Images de page

15, 1804), the duke D'Enghien was seized in the territories of Baden. Gustavus immediately sent his aid-de-camp to Paris, with a letter to Bonaparte, for the purpose of saving the duke, who, however, was shot before the letter was received. Gustavus sent a remonstrance to Ratisbon, on this subject, and was, excepting Alexander I, the only sovereign who openly expressed his indignation at this deed. His rupture with France, his alliance with Great Britain and Russia, and his coolness towards the king of Prussia, to whom he sent back the black eagle, because it had been bestowed on Napoleon, were the consequence of his hatred of the new emperor of France. It having been calculated that the number 666 was contained in the name of Napoleon Bonaparte, Gustavus believed him to be the beast described in the Revelations, whose reign was to be short, and for whose destruction he was called! His ambassador delivered to the German diet of 1806 a declaration of the king, that he would take no part in its transactions, so long as its acts were under the influence of usurpation; he also rejected the offers of peace made by Napoleon a short time before the peace of Tilsit; and, July 3, 1807, broke the truce with France, and even refused the mediation of Russia and Prussia, after the peace of Tilsit. He returned the Russian order of St. Andrew, as he had formerly the Prussian order of the eagle, and, by his adherence to England, plunged his people into a disadvantageous war with Russia, and became anew the enemy of Prussia, and then of Denmark. Finland was lost, and a Danish army threatened the frontiers of Sweden. Deaf to all solicitations to conclude a peace, he alienated the nobility and the army by his caprices, and exasperated the nation by the weight of the taxes. Having finally provoked the enmity of England, by seizing the English ships in the Swedish ports, when that power endeavored to bring him to reason, it appeared plain to every one, that he was ready to sacrifice the welfare of his people to his passions. A plot was secretly formed against him; the western army, assured that the Danes would not pass the frontiers, took up its line of march to Stockholm, where the principal conspirators were plotting in the immediate presence of Gustavus. It was only 70 miles from the capital when Gustavus heard of its approach. He hastened from Haga, where he was residing with his family, to Stockholm, to defend his capital against the rebels. But he altered his

plan, and determined to go to Linkoping with the troops which were in Stockholm. He was about to remove the bank from the capital, but first required it to advance him $2,000,000, or the greatest sum which could be raised. The commissaries refused to comply; Gustavus showed an intention to use force; upon which it was resolved to anticipate him. Such was the situation of affairs on the evening of March 12, 1809. The king spent that night in preparing every thing for his departure, and the moment arrived when he was to take the money from the bank. Three doors of the palace were already secured, and all the officers were assembled, as it was the usual day of parade. Field-marshal Klingspor and general Adlerkreuz, however, once more attempted the effect of conciliatory propositions, when Gustavus highly offended them by his insulting manner. Adlerkreuz then called the marshal Silbersparre and five adjutants, demanded of the king his sword, and declared him a prisoner in the name of the nation. Gustavus attempted to strike him with his sword, but it was wrested from him. Upon his cry for help, some of his faithful followers forced the doors; but they were overpowered by 30 of the conspirators, who rushed in upon them. During this struggle, Gustavus escaped, but was seized upon the stairs and brought back to his chamber by one of his servants, where he broke out into an ungovernable fit of rage. All the entrances of the castle were closely guarded. noon, Charles, duke of Sudermannland, published a proclamation, declaring that he had taken the government into his own hands. The revolution was completed in a few hours. Gustavus now submitted quietly. Perhaps his religious enthusiasm was the cause of his present state of mind. At one o'clock at night, he was carried to Drotningholm. His wife and children were obliged to remain in Haga. March 24, he was removed to Gripsholm, his favorite place of residence. Here he published (March 29) an act of abdication, expecting the final sentence of the diet, which, on its first session (May 10), solemnly renounced their allegiance to him, and declared the heirs of his body for ever incapable of succeeding to the Swedish throne. Thereupon a formal act was prepared. The dethroned king occupied himself at Gripsholm, principally in studying the Revelation of John. He wished to leave Sweden. The estates, on the proposition of the new king, Charles XIII, settled on him an annual pension for


