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impressions of the holy footstep; and for this, too, they are indebted to the research and bounty of the Empress Helena."

Mr. Robinson says, "This mountain, which is frequently mentioned in the Evangelical history, stretches from north to south, and is about a mile in length. At this moment, the short grass which covered its sides in the spring is withered by the autumnal heats, but the absence of verdure is compensated for by patches, here and there, of the tree to which it owes its name. Formerly the whole mount and valley were covered with this species of tree, (whence the name which it still preserves, Djebel Tor, or Mount of Olives,) but being of slow growth, when once decayed or wantonly destroyed, it is seldom replaced. The olive-tree flourishes two hundred years before it begins to decay, and even while it is living, young trees spring up around it, which occupy its place when dead. At about two-thirds of the ascent, we were shown the place where Our Lord, looking down upon the city, wept over its impending fate: Seest thou these great buildings? There shall not be left one stone upon another that shall not be thrown down.' (Mark 13. 2.) How strikingly this fatal prophecy has been fulfilled! Not a vestige remains of the ancient capital of David and Solomon, not a tower, gate, or wall, of Jewish times, is left standing. Without the walls, there are indeed some few ancient sepulchral monuments, of doubtful date; but even these have been entered and defiled, as if the destruction pronounced on this fated city extended even to the asylums of her dead. From this point the best panoramic view of the holy city is obtained, the slope of the hill from west to east being just sufficient to present it to the greatest advantage. The interior of the court of the Temple is distinctly seen, with the celebrated mosque of Omar rising in its centre, occupying the site of its more august predecessor. Behind, the domes of the sanctuary of the Holy Sepulchre, and other churches, convents, mosques, and minarets, rise in pleasing succession; and though the Jerusalem of modern times is not the city of the Scriptures, any more than it is built upon the same spot, yet, as seen from hence, the widowed daughter of Zion' still displays sufficient grandeur to aid the imagination in pointing her as she once existed, 'the perfection of beauty, the joy of the whole earth.' Other localities of minor interest, and resting upon less authenticated tradition, were successively pointed out to us in this immediate vicinity. Indeed there is hardly a spot of ground, both within and without the walls of Jerusalem, that has not some legendary tale attached to it. One of these localities is the place where Christ taught the Apostles the Universal Prayer: 'And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father,' &c., (Luke 11. 2;) and the other, the cave where the Creed was composed. But leaving these aside, we hastened to see the spot where the Son of God, born of a woman, last set foot on this our earth: 'And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.' (Luke 24. 50,51.) In the centre of a large court stands a small cupola, octagonal without, and round within. It encloses a larger portion of the bare rock on which is the print of a foot or sandal, pointing towards the north, and said to be that which Our Lord left at the moment of his ascension. Helena, the mother of Constantine, founded a monastery on the spot, which was subsequently converted into a mosque; but the whole is now in a sad dilapidated state. From an elevation not far distant to the eastward, on the road to Bethany, there is a commanding view of part of the Dead Sea; and the moun

tains of Moab beyond it. A little to the northward of the Chapel of the Ascension, is the highest summit of Olivet. Here the Apostles retired after the ascension of their Lord, and whilst they were still gazing up into heaven, not yet recovered from the ecstacy in which the recent glorious triumph of their Master had left them, two angels addressed them: 'Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, which is taken from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.' (Acts 1. 11.)" See JERUSALEM.

MOURNING, MOURNING WOMEN. These subjects, in relation chiefly to the Jews, have been already noticed under the head BURIAL AND FUNERAL RITES, to which we now propose to add some particulars respecting the customs of the ancient Egyptians and the primitive Christians.

In the Scriptures the hired mourners, or "mourning women," are termed Лip konnoth, from the root p kenah, a song of lamentation, or elegy. (Jerem. 9. 17.) It is remarkable, that a lamentation for the dead is still among the Irish called a keen. The prophet in the above passage is commissioned to say, "Consider ye, and call for the mourning women, that they may come; and send for cunning women, that they may come: And let them make haste, and take up a wailing for us, that our eyes may run down with tears, and our eyelids gush out with waters." (ver. 17,18.)

