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passages of the apostolic writings; but faith, as a duty, is included in works.

§s. Some incongruitics are obvious in the chapter which treats of justification for want of distinguishing the different relations which a justified person bears. In scriptural acceptation, a person is considered as justified in Christ, by grace, by faith, and by works. Justification in Christ, expresses the relation of union to him, effected by an act of divine sovereign prerogative. Justification by grace, expresses the relation of our personal unworthiness, who, had it not been for grace providing a substitute, must have continued guilty, and under condemnation. Justification by faith, expresses the relation of an arraigned criminal who is set at the bar of divine justice to plead his defence in opposition to the charge of being destitute of a perfect righteousness. A perfection of righteousness is required by divine law and justice; and in this respect it is hopeless to appeal to "works of righteousness which we have done." Divine revelation affords a testimony respecting Christ, that he is "the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth;" this testimony, and his belief in it, the arraigned criminal pleads in his defence, and is regarded as justified. Justification, by works, expresses the relation of a moral subject perpetually amenable to the law

of right and wrong, commonly termed the the moral law. In meeting this charge, it is not enough to plead that Christ is the end of the law, that grace has prepared a remedy, and that the divine testimony is believed; for these pleas have been and still are admitted. It may be urged, you are still amenable to a rule of moral obedience, which, if you despise, it is a proof that your plea of an interest in the former privileges is a shallow pretence: since no one who has a genuine regard for, and faith in Christ, rejects his yoke. Bring the genuineness of your faith and the sincerity of your profession to this test. "Shew me thy faith by thy works." As the charge is want of works, it is evident that no plea can be urged for justification from the charge, but the actual works required. And as these are justifying evidences in this life, so they will be at the last judgment, when the enquiry will be instituted, not only what have you believed, but also what have you done?

§ 9. In examining the "Refutation" we have met with some incongruous passages respecting redemption, which might have been avoided by means of the important distinction between the price, or valuable consideration, and the actual deliverance. The former is indefinite, as appears from the nature of the demand; the obedience and sacrifice must be of

infinite worth, or else of no worth at all, to answer the demands of law and justice. What is of infinite value cannot be in itself restricted; and therefore its aspect, when revealed and proposed to men, must necessarily be indefinite. But actual deliverance is a personal concern. Christ having assumed our nature, lived a perfect character, and died a meritorious death, abstractedly considered, actually delivers no person. This latter benefit is a definite effect for the sake of an infinite, and therefore indefinite price. The means, or the price, of redeeming us from the curse of the law, was the Saviour's being made a curse for us; but the redemption itself is our personal deliverance from guilt and condemnation, from sin and the power of satan, and from the grave.

§ 10. In treating of Predestination to life, his Lordship, as we have seen at large, has offered great violence to the Articles of his own Church, and has made them speak a language replete with contradiction. This he might have escaped, if he had regarded Predestination as a divine purpose respecting a series of beneficent events, instead of regarding it, as he has done, in an isolated point of view. That predestination, and that only, is consistent with itself, which never separates the means from the end, but includes the former as indispensably

requisite to attain the latter. Under his Lordship's hand, while this connection is overlooked, the wholesome doctrine which "is full of sweet, pleasant and unspeakable comforts to godly persons," is rendered to the last degree noxious and unlovely. In brief, he who professes that all our good and all our happiness must be ultimately referred to the divine beneficence and purpose, cannot renounce the predestination we hold, but at the expense of consistency with his own profession.

CHAP. VII.

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE EXCELLENCY OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE, AND ON THE BEST WAY OF OBTAINING IT.

§ 1. The particular design of this chapter. § 2. The Excellency of Religious Knowledge. 3. Advancement in this knowledge strongly enjoined in the holy scriptures. § 4. Proficiency in it beneficial to ourselves and others, even in private life. 5. Espe cially to public instructors; and § 6. To disputants. § 7. The importance of it further appears from its influence on practice. § 8. We should seek it, first, by the performance of known duty, § 9. The folly of neglecting this rule. 10. This method recommended by the holy scriptures; and 11. Justified on rational principles. 12, 13. We should seek it, secondly, by the exercise of Christian Candour. 14. Thirdly, by forbearing to systematize without extensive information; and especially § 15. Fourthly, by cultivating a devotional temper.

§ 1. HAVING Completed the proposed Examination of the Bishop of Lincoln's "Refutation of Calvinism,"-and ventured to suggest some explanation of the numerous mistakes and inconsistencies which occur in that performance,-I now request the reader's attention to a few CONCLUDING REMARKS of a more practical nature. My design is to point out the excellency of religious knowledge, and the best way of obtaining it. In connexion with which, I would fain bear the best testimony in my power against the principle and the operations

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