himself and family. His private property, as well as that of his wife and son, was also left him. He did not occupy the place of residence assigned to him in the island of Wisings-Oe, but (Dec. 6, 1809) went from Gripsholm to Germany and Switzerland, where he lived under the title of count of Gottorp. He has since separated from his wife and children; and his marriage was, on the 17th of February, 1812, at his own request, annulled. The same year, he also desired to be admitted among the Moravian Brothers at Herrnhut. Since his separation from his wife, he has been accustomed to wear the mystical religious badge of the order of St. John. He afterwards made several tours without any definite object, visited St. Petersburg, and, in 1811, London. In December, 1814, he was making preparations at Bale for a visit to Jerusalem. In 1815, he presented a declaration to the congress of Vienna, asserting the claims of his son to the Swedish throne. He finally assumed the name of Gustavson, and visited Leipsic, in 1827, as a private individual. His son Gustavus, who was born in 1799, studied in Lausanne and Edinburgh, was present at Vienna and Verona at the time of the congress in 1822, and in 1825 entered the Austrian service, as lieutenant-colonel of the imperial Hulans. He lives at Vienna, and enjoys the title of royal highness. He has three sisters, carefully educated by their excellent mother (who died in 1826). The eldest was married, in 1819, to Leopold of Hochberg, margrave of Baden.

GUSTO; an Italian word signifying taste. It often occurs in music; as, con gusto, with taste.

GUT, in the West India islands, particularly in the island of St. Christopher's, or St. Kitt's, is a term for the opening of a river or brook, such river or brook also being often so called.

GUTS-MUTHS, John Christian Frederic, born in Quedlinburg, 1760, was the first German author who wrote extensively on the various exercises included in the modern gymnastics. Guts-Muths was, for a long time, a teacher in the institution of Salzmann, at Schnepfenthal. He wrote several works on gymnastics. His latest is the Turnbuch (Frankfort on the Maine, 1818), in which he adopted many exercises, as also the name of the book, from that of Jahn (q. v.), as the latter had also adopted many things from him. He wrote, too, a Geography (2 vols., 18101813), and edited a Bibliothek der padagogischen Literatur-Library of Works on Education (1800-1820, 55 vols.) Guts

Muths lives, at present, near Schnepfenthal.

Gutta SerenA. (See Cataract.) GUTTENBERG, more properly GUTENBERG, John, or Henne Gänsefleisch von Sorgenloch (Sulgeloch), usually called the inventor of printing, was born at Mentz, about 1400. The family of Gutenberg called itself noble. In 1424, Gutenberg was living in Strasburg, and, in 1436, entered into a contract with one Andrew Dryzehn (Dritzehn) and others, binding himself to teach them all his secret and wonderful arts, and to employ them for their common advantage. The death of Dryzehn, which happened soon after, frustrated the undertaking of the company, who had probably intended to commence the art of printing; especially as George Dryzehn, a brother of the deceased, engaged in a lawsuit with Gutenberg, which turned out to the disadvantage of the latter. When and where the first attempts were made at printing cannot be fully decided, as Gutenberg never attached either name or date to the works he printed. This, however, is certain, that, about 1438, Gutenberg made use of movable types of wood. In 1443, he returned from Strasburg, where he had hitherto lived, to Mentz, and, in 1450, formed a copartnership with Jolin Faust, or Fust, a rich goldsmith of this city (who must not be confounded with the famous magician Faust), who furnished money to establish a press, in which the Latin Bible was first printed. But, after some years, this connexion was dissolved. Faust had made large advances, which Gutenberg ought to have repaid; and, as he either could not or would not do it, the subject was carried before the tribunals. The result was, that Faust retained the press, which he improved and continued to use in company with Peter Schöffer of Gernsheim. By the patronage of a counsellor of Mentz, Conrad Hummer, Gutenberg was again enabled to establish a press the following year, when he probably printed Hermanni de Saldis Speculum Sacerdotum (in quarto), without the date or the printer's name. Here, likewise, as some maintain, appeared four editions of the Donat (Latin grammar of Donatus), which others, however, ascribe to the office of Faust and Schöffer. In 1457, the Psalter was printed with a typographical elegance which sufficiently proves the rapid advances of the new art, and the diligence with which it was cultivated. Gutenberg's printing-office remained in Mentz till 1465. About this time, he was ennobled by Adolphus of

Nassau, and died Feb. 24, 1468. Little is known of his life and works, or of the early progress of the art of printing, and the introduction of movable types. Valuable statements and suggestions on this subject are to be found in Fischer's Versuch zur erklärung alter typographischen Merkwürdigkeiten (Hamburg, 1740); Oberlin's Beiträge zur Geschichte Gutenberg (Strasburg, 1801); and in the works of Denis, Lichtenberger, Panzer, and many other writers.