In ancient Egypt, we are informed by Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, "When any one died, all the females of his family, covering their heads and faces with dust and mud, and leaving the body in the house, ran through the streets, with their bosoms exposed, striking themselves, and uttering loud lamentations. Their friends and relations joined them as they went, uniting in the same demonstrations of grief, and when the deceased was a person of consideration, many strangers accom panied them, out of respect to his memory. Hired mourners were also employed to add, by their feigned demonstrations of grief, to the real lamentations of the family, and to heighten the show of respect paid to the deceased. "The men in like manner, girding their dress below their waist, went through the town smiting their breast,' and throwing dust and mud upon their heads. But the greater number of mourners consisted of women, as is usual in Egypt at the present day; and since the mode of lamentation now practised at Cairo is probably very similar to that of former times, a description of it may serve to illustrate one of the customs of ancient Egypt.

"As soon as the marks of approaching death are observed, the females of the family raise the cry of lamentation; one generally commencing in a low tone, and exclaiming, 'O my misfortune! which is immediately taken up by another with increased vehemence; and all join in similar exclamations, united with piercing cries. They call on the deceased, according to their degree of relationship; as, 'O my father!' 'O my mother! 'O my sister!' 'O my brother!' 'O my aunt!' or, according to the friendship and connection subsisting between them, as, 'O my master!' 'O lord of the house!' 'O my friend!' 'O my dear, my soul, my eyes!' and many of the neighbours, as well as the friends of the family, join in the lamentation. Hired mourning women are also engaged, who utter cries of grief, and praise the virtues of the decased; while the females of the house rend their clothes, beat themselves, and make other violent demonstrations of sorrow. A sort of funeral dirge is also chanted by the mourning women to the sound of

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the tambourine, from which the tinkling plates have been removed. This continues until the funeral takes place, which, if the person died in the morning, is performed the same day; but if in the afternoon or evening it is deferred until the morning, the lamentations being continued all night. Previous to, or immediately after, the departure of the vital spark, they take care to close the eyes and mouth: which is always looked upon as a tender and dutiful office worthy of the kind feelings of a sincere friend; and soon after the mourners have collected, the body is given over to the moghussel, (or washer,) who, placing it on a bench, the eyes being closed, and the mouth bound up, washes it, the barber having previously performed his office. In the mean time prayers are read in an adjoining apartment by the fekkees, who officiate as priests; and preparations are then made for carrying out the corpse to the grave. It is placed on a bier borne by four friends of the deceased, who, after a short distance, are relieved by four others, and so on, till arrived at the cemetery; the procession which accompanies it depending on the rank of the person, or the attentions of his friends. This has been so fully and accurately described by Mr. Lane, that I cannot do better than give it from his valuable book.

relieved. Behind the bier walk the female mourners, sometimes a group of more than a dozen or twenty, with their hair dishevelled, though generally concealed by the head veil, crying and shrieking; and often the hired mourners accompany them, celebrating the praises of the deceased. Among the women, the relations and domestics of the deceased are each distinguished by a strip of linen, or cotton stuff, or muslin, generally blue, bound round the head, and tied in a single knot behind, the ends hanging down a few inches. Each of these also carries a handkerchief, usually dyed blue, which she sometimes holds over her shoulders, and at other times twirls with both hands over her head, or before her face. The cries of the women, the lively chanting of the youths, and the deep tones uttered by the yemenéeh, compose a strange discord.

"The wailing of women at funerals was forbidden by the Prophet; and so also was the celebration of the virtues of the deceased. Some of these precepts are every day violated; and I have seen mourning women of the lower classes following a bier, having their faces (which were bare) and their head coverings and bosoms besmeared with mud.

"The funeral procession of a man of wealth or of the middle classes is sometimes preceded by three or four or more camels, bearing bread and water to give to the poor at the tomb, and is composed of a more numerous and varied assemblage of persons. In this, besides the persons already mentioned, 'the led horses of the bearers, if men of rank, often follow the bier; and a buffalo, to be sacrificed at the tomb, where its flesh is to be distributed to the poor, closes the procession.'

"The first persons (in the procession) are about six or more poor men, called yemenéeh, mostly blind, who proceed two and two, or three and three together. Walking at a moderate pace, or rather slowly, they chant in a melancholy tone the profession of faith, or sometimes other words: they are followed by some male relations and friends of the deceased, and in many cases by two or more persons of some sect of Dervishes, bearing the flags of their order; next follow three or "The funeral of a devout sheikh differs in some four more schoolboys, one of whom carries a copy of respects from that of ordinary mortals; and the women, the Koran, placed upon a kind of desk formed of palm instead of wailing, rend the air with the shrill and sticks, and covered over, generally with an embroidered quavering cries of joy, called zughareet: and if these kerchief. These boys chant, in a higher and livelier cries are discontinued but for a minute, the bearers of voice than the yemenéeh, usually some words of a poem the bier protest they cannot proceed, that a supernatural descriptive of the events of the last day, the judgment, power rivets them to the spot. Very often it is said, &c. The schoolboys immediately precede the bier which a wélee impels the bearers of his corpse to a partiis borne head foremost. Three or four friends of the deceased usually carry it for a short distance; then three or four other friends; who are in like manner

cular place; a curious anecdote of which is related by Mr. Lane; and I have repeatedly witnessed instances of this at Cairo, having for some time lived in the main

street leading to a cemetery near one of the gates of the city."

