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ed his degree at Harvard college in 1725. His first occupation in Boston was that of an assistant in the public grammar school, in which capacity he continued for several years, during which he studied theology, and occasionally preached. He afterwards devoted himself to the law, in which profession he became eminent. Soon after he was admitted to the bar, he instituted a weekly newspaper, called the Rehearsal. The first number was published September 29, 1731. In this journal he wrote articles, literary and political, for a year, when the increase of his professional business obliged him to relinquish it. His writings exhibit ingenuity and originality, fervor and energy. Having been elected a member from Brookline of the general court of the province, he became a decided opponent of the measures of the ministry, and manifested a warm attachment to liberal principles. He was, nevertheless, appointed attorney-general of the province of Massachusetts Bay, and, in that capacity, was obliged to perform the unpleasant duty of defending the obnoxious writs of assistance. The celebrated James Otis, who had been a student in his office, was his opponent, and wholly confuted him. He died in Boston, September 7, 1767, aged about 62 years. Mr. Gridley was a man of a high, elevated and ardent spirit, always more anxious for fame than for wealth.

GRIES, John Dietrich, a German scholar, the translator of Tasso, Ariosto and Calderon, was born February 7, 1775, in Hamburg, where his father was a senator. Against his own wish, he was intended for a merchant, but, in his 17th year, obtained permission to follow his inclination for study. He studied at Jena in 1795, and was favorably noticed by the leading belleslettres scholars of that time in Germany -A. W. Schlegel, Gothe, Wieland and Schiller--whose intimate friend he remained. He first studied law; but various circumstances, among them an increasing deafness, determined him to devote himself entirely to poetry. Several of his poems were published in periodicals; but he gained celebrity chiefly by his translation of Tasso, the first in the German language in the metre of the original. Three editions of this translation have been already published. The translation of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso appeared in 1804-1808. He also undertook to translate Bojardo's Orlando Innamorato; but the great length of this poem induced him to abandon the attempt, after having published 12 cantos. Since 1815, he has published 6 volumes

of the translation of Calderon. Gries lives at present in Jena.

GRIESBACH, John James (died in 1812), first professor of theology at Jena, acquir ed a permanent reputation by his critical edition of the New Testament, and by the education of several thousand youth Born at Butzbach in Hesse-Darmstadt, ir 1745, he removed, while a child, to Frankfort on the Maine, where his father, a preacher and consistorial counsellor, died in 1777. He received his first instruction at the gymnasium of Frankfort, and removed to the university of Tübingen in 1762. In 1764, he went to Halle, and afterwards spent a year at Leipsic. Ecclesiastical history was the subject of his studies, in which Ernesti, at Leipsic, aided him with books and advice. He next undertook, at Halle, an extensive course of preliminary studies to the criticism of the New Testament and dogmatic history. Having resolved to devote himself altogether to the criticism of the text of the New Testament, he undertook, in 1769 and 1770, a literary journey through Germany, England, Holland and France. The following winter he devoted, in his native city, to the elaboration of his materials; and, in 1771, appeared as a lecturer in Halle, with such applause, in consequence of his celebrated treatise on the criticisms of Origen on the Gospels, that, two years after, he was appointed professor. He now pursued, with indefatigable industry, his plan of an edition of the New Testament. Having received an appointment to a regular professorship of theology at Jena, he published a synopsis of the Gospels. This was soon followed by the first edition of the whole Testament. Its peculiarity is, that it does not merely consider the accepted or rejected readings, but the different degrees of probability for or against them are determined and represented by intelligible marks in the margin It is to be lamented that he could not finish, as he had intended, the complete edition, which was begun in 1796, and appeared simultaneously at Halle and London. He was, however, incessantly employed on it till his death, and lived to see the superb edition, published by Göschen, finished. Gabler has edited Griesbach's Opuscula Academica (Jena, 1824., 2 vols.).