GUTTURAL (from the Latin guttur, the throat) signifies, in grammar, a sound produced chiefly by the back parts of the cavity of the mouth. The palatals g and k are nearly related to them. The Greek X, the German ch after a, and ch after i, and the Dutch g, are gutturals. The Arabian language is full of gutturals, and many of them are unknown in most other languages. (See the article H, for the relation between g and the guttural sound of the German ch or the Greek x.) The modern Greek gives to x a very strong guttural sound, like that of the German ch after e and after a. The Irish r is a true guttural. The French nasal sound, as in long, is a true guttural; the English sound in long not so much, as it is less nasal. The Spanish ʼn has been called, by some, a nasalguttural. The roughness of the dialect of Switzerland is owing to its strong and numerous gutturals; for it not only pronounces all the gutturals of the German language very forcibly, but also gives to g, in many cases, the harsh guttural sound of ch after a.

GUY; a rope used to keep steady any weighty body from bearing or falling against the ship's side while it is hoisting or lowering, particularly when the ship is shaken by a tempestuous sea. ea.-Guy is also the name of a tackle, used to confine a boom forward when a vessel is going large, and to prevent the sail from shifting by any accidental change of the wind or course, which would endanger the springing of the boom, or perhaps the upsetting of the vessel.-Guy is likewise a large slack rope, extending from the head of the main-mast to the head of the fore-mast, and having two or three large blocks fastened to it. It is used to sustain a tackle to load or unload a ship with, and is accordingly removed as soon as that operation is finished.

GUY, Thomas, the founder of Guy's hospital, was the son of a lighterman in Southwark, and born in 1644. He was brought up a bookseller. He dealt largely in the importation of Bibles from Holland,

and afterwards contracted with Oxford for those printed at that university; but his principal gains arose from the disreputable purchase of seamen's prize tickets, in queen Anne's war, and from his dealings in South sea stock, in 1720. By these speculations and practices, aided by the most penurious habits, he amassed a fortune of nearly half a million sterling, of which he spent about £200,000 in the building and endowing his hospital in Southwark. He also erected almshouses at Tamworth, and benefited Christ's hospital and various other charities, leaving £80,000 to be divided among those who could prove any degree of relationship to him. He died in December, 1724, in his 81st year, after having dedicated more to charitable purposes than any private man in English record.

GUY DE CHAULIAC (Guido de Cauliaco), a native of Chauliac, on the frontier of Auvergne, France, lived in the middle of the 14th century, and was the physician of three popes. He is to be considered as the reformer of surgery in his time. His Chirurgia magna contains most of the opinions of his predecessors. It was long considered as a classical text book; was finished at Avignon in 1363; and was printed at Bergamo (1498, folio). older edition is mentioned (Venice, 1470, folio). It has been often reprinted, commented on, and translated into modern languages.


GUY FAWKES. (See Gunpowder Plot.) GUY'S HOSPITAL, in the borough of London. (See Guy.) The hospital was established for 400 sick persons, besides 20 incurable lunatics. It contains 13 wards, and upwards of 400 beds. There are three physicians, three surgeons, and an apothecary. The average number of patients admitted annually is about 2250, besides whom there are 20,000 out-patients. This hospital has a collection of anatomical preparations, and a theatre for the delivery of chemical, medical and anatomical lectures. On one evening in the week, medical subjects are debated.

GUYON, Madame. (See Quietism.)