The funereal observances of the primitive Christians are thus described in Riddle's Manual of Christian Antiquities:-"The early Christians were distinguished by their care of the dead, which was one of the three points for which they were particularly commended by the apostate Julian. They regarded the celebration of funereal solemnities with becoming gravity, but without immoderate expression of grief, as a public religious duty; not, indeed, as adapted to convey any benefit to the deceased, but as being decent in itself, and a likely means of edification or consolation to survivors.

"In the first ages of the Church, Christians felt, and often expressed, in strong terms, a decided attachment to the practice of inhumation of the corpse, in preference to that of burning, which at that time prevailed throughout the Roman empire. At first they had no separate burying-places; and it is evident that the nature of their circumstances would not even admit of such a design. The public burial-grounds, according to both Jewish and Roman laws, were on the outside of cities. (Matt. 27. 60; Luke 7. 12; John 11.30.) In the course of the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries, open spaces around the churches were set apart for the interment, at first of princes, the bishops, and clergy, and afterwards of others who died in communion with the Church. The first recorded instance of a formal consecration of such burial-place, or church-yard, belongs to the sixth century; but there is every reason to suppose that such places were set apart from the first with peculiar solemnities, inasmuch as all persons and things designed for the more immediate service of religion, or any religious purpose, were solemnly dedicated to their use and employment, and especially as burial-places were declared inviolable and sacred even by the Roman laws. The Greeks gave to their burialgrounds the appropriate name of коiμητηρia, cemeteria, that is, dormitories; hereby not only denoting, as Chrysostom observes, that the dead rest from their earthly labours and sorrows, but also pointing out the hope of a future resurrection. We do not find that the dead were ever buried within the walls of churches before the ninth century. Christians did not hesitate to adopt the practice of erecting monuments, usually marked with inscriptions in memory of the dead. Basil the Great, Chrysostom, and others, inveigh against luxury and extravagance in these matters.

"The Romans used to conduct their funeral solemnities in the night, but the Christians, on the contrary, preferred the daytime for the solemn service, retaining, however, the custom of carrying lighted tapers in the funeral procession. In times of persecution, indeed, they were often compelled to bury their dead by night, for the sake of security, consoling themselves, as we are told, with the example of Tobias. (Tob. 1. 20,21; 2. 2.) But under Constantine and his sons, the funeral solemnities of the Christians were conducted in the daytime, and sometimes with great pomp; and it is probable that these emperors enacted laws on the subject, since the apostate Emperor Julian found it necessary to issue an edict, in order to restore the nocturnal celebration of funeral rites. The space which elapsed between the period of death and that of interment was probably determined by the custom of the country, by the wishes of individuals, or other circumstances. The special reason for a speedy interment which existed among the Jews and heathens, namely, the desire of avoiding ceremonial pollution by the touch or presence of a corpse, had no place among Christians

"It was usual among Christians for relatives or friends to close the eyes and mouth of the dying. The body

was then washed in water, and clothed with a funeral garment, usually of white linen, but sometimes made of more costly and splendid materials. Being placed in a coffin, it was watched and attended until the time fixed for the funeral, when it was carried to the grave by the nearest relations of the deceased, or by persons of rank or distinction, (as a mark of respect,) or by persons appointed to that office. During the funeral procession, appropriate psalms were sung. The author of the Apostolical Constitutions gives this direction, that they should carry forth their dead with singing, if they were faithful. For precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints. And again it is said, 'Return to thy rest, O my soul, for the Lord hath rewarded thee. And the memory of the just shall be blessed; and the souls of the just are in the hand of the Lord.' These, probably, were some of the versicles which made up their psalmody on such occasions. For the sake of order, notice was sometimes given by the tuba, wooden clappers, or such other methods of giving public notice as were in use. In the eighth or ninth century, the tolling of bells was introduced. The custom of carrying a cross or crucifix before the corpse, is of comparatively recent date. The first traces of it occur in the sixth century. Afterwards it became common. Lighted torches were carried before and behind the coffin, in token of victory over death, and union with Christ at 'the marriage supper of the Lamb.' The Christians repudiated the custom of crowning the corpse and the coffin as savouring of idolatry. It was usual with them, however, to strew flowers upon the grave, and to make funeral orations in praise of those who had been distinguished during life by their virtue or merits. Several orations of this kind are extant; as that of Eusebius, at the funeral of Constantine, and that of Gregory of Nyssa, upon the death of Melitus, bishop of Antioch.

