads, by erecting public buildings, and by founding useful institutions. Having been appointed lieutenant-general of the pope, he defended Parma with great valor, when besieged by the French (at least he says so in his own history; Angeli, author of a history of Parma, accuses him, on the

contrary, of great cowardice). At a later period, after the death of Giovanni de' Medici, Guicciardini was invited by the Florentines to succeed him in the command of the famous bande nere; but the pope still claimed his services for a time. Having quelled an insurrection in Bologna, he returned, in spite of the instances of the holy father, to his native city, where, in 1534, he began his great work, on the History of Italy, which has since been repeatedly published, and has obtained for him great reputation. It extends from 1490 to 1534. In his retirement he was not without influence on state affairs, and his counsels often restrained the prodigality and the ambition of Alessandro de' Medici, who esteemed him very highly, as did likewise Charles V, whose interests he had promoted in his negotiations at Naples, and who, when his courtiers once complained that he preferred the Florentines to them, answered, "I can make a hundred Spanish grandees in a minute, but I cannot make one Guicciardini in a hundred years." When Alessandro de' Medici was murdered by one of his relations (Lorenzino, 1536), and the Florentines, under the direction of cardinal Cibo, wished to restore the republican constitution, Guicciardini opposed it with all his power, and maintained that to preserve the state from becoming the prey of foreigners or of factions, the monarchical form of government ought to be retained. His eloquence and the force of his arguments triumphed, and Cosmo de' Medici was proclaimed grandduke of Florence. Guicciardini died in 1540, and, according to his own directions, was buried, without pomp, in the church Santa Felicità in Florence. It is related of him,that his love for study was so great,that, like Leibnitz, he often passed two or three days without rest or food. One of his works, which was afterwards translated into French, his Advice on political Subjects, was published in 1525, at Antwerp. The Florentine J. B. Adriani (who died 1579), in his Istoria de' suoi Tempi (new edition, 1823), which may be regarded as a continuation of the work of Guicciardini, has given a good narrative of events between 1536 and 1574. This work was first published after the death of the author in 1583. The reader of Guicciardini is sometimes offended by a want of method. A more important defect, however, Is, that his statements cannot always be depended on as derived from the best sources, so that he must be read with caution. One of the best criticisms on Guicciardini is contained in Leopold Ranke's

Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschreiber (Leipsic and Berlin, 1824). Guicciardini has often been called the Italian Polybius. Of the 20 books of his history, the 4 last are unfinished, and are to be considered only as rough drafts. He is much too prolix, and the satirist Boccalini, in his Ragguagli di Parnaso, makes a Spartan, who has been condemned to read Guicciardini for having used three words when he could have expressed his meaning in two, faint away at the first ser tence. Guicciardini also wrote poems. In the beginning of a poetical epistle, entitled Supplicazione d'Italia al Cristianissimo Re Francesco Primo, he expresses the feeling so commonly exhibited by Italian writers, ever since the time of Dante, in regard to the distracted state of their country. The epistle begins thus :

Italia affitta, nuda e miseranda,

Ch' or de' principi suoi stanca si lagna, A Te, Francesco, questa carta manda. GUIDES; in some armies, persons particularly acquainted with the ground, who serve in the staff, to give the necessary information, and point out the best route for an army. As it is, however, impossible always to have officers of this kind, some armies have geographical engineers attached to the staff, whose particular studies are geography and topography. Napoleon gave the name of guides to his first body of guards, formed after he had been on the point of being surprised and taken prisoner in a castle on the Mincio (see his own account, Las Cases' Mémorial, &c. vol. ii, p. 3, ed. of 1824.)

GUIDO ARETINO. (See Aretino.)