GRIFFIN, OF GRYPHON (you); a fabulous monster of antiquity, commonly represented with the body, the feet and claws of a lion, the head and wings of an eagle, the ears of a horse, and, instead of a mane, a comb of fishes' fins: the back was covered with feathers. Elian says that its

back was covered with black feathers, its breast with red, and its wings with white. Ctesias gives him blue and shining neck feathers, the beak of an eagle, and fiery eyes. Later writers add other particulars. According to the book De Rerum Natura, it is larger than an eagle, has on its fore feet large claws, like those of an eagle, and others on its hind feet, like those of a lion; and it lays an agate in its nest. Drinking cups are made from its talons. The griffin is so strong, says Ctesias, that he conquers all beasts, the lion and elephant only excepted. India was assigned as the native country of the griffins, and it was believed that they built their nests on the mountains; that they could be easily caught and tamed when young, but never when full grown; that they found gold in the mountains, and built their nests of it; or, according to other accounts, that they feared those who sought for gold in the mountains, and defended their young against their attacks. Böttiger, in his Vasengemälde, has given much information concerning the origin of this fabulous animal. He maintains that this and similar monsters are merely the creation of Indian tapestry-makers, who, from the most ancient times, employed themselves on strange compositions of mythological Deasts. The Greeks, who saw this kind of tapestry at the court of the king of Persia, thought that the animals depicted on it were really inhabitants of India, so rich in wonders, and they spread the report. So much is certain, that the notion of this bird came from Asia into Greece in the train of Bacchus. He was, therefore, the symbol of illumination and wisdom.

GRILLPARZER, Francis, born in 1790, lives, at present, in Vienna, where he has an office at court. In 1816, he attracted the attention of the public. As Müllner was led by Werner's 24th of February to write his Schuld (Guilt), Grillparzer was probably excited by the Schuld to write his Ahnfrau (Ancestress)-a piece still more decidedly belonging to the fatalist school. It is full of horrors; but the poetical language, the highly lyric power displayed in his descriptions, and the novelty of the school of the fatalists, kept this play a long time on the stage. The young poet pubfished, in 1818, his Sappho, and, in 1822, the Golden Fleece, in both of which the yric language is the chief merit. In a subsequent piece (Ottokar), he has wisely hosen a subject comparatively modern; it breathes a more dramatic spirit than his earlier productions. It appeared in 1824.

GRIMALDI (family); one of the four families of the high' nobiky in Genoa. The lordship of Monaco (afterwards elevated to a principality) belonged, for more than 600 years (beginning with 980), to the Grimaldi. With the Fiescos, they always played an important part in the history of Genoa, especially in the disputes between the Gibelines and the Guelfs, to which latter party both families belonged. Large estates in the kingdom of Naples, in France and Italy, increased the influence of the Grimaldi, from whom proceeded several eminent men:-1. Ranieri Grimaldi was the first Genoese who conducted the naval forces of the republic beyond the straits of Gibraltar. În the service of Philip the Fair of France, Grimaldi sailed to Zealand in 1304, with 16 Genoese galleys and 20 French ships under his command. He there defeated and made prisoner the count Guy of Flanders, who commanded the enemy's fleet of 80 sail.--2. Antonio Grimaldi, likewise, distinguished himself in the naval service in the first half of the 14th century. The Catalonians had committed hostilities against Genoa, which city had been prevented by internal discord from punishing the of fence. But when a more favorable moment arrived, Antonio received the command of the fleet, with the commission to devastate the coasts of Catalonia. This commission the Genoese performed but too faithfully. He also defeated an Arragonese fleet of 42 sail. Twenty-one years after, he suffered such a defeat from the combined Venetian and Catalonian fleets, under the command of Nicolas Pisani, that, of the whole Genoese fleet, only 17 vessels escaped. This defeat (29th of August, 1353) obliged the Genoese to submit to John Visconti, lord of Milan, who promised them protection against their enemies, the Venetians.-3. Giovanni Grimaldi is celebrated for the victory which he gained, May 23, 1431, over the Venetian admiral, Nic. Travisani, on the Po, although Carmagnola, the most distinguished general of his time, was ready to support the Venetians, with a considerable army, on the banks of the river. By an able manœuvre, Grimaldi separated the Venetian fleet from the bank, where the army was stationed (three miles below Cremona), and thus succeeded, not only in utterly defeating the enemy, but in taking 28 galleys and a great number of transports, with immense spoils.-4. Domenico Grimaldi, cardinal, archbishop and vice-legate of Avignon, lived in the 16tr century. Before he obtained these high