"All immoderate grief or mourning for the dead was regarded as inconsistent with Christian faith and hope. And hence, the custom which prevailed among the Jews and Romans, of hiring women to make lamentations at funerals, was severely reproved and denounced by the teachers of the Church. And these declarations of the Fathers were enforced by the decrees of councils. In token of mourning, the Jews used to tear their clothes, and to wear sackcloth and ashes; the Romans used to wear black. We find strong disapprobation of the custom of wearing black in the writings of some of the Fathers; but others did not so severely condemn the use of a mourning habit; and the practice soon became prevalent among Christians, especially in the East. No precise rules were made respecting the duration of mourning for the dead; this matter being left to custom, and to the feelings of parties concerned.

“The heathen had a custom of repeating their mourning for the dead on the third, seventh, and ninth day, which was particularly called the Novendiale; and some added the twentieth, thirtieth, and fortieth, not without a superstitious opinion of these particular days, wherein they used to sacrifice to their manes with milk and wine, and garlands and flowers, as the Roman antiquaries inform us."

MOUTH, pe. (Gen. 8. 11; Exod. 4. 11.) This word often occurs in the Scriptures by a sort of pleonasm, as, "he opened his mouth and spoke," sung, cursed, &c. The word is also used figuratively. Thus the Lord is said to open the mouth of the prophets, that is, He bids them speak what He inspires them with. The word of God, or literally, "the word that proceeds out of his mouth," signifies the actions of God's providence, his commands, whereby He rules the world, and brings all

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things to his purpose. To "inquire at the mouth of the Lord," (Josh. 9. 14,) is to consult Him. To "set their mouth against the heavens," (Psalm 73. 9,) is to speak arrogantly, insolently, and blasphemously of God. Isaiah, speaking of the Messiah, says, "He shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked;" these expressions denote his sovereign authority and absolute power, and that it requires only his breath to destroy his enemies. The mouth also signifies the same as commands and actions, because they imply the effects of the thoughts; words or commands being the means used to communicate the thoughts and decrees to those that are to execute them. Hence, for a person or thing to come out of the mouth of another, signifies to be constituted and commanded to become an agent or minister under a superior power, as, "I saw three unclean spirits, like frogs, come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet." (Rev. 16. 13.) "Out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged sword." (Rev. 1. 16.) "The serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood." (Rev. 1. 16.) “For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails." (Rev. 9. 19.) "If any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth." (Rev. 11. 5.)

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"We read in Leviticus 13. 45, And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.' The prophet Ezekiel, in reference to the death of his wife, was ordered not to cry,' neither to cover the lips (the margin has upper lip'). The prophet Micah (3. 7,) describes the confusion and sorrow of those who had by their wickedness offended the Lord: "Then shall the seers be ashamed, and the diviners confounded; yea, they shall all cover their lips, for there is no answer of God.' margin, again, has upper lip. All these passages," Roberts observes, "refer to the sorrow of those concerned. A person in deep distress puts his hand over his mouth, and hangs down his head, as if looking on the ground. When a man suddenly claps his hand on his mouth, it denotes great sorrow or surprise. To put the fingers in a line with the nose, conveys the idea of silence and submission. Why is your hand on your mouth? Not for joy. But why? My son, my son, my wicked son! He has gone with the evil ones to the distant country.' 'Ah, friend, why is your hand there?' 'Alas, the tigers got among my cattle last night, and great is the slaughter.' 'The king is angry with Raman-his hand is now on his mouth.' 'I may well put my hand on my mouth; I have been taken by the neck, and driven from the presence of Lord. My my requests have all been denied.'” In Psalm 8. 10 we read, "I am the Lord thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt; open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it." In illustration of this passage, the same author says, "You may often hear it said, 'My friend, you are in great distress; take my advice; go to the king, and open your mouth wide.' I went to the great man and opened my mouth, but he has not given me anything.' I opened my mouth to him, and have gained all I wanted.' 'Why open your mouth there? it will be all in vain.' Does a person not wish to be troubled, he says to the applicant, 'Do not say, Ah, ah! here,' which means, Do not open your mouth, because that word cannot be pronounced without opening the mouth."