GUIDO RENI; the most charming and graceful painter whom Italy ever produced. His family name was Reni, but he is always called Guido. In fact, many of the old masters are best known by their Christian names. He was born at Bologna, in 1575. His father, Samuel Reni, an excellent musician, at first intended that his son should devote himself to music, for which he showed some talent; but he soon discovered in the boy a greater genius for painting, and had him instructed by the Dutch artist Dionysius Calvaert (q. v.), who was then in high repute at Bologna. In this celebrated school, Guido is said to have studied chiefly the works of Albert Dürer. This becomes probable if we consider some of his earlier works, in which, particularly in the drapery, oc.. casional resemblance may be traced to the style of Albert Dürer. In the mean time, the school of the Caracci, at Bologna, on account of its novelty and superior

taste, began to eclipse the former, and Guido joined it in his 20th year. He soon gave his teachers occasion to admire his talents, and is even said to have excited the jealousy of Annibal Caracci. Guido's desire to behold the treasures of art in Rome, induced him to visit that city, with two of his fellow students, Domenichino and Albani. There he saw some of the paintings of Caravaggio, who was greatly admired for his powerful and expressive (though often coarse and low) manner, which Guido imitated. His rep utation soon spread, and cardinal Borghese employed him to paint a crucifixion of St. Peter for the church Delle Tre Fontane. The powerful manner of this picture, and several others of the same period, which Guido did not, however, long retain, increased his fame; and when, at the cardinal's request, he completed the Aurora, so beautifully engraved by Morghen, the admiration was universal. Paul V, at that time, employed him to embellish a chapel on Monte Cavallo, with scenes from the life of the virgin Mary. Guido accomplished this work to the satisfaction of the pope, and was next intrusted with the painting of another chapel in Santa-Maria-Maggiore. These works were followed by so many orders, that he was unable to execute them all. To this period his Fortuna, and the portraits of Sixtus V and cardinal Spada, may be assigned. Guido's paintings are generally considered as belonging to three different manners and periods. The first comprises those pictures which resemble the manner of the Caracci, and particularly that of Caravaggio. Deep shades, narrow and powerful lights, strong coloring, in short, an effort after great effect, distinguish his works of this first period. The second manner is completely opposed to the first, and was adopted by Guido himself as a contrast to the works of Caravaggio, with whom he was in constant controversy. Its principal features are light coloring, little shade, an agreeable, though often superficial treatment of the subject. It is quite peculiar to Guido. His Aurora forms the transition from the first to the second style of his paintings. A third period commences at the time when Guido worked with too much haste to finish his pieces, and was more intent upon the profits of his labor than upon its fame. It may be distinguished by a greenish gray, and altogether unnatural coloring, and by a general carelessness and weakness. This last manner is particularly remarkable, in the large standard,

with the patron saint of Bologna, and more or less in a number of other paintings of that period. During the government of pope Urban VIII, Guido quarrelled with his treasurer, cardinal Spinola, respecting the price of a picture, and returned to Bologna. There he had already executed his St. Peter and Paul for the house Zampiere, and the Murder of the Innocents for the Dominican church, and was on the point of embellishing the chapel of the saint with his pictures, when he was called back to Rome, loaded with honors, and received by the pope himself in the most gracious manner. But he soon experienced new difficulties, and accepted an invitation to go to Naples. Believing himself unsafe at this place, on account of the hatred of the Neapolitan artists against foreign painters, he returned once more to his native city, never to quit it again. At Bologna, he finished the chapel above mentioned, painted two beautiful pictures for the church Dei Mendicanti, an Ascension of Mary for Genoa, and a number of others for his native city and other places, particularly for Rome. While in Rome, Guido had established a school. In Bologna, the number of his pupils amounted to 200. He now worked mostly in haste, accustomed himself to an unfinished, affected style, became negligent, had many things executed by his pupils, and sold them, after having retouched them, as his own works; and all this merely to satisfy his unfortunate passion for gambling. He often sold his paintings at any price, and became involved in pecuniary embarrassments, which were the cause of his death, in 1642. If we analyze Guido's productions, we find his drawing not always correct, rarely powerful and grand, his attitudes without much selection, sometimes not even natural. Yet his drawing has a grace peculiar to him, a loveliness consisting rather in the treatment of the whole, than in the execution of the parts. This grace and loveliness are often to be found only in his heads. His ideas are generally common, the distribution of the whole rarely good; hence his larger works have not a pleasing effect, and are not so much valued as his smaller works, particularly his half-lengths, of which he painted a great number. The disposition of his drapery is generally easy and beautiful, but often not in harmony with the whole piece, and with the nature of the substance which it is intended to represent. An elevated, varied, dis tinct expression is not to be looked for in his works. For this reason, he rarely

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