dignities, Pius V intrusted to him the supervision of the galleys of the States of the Church, and Grimaldi, though already bishop, was present at the naval battle of Lepanto (1571), on which occasion he is said to have distinguished himself by his courage. The annals of the Roman church also relate of this warlike prelate, that he succeeded in totally extirpating the poison of heresy from his diocese. He died in 1592, and left behind a volume of letters relative to the events in which he had been engaged.-5. His nephew Geronimo Grimaldi, born at Genoa in 1597, was appointed, in his 28th year, vicelegate of Romagna, and afterwards bishop of Albano and governor of Rome. Urban VIII sent him as nuncio to Germany and France; and the services which he rendered the Roman court were rewarded, in 1643, by a cardinal's hat. After the death of Urban, Grimaldi, from gratitude, protected his family, and thus incurred the displeasure of Innocent, who refused, during his whole life, to sign the bull, constituting Grimaldi archbishop of Aix. Not till Alexander VII succeeded Innocent, was he able to enter on his new office (1655). He endeavored to reform the manners of the clergy of his diocese, for which purpose he established an ecclesiastical seminary; he likewise founded an hospital for the poor, and annually distributed 100,000 livres of his vast property in alms. He contributed much to the election of Innocent XI, whose virtues he revered. Although he was subsequently appointed dean of the holy college in Rome, he could not resolve to abandon the congregation intrusted to Itim. He died at Aix, in 1685, 90 years of age.-6. Nicholas Grimaldi, born in 1645, was invested with the Roman purple by Clement XI, in 1706. He died in 1717, leaving immense wealth.-7. Another Geronimo, born in 1674, was honored with a cardinal's hat. He had previously been the nuncio of the Roman court at Avignon, and afterwards at Brussels, in Poland and Germany. He was subsequently appointed cardinal legate of Bologna. He died in 1733.-Besides these Grimaldis, we find others of this name, conspicuous in science and art.-1. Giacomo, a writer of the 16th century, whom Tiraboschi mentions with great praise. He was born at Bologna, embraced the clerical profession, and, as superintendent of the archives of the church of St. Peter in Rome, rendered an important service by arranging the whole of this valua'ble collection. He also attempted to

explain the ancient inscriptions, discovered during the pontificate of Paul V, by illus trative remarks. A list of his antiquarian and philological writings may be found in the 4th volume of Scriptor. Bolognesi. He died in 1623.-2. Giovanni Francesco, called Bolognese, from his having been born in that city, lived in the 17th century, and was an eminent painter, architect and engraver. In the first mentioned art, he took the Carracci for his model; he also studied some time with Albano. Having been invited to Paris by cardinal Mazarin, he painted several frescos in the Louvre. As an architect, he was no less distinguished; and his engravings are highly esteemed. Innocent X employed him to execute the frescos in the Vatican and the Quirinal. Several of his best paintings are to be found in the church Sta. Maria del Monte in Rome; the museum at Paris also contains some of his best productions. He died in 1680, 74 years of age. Alexander, a son of his, is likewise known as a painter.-3. Francesco Maria, a Jesuit, was born in Bologna in 1613, and was distinguished as a mathematician. He assisted Riccioli in his mathematical la bors, and afterwards published a work on the spots on the moon. He also wrote Physico-mathesis de Lumine Coloribus et Iride, aliisque annexis (Bologna, 1665, 4to.). This learned Jesuit died in his native city, in 1663.-4. Francesco, who likewise lived in the 17th century, and was born in the kingdom of Naples, joined the Jesuits, and is distinguished as a Latin poet. We have several bucolic and dramatic poems from him, which evince his talents. He died while professor of rhetoric in the college of the Jesuits, in Rome, in 1738, about 60 years of age. −5. Peter Grimaldi, likewise a Jesuit, was born in Civita-Vecchia, lived in the 18th century, and was, for a long time, a missionary in the East Indies. There is a story of him, that, on his return to Europe, he invented a machine, by means of which (1751) he passed through the air from Calais to Dover in an hour. It is mentioned by Pingeron, in his translation of the work of Milizia, and by Fontenai, in his Dictionnaire des Artistes. Since they give no more explicit account of the affair, and as this previous experiment is not quoted in the treatises that appeared at the time of the invention of the air-balloon (1784), we must entertain some doubt of the truth of the aerial journey ascribed to Peter Grimaldi.-6. Constantine, born at Naples, in 1667, died there in 1750, was a jurist, and was distinguished

for his knowledge of history, medicine and theology. He is, however, principally known for his controversy with Benedictis, a blind advocate of the philosophy of Aristotle, who was then publishing his Lettere apologetiche, in which he made a furious attack on Descartes and his followers. Grimaldi defended the Cartesians, and, in a severe reply, reduced the father ad absurdum.-7. Francesco Antonio (who died in Naples in 1784) was the author of some good historical works on Naples, and the constitution of that country.