withereth afore it groweth up; wherewith the mower filleth not his hand; nor he that bindeth sheaves his bosom." Reapers in Palestine and Syria make use of the sickle in cutting down their crops, and according to the existing custom, "fill their hand" with the corn, and those who bind up the sheaves, their "bosom." When the crop is thin and short, which is generally the case in light soils, and with their imperfect cultivation, it is not reaped with the sickle, but plucked up by the root with the hand. By this mode of reaping, they leave the most fruitful fields (as Maundrell observes) as naked as if nothing had ever grown on them; and as no hay is made in the East, this is done that they may not lose any of the straw, which is necessary for the sustenance of their cattle.

The Hebrew reapers bound the corn into sheaves, which were not set up in shocks, as with us, although there are passages in our version (Judges 15. 5, and Job 5. 26,) that might convey that impression. But the word there rendered "shock," signifies neither a shock composed of a few sheaves standing in a field, nor a stack of many sheaves in the barn-yard; but a heap of sheaves laid loosely together in order to be thrashed out as quickly as possible. See AGRICULTURE.

The mowing of meadows is referred to in Psalm 72. 6, and in Amos 7. 1. "The king's mowings" are spoken of. Here the word in the original is 12 giz, and may refer to eating or feeding down, as well as cutting down. "The king's mowings" are supposed to refer to the first growth of grass in certain pastures, which was appropriated to the king's cattle. The after-growth appears to have been left to the people, and this was consumed by the "grasshoppers." In reference to the latter passage, D'Arvieux states that the Arab horses are all designed for riding and war, and so there is reason to believe were those of the kings of Israel; and if the present usages of the Arabs prevailed anciently, they were turned out early in the spring, in the month of March, and at other times were nourished with barley.

MUFFLERS, niby rialoth. (Isai. 3. 19.) The prophet, in the above verse, speaking of female ornamufflers." Gesenius renders the word rialoth, “veils," ments, mentions "the chains, and the bracelets, and the from the Arabic raal, and thinks that they received the name from their trembling motion in hanging down.

Roberts explains the ornaments spoken of by reference to the costume of the women of India: "The 'chains,' as consisting first of one most beautifully worked with a pendent ornament for the neck; there is also a profusion of others, which go round the same part, and rest on the bosom. In making curious chains, the goldsmiths of England do not surpass those of the East. The 'bracelets' are large ornaments for the wrists, in which are sometimes inclosed small bells. The 'mufflers' are, so far as I can judge, not for the face, but for the breasts." See CLOTHING; DRESS.

MULBERRY-TREES, 'N bachaim. As already stated, under BACA, the word rendered in our version, in 2Samuel 5. 23, and 1Chronicles 14. 14,15, "mulberry-trees," and in Psalm 84. 6 used as a proper name, is by the Septuagint rendered "pear-tree;" the Rabbins, however, generally understand the mulberrytree to be intended, which seems much more probable, from its present abundance, than the conjecture of Gesenius, that the baka shrub (Amyris Gileadensis) is inThe tended.

MOWER, ip kotsir. (Psalm 129. 7.) Psalmist, in this passage, says, speaking of the wicked, "Let them be as the grass upon the house tops, which

The white mulberry (Morus alba) was anciently much cultivated in Syria and Lebanon, and most probably in