GUYS, Pierre Augustin; born at Marseilles, 1721; a merchant in Constantinople, and afterwards in Smyrna; known for his travels and his accounts of them. He subsequently became a member of the institute, and of the academy of Arcadians in Rome. His first work appeared in 1744, and contained an account of his journey from Constantinople to Sophia, the capital of Bulgaria, in a series of letters, In 1748, he published, in the form of let

ters, an account of his journey from Marseilles to Smyrna, and thence to Constantinople. He was mostly indebted, for his literary fame, to his Voyage littéraire de la Grèce, a work in which he compares and contrasts, with much acuteness and truth, the condition of ancient and modern Greece, and their political and civil constitution. Guys also made himself known as a poet, by his Seasons, on the occasion of his journey to Naples, which was received with much applause. On the publication of his Voyage de la Grèce, Voltaire addressed some very flattering verses to him, and the Greeks conferred on him the privileges of an Athenian citizen. Guys died at Zante, in 1799, at the age of 79, as he was collecting materials for the third edition of his travels in Greece.-His son, Pierre Alphonse, was appointed secretary of the French embassy to Constantinople, to Vienna, and to Lisbon; afterwards consul in Sardinia; then at Tripoli in Africa; and, finally, at Tripoli in Syria, where he died in 1812. He published letters on the Turks, in which he treats of the rise and decay of their power. He was also the author of the comedy La Maison de Molière, in four acts, altered from Goldoni.

GWINNETT, Button, one of the signers of the declaration of independence, was born in England, about the year 1732, and, in 1770, emigrated to Charleston, S. C., where he continued the business of a merchant, in which he had been previously engaged. At the end of two years, however, he abandoned commerce; and, purchasing a plantation with a number of negroes, on St. Catharine's island, in Georgia, devoted his attention to agriculture. Soon after the revolutionary struggle commenced, he took an active part in the affairs of Georgia; and, Feb. 2, 1776, the general assembly of the province elected him a representative to the general congress held at Philadelphia, where he appeared May 20. He was reelected October 9, and, in February, 1777, was appointed a member of a convention for the purpose of framing a constitution for the state; and the foundation of that afterwards adopted, is said to have been furnished by him. He was soon chosen president of the provincial council; but his conduct in this station was obnoxious to censure, as he employed his powers for the purpose of thwarting the operations of general McIntosh, against whom he nad a personal enmity, in consequence of the latter having succeeded in obtaining the post of brigadier-general of a continental brigade, to be levied in Georgia, for

which Gwinnett himself had been a candidate. In May, 1777, Gwinnett was a candidate for the chair of governor of the state, but failed; and, on the 27th of the same month, a duel took place between him and McIntosh, on account of some insulting remarks of the latter. Both parties were wounded; but the injury received by Gwinnett terminated his life in the 45th year of his age.

GWYNN, Eleanor, better known by the name of Nell, the celebrated mistress of king Charles II, was at rst an orange girl of the meanest description, in the play-house. In the first part of her life, she gained her bread by singing from tavern to tavern, and gradually advanced to the rank of a popular actress at the theatre royal. She is represented as handsome, but low of stature. She was mistress, successively, to Hart, Lacy and Buckhurst, before she became the favorite of the king. It is said that, in her elevation, she showed her gratitude to Dryden, who had patronised her in her poverty; and, unlike the other mistresses, she was faithful to her royal lover. From her are sprung the dukes of St. Alban's. She died in 1687.

GYGES; a favorite of the Lydian king Candaules, who, to convince him of the beauty of his queen, showed her to him naked. The queen was so incensed at this shameful act, that she ordered Gyges either to murder the king, ascend his vacant throne, and become her husband, or to atone for his curiosity by death. After having labored in vain to shake the resolution of the queen, he chose the former part of the alternative, murdered Candaules, and was established on the throne in consequence of the response of the Delphian oracle. This is the story as related by Herodotus. There is a fable of a magic ring, which Gyges found in a cavern when a herdsman, and which had the power of rendering its possessor invisible, whenever he turned the stone inwards. By the aid of this ring, he enjoyed the embraces of the queen and assassinated the king. To have the ring of Gyges was afterwards used proverbially, sometimes of fickle, sometimes of wicked and artful, and sometimes of prosperous people, who obtain all they want.