GRIMM, Frederic Melchior, baron of; counsellor of state of the Russian empire, grand cross of the order of Wladimir; a man of letters, whose great reputation has arisen from posthumous publications. He was born in 1723, at Ratisbon, of poor parents, who, however, bestowed on him a good education. His taste for literature manifested itself in his youth, when he wrote a tragedy. Having finished his studies, he went to Paris as governor to the children of the count of Schomberg. Soon after, he was appointed reader to the duke of Saxe-Gotha. At this period, he became acquainted with Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who introduced him to Diderot, D'Alembert, D'Holbach, and other Parisian philosophers; a piece of service which, according to Jean-Jacques (Confessions, 8), he repaid with ingratitude. The count de Friese made him his secretary, with appointments which rendered his circumstances agreeable, and left him at liberty to pursue his inclinations. His vanity induced him to give himself the airs of a man of gallantry; and, as he attempted to repair the ravages of time by means of cosmetics, the Parisians bestowed on him the sobriquet of tyran le Blanc. The arrival of a company of Italian bouffons in Paris having divided all the musical connoisseurs into two parties, Grimm declared for the Italian music, and was at the head of the coin de la reine, a party so called because they used to sit in the pit, under the queen's box, whilst the friends of Rameau and the French music formed the coin du roi. Grimm wrote on this occasion a pamphlet, full of wit and taste, Le petit Prophete de Bömischbroda, and, when his adversaries attempted to answer it, completely confuted them by his Lettre sur la Musique Française. These pamphlets irritated so many persons against him, that they talked of exile, the Bastile, &c.; but when the excitement had subsided, he obtained a general applause. On the death of the count de Frièse, Grimm was nominated principal secretary to the

duke of Orleans. The fame of the French literati, with whom he was connected, led to his being employed, in conjunction with Diderot, to transmit to the duke of Saxe-Gotha an account of the writings, friendships, disputes, &c., of the authors of that period. Copies of this curious correspondence were also sent to the empress Catharine II, the queen of Sweden, Stanislaus, king of Poland, the duke of Deux-Ponts, the prince and princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, &c. Frederic the Great gave him marks of great esteem. In 1776, he was appointed envoy from the duke of Saxe-Gotha to the French court, honored with the title of baron, and with several orders. On the revolution breaking out, he retired to the court of Gotha, where he found a safe asylum. In 1795, the empress of Russia made him her minister plenipotentiary to the states of Lower Saxony; and he was confirmed in that post by Paul I, and retained it till ill health obliged him to relinquish it. He then returned to Gotha, and died there, Dec. 19, 1807. His grand work was published in different portions successively, under the following titlesCorrespondance Littéraire, Philosophique et Critique, adressée à un Souverain d'Allemagne, depuis 1770, jusqu'en 1782, par le Baron de Grimm et par Diderot (Paris, 1812, 5 vols., 8vo.); Correspondance Litté raire, &c. en 1775, 1776, 1782-—1790, (troisième et dernière Partie, 1813, 5 vols., 8vo.); and Correspondance Littéraire, &c. depuis 1753, jusqu'en 1760, (première Partie, 6 vols., 8vo.). A selection from this voluminous mass of literary_gossip was published in 4 vols., 8vo., in French and English.

GRIMM, James Lewis Charles; born in Hanau, 1785; at present librarian of the elector of Hesse-Cassel. By his German Grammar (2d ed., Göttingen, 1822), he has rendered great service to German philology. He was the first who explained historically the elements and developement of the Teutonic dialects. This work is highly distinguished for acuteness of investigation and extensive learning showing an intimate acquaintance with the European and Asiatic languages. With his brother William Charles, he has published several valuable collections of the productions of the early German literature. A part of his Kinder und Hausmärchen-Nursery Tales (Berlin, 18121814, 2 vols., 12mo.)—has been translated under the title German Popular Stories. A third brother, L. Emilius, is an engraver and has produced some valuable pieces.