GYMNASIUM; the name given by the Spartans to the public building where the young men, naked (hence the name, from youvos, naked), exercised themselves in leaping,running, throwing the discus and spear, wrestling and pugilism, or in the pentathlon (quinquertium) so called. This Spartan

the public baths bore some resemblance to them; and the gymnasia may be said to have expired with the therma. (See Gymnastics.)

institution was imitated in most of the cities of Greece, and in Rome under the Cæsars. Its objects, however, did not remain confined merely to corporeal exercises, but were extended also to the exer- Gymnasia, German. From the time of cise of the mind; for here philosophers, the revival of learning, when almost all rhetoricians, and teachers of other branches knowledge was derived through the Latin of knowledge, delivered their lectures. In and Greek,-and certainly no existing litAthens, there were five gymnasia, and erature could be compared to that conamong them the Academy, the Lyceum tained in these two languages, the study and the Cynosarge. In the first, Plato of them obtained such possession of the taught; in the second, Aristotle; and in schools, that it has, ever since, influenced the third, Antisthenes. They were, at the studies of youth in Europe, and parfirst, only open level places, surround- ticularly in Germany, to such a degree, ed by a wall, and partitioned off for that it is very difficult to restore the proper the different games. Rows of plane- balance in schools of the higher kind. The trees were planted for the purpose of gymnasia, the name of these schools in shade, which were afterwards changed Germany (derived from the ancient term), into colonnades with numerous divisions. taught Latin and Greek, and the branches The gymnasia, at last, were composed of connected with antiquity, almost to the a number of connected buildings, spacious exclusion of other sciences. But, in modenough to admit many thousands. Vitru- ern times, when the natural sciences have vius has given an exact description of the made such distinguished progress, and arrangement of them in his work on rich stores have accumulated in many architecture (5, 11). Some gymnasia con- modern literatures, and the importance of tained more, and some fewer apartments; mathematics has been increased, the faults and all were furnished with a multitude of this arrangement have become obvious, of decorations. Here were found the and some authorities, particularly in Prusstatues and altars of Mercury and Hercu- sia, have already established institutions, les, to whom the gymnasia were dedicated; in which history, mathematics, natural sometimes, also, the statue of Theseus, the philosophy and modern languages may be inventor of the art of wrestling; statues of learned without Latin. In the gymnasia heroes and celebrated men; paintings and themselves, more time is allotted to these bass-reliefs, representing subjects con- branches than formerly. The gymnasia nected with religion and history. The of Prussia probably carry the scholar farHermes figures (see Hermes) were among ther than any institutions of a similar kind the most common ornaments of gymna- elsewhere. No limits are fixed for the sia. Here was assembled every thing that stay of the scholar in each class; every could improve the youth in the arts of year an examination for the next class peace and of war; every thing that could takes place, to which every scholar is adelevate and raise their minds; and, while mitted. Classes are generally divided into these institutions flourished, the arts and two sections, and a scholar cannot be prosciences also flourished, and the state moted from the lower into the higher prospered. The governor of a gymna- without an examination. The last examsium was called the gymnasiarch. Some-ination, to show whether the pupils are fit times such a gymnasium was styled palas- to enter the university, is very severe: for tra, which was, properly, only the part three days they have to write exercises, on where the athlete, destined for the public questions proposed to them, in history, the exhibitions, exercised themselves. Ignara Latin and Greek languages, mathematics, is of opinion, that a distinction was made besides themes in German, and in at between the gymnasium and palæstra, at least one foreign modern language, alone, the time when the philosophers and oth- shut up in a room, without books; or, if ers commenced their lectures here; that several are together, they remain under the the latter was designed to promote phys- eye of a professor, so that they cannot ical, and the former mental education sim- talk to each other. The verbal examply. In the latter sense, the high schools ination generally lasts one day, in presence in Germany, where young men are fit- of commissioners appointed by governted for the universities, have been called ment. The compositions of the scholars gymnasia, in modern times. In Rome, are sent to the minister of instruction and during the republic, there were no ecclesiastical affairs. According to the buildings which could be compared with result of the examination, the scholars rethe Greek gymnasia. Under the Caesars, ceive testimonials, marked No. I, II, or III.

« PrécédentContinuer »