Balthasar Laurent, the most witty epicure of modern France, member of the Arcadians in Rome, and of several learned societies, born at Paris, 1758, was the son of a farmer-general. A defect in the formation of his hands obliges him to use artificial fingers, with which he draws, writes and carves with great dexterity. Till 1780 he was an advocate; but a bitter satire, of which he was the author, having caused him to be exiled, he subsequently devoted himself entirely to literature, passing his time in literary clubs, in the foyer of the theatres, &c. This eccentric character, in the splendid circle of his parents, used to make himself merry at the pride of rank of the noble world. He gave a celebrated banquet, to which no one was admitted who could not prove himself a bourgeois. Another time he invited to his house some persons of rank, and received them in a room hung with black, where a coffin was placed behind each of them. His epicurism equals that of Apicius or Vitellius. He lived peaceably through the revolution. In the beginning of Napoleon's reign, he became known throughout Europe by his witty Almanach des Gourmands, which he dedicated to the cook of Cambacérès (from 1803 to 1812, 8 vols., 18mo.). For the parvenus, who do not know how to use their wealth, he wrote, in 1808, Le Manuel des Amphitryons. His zeal in promoting the science of the palate, as Montaigne terms it, led him to form a jury of epicures (dégustateurs), who held a monthly session in the Rocher de Cancale, at a select table, where judgment was passed with black and white balls, on a juicy salmi or a fine blanc-manger, with all the solemnity of the Roman senate of yore, in the well known turbot session. Since 1814, Grimod has lived in the country, but without neglecting his literary pursuits. (See Cookery.)

GRISELDA; the ever-patient wife of the marquis di Saluzzo, the subject of the tenth novella in the tenth giornata of Boccaccio's Decameron. The marquis's beau idéal of a wife was a woman of all-enduring patience. He chooses Griselda, the daughter of one of his tenants, ill-treats her in a variety of ways, takes away her two sons, and makes her believe that they are killed. At last he turns her out of doors in her shift, and celebrates a marriage with a noble lady. But finding that Griselda endures every thing patiently, he takes her back, restores her two sons, and treats her as marchioness. No one can suppose that Griselda is held up as a

model. One might as well have a wax image for a wife. This subject has been treated by poets of many other nations: for instance, by Chaucer. Griselda is, therefore, not unfrequently used to designate a woman whose patience is trial-proof.

GRISETTE (French); originally a dress of coarse gray cloth, worn by the females of the lower classes; hence it is used for the females themselves, and is generally used to signify a belle of the lower classes. In the language of the theatre, grisette signifies an intriguing young girl, of the class of soubrettes.


GRISONS, THE (Graubündten); the Upper Rhætia of the ancients; since 1788 a canton of the Swiss confederacy. It is the largest in the confederacy, containing 3000 square miles, with 75,000 inhabitants, and is bounded N. by Glarus, St. Gall and the Vorarlberg; E. by the Tyrol; S. by the Valteline, Milan and the canton Ticino; W. by Uri. The Grison Alps rise 11,000 feet above the level of the sea; the line of perpetual snow is from 8200 to 8400 feet; they contain 241 glaciers and 56 waterfalls. The Inn and the Rhine have their sources here. lowest point of the populous valley Engadin, at Martinsbruck, is 3234 feet above the level of the sea; the highest village is situated at an elevation of 5600 feet. The varieties of climate are, therefore, very striking in the Grisons. The country is divided into five great valleys:-1. The valley of the posterior Rhine, which includes the Rheinwald, and the valleys of the Schamser, the Via Mala and the Domlesch. The latter is formed by the posterior Rhine, is the mildest district in the Grisons, and contains 22 villages, in which the Romansh, a mixture of Latin, German and Italian, is spoken. The Schamser-Valley contains 9 villages, and is about 7 miles long. Between this and the Rheinwald is the terrible Via Mala, which is formed by the posterior Rhine. In this and in the Rheinwald, the winters last 9 months, on account of their elevated situation. Two formidable roads lead to Italy, one over the Splugen, the other over the St. Bernard. The former was passed, in 1800, by the French, under Macdonald. Lecourbe, with a considerable corps, ventured to enter the latter in 1797.--2. The second valley is that of the anterior Rhine, which extends from the western frontier and the St. Gothard to Coire and Luciensteig. Here are the most interesting points-the old Benedictine abbey Disentis, whose literary treasures and buildings were destroyed, in 1799, by the French;

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