Palestine. In the present day, the mulberry-tree is a | dred piastres, and, although in the middle region of the principal source of wealth to the Druses and Maronites, mountains one ounce of eggs gives somewhere about fifty by the quantities of silk it enables them to produce. per cent. more silk than on the plain or at the summit, Throughout the mountains of Lebanon and Kesrouan, still the whole produce is often absorbed by the enormity and in the plain below, the mulberry-tree is, for this of the tax. In the neighbourhood of Beirout, the mul reason, very extensively cultivated. The mulberry- berry plantations are worked in the following manner:plants are set in rows, distant from each other six or The proprietor takes a farm servant, who, with his eight feet, cut off at a corresponding height, and suffered family, lives in the plantation, and does all the labour to retain only the fresh twigs. Under this system, Mr. | required for the cultivation of the mulberry-trees in the Elliot says, "a given plot of ground produces more course of the year; but during the two months in which foliage than one of equal size in which fewer trees are the silk is produced, they are obliged to hire people; and, allowed to retain their natural dimensions; and all the between women and children, fifteen are required for leaves can be gathered, which is impracticable when the each thousand mulberry-trees. Labour is rather dear in branches attain a certain growth. Every year, in the Syria; a man is paid five piastres per day, a woman four month of June, the trees are topped, having been pre- piastres, and a young person three piastres. In conforviously stripped of their foliage, and none but the first mity with a convention generally adopted, the farmfresh leaves are given to the silk-worms. Here and servant receives for his share one-fourth of the produce; there, in the plantations, a solitary house, consisting of of the remaining six-eighths, three-eighths are absorbed two rooms, one above another, occupied by the culti- by the expenses of cultivation, one-eighth serves to pay vator, reminds a stranger of the Scriptural allusion to taxes, so that the clear gain of the proprietor is only 'a cottage in a vineyard,' or, ‘a lodge in a garden of one-fourth of the whole. And as a plantation, which cucumbers.' (Isai. 1. 8.)" would give twenty loads of leaves, costs in the present day six thousand piastres, a capital employed in this branch would not yield more than five per cent. In one 'division,' it is generally calculated that there are one thousand three hundred and fifty trees, which will give four hundred and fifty loads of leaves, and will produce sixty-four rottoli of silk, which, at two hundred piastres per rottol, give a total of twelve thousand nine hundred piastres, from which must be deducted one-fourth, or three thousand two hundred piastres, for the farm-servant; three-eighths, or four thousand eight hundred piastres, for the expenses of cultivation; and one-eighth, or one thousand six hundred piastres, for the payment of taxes: this makes altogether nine thousand six hundred piastres, leaving the proprietor the net profit of three thousand two hundred piastres. In the Lebanon, the mode of working is different, inasmuch as the proprietor cultivates the ground himself, instead of letting it out to a farm-servant. By this means he economizes one-fourth of the produce; but as the taxes, as I have already stated, are much higher, the gain of the proprietors in good years is not more than one-fourth, and in bad years, it hardly suffices to pay the expenses of cultivation and the amount of the taxes."

The Rev. Mr. Jowett also speaks of the multitude of mulberry-trees in the districts of Lebanon, and states that, during the greater part of the year, the mulberrytrees clothe the prospect in every direction with most delightful verdure. In some places, however, as about Tripoli, artificial irrigation is resorted to, to hasten the shooting of fresh leaves after the trees have been stripped, a purpose which it answers, but it causes stagnant pools, which, under the burning sun of Syria, become fruitful sources of disease and death.

In Dr. Bowring's Report on Syria, we find the fullest account of the produce and mode of managing the mulberry plantations, during the recent rule of Mehemet Ali in that country. The document was drawn up by the English consul at Beirout.

"The mulberry-trees are planted in (quincunx) rows, at four paces distant from each other. During the first eight years, they give a greater or less quantity of leaves. After that term, their produce, if cultivated with care, remains stationary, but soon begins to decrease if the cultivation be neglected. The plantations of mulberries require great care, and the ground between the trees is ploughed or turned up eight times each year, and the greatest attention is necessary to extirpate all weeds. When a person buys a plantation, he reckons that three trees will give twenty rottoli (of 5 lbs. each) of leaves. Then one hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty rottoli of leaves are considered to suffice for the nourishment of worms enough to give one rottol of silk of seven hundred and twenty drachms. After the worms are hatched, they are left twenty days in a room, in osierbaskets. The worms are kept four times fasting in all their existence; after eight days they fast four or five days; they are then removed to a larger habitation, made of reeds and matting, and in which they make their cocoons, or balls. The Syrians are ignorant of the manner of making their worms produce twice in the year; they are ignorant of any other plant (as in Europe) to serve as a substitute for the mulberry-leaves, with which the worms may be nourished during the first four days. The miri, or land-tax, is fixed in proportion to the quantity of seed (eggs) of silk-worms which the cultivators can produce. Experience has shown that one ounce of eggs produces three rottoli of silk. In the district of Beirout, at half an hour from the city, the miri is thirty piastres, besides three piastres more per rottol in virtue of a tax called bisreye, which makes thirtythree piastres tax in all per rottol. In the Lebanon, the tax is infinitely higher; it amounts to nearly one hun

MULE, pered. (2Sam. 13. 29; 18. 9; 1Kings 1. 33,38,44; Psalm 32. 9.) There is no probability that the Jews bred mules, because such a practice was expressly forbidden by the Mosaic law; (Levit. 19. 19;) but they were not precluded from employing them, and therefore, after the time of David, we find that mules were common among the IIebrews, and they were probably known much earlier; they appear to have been brought to the Hebrews from other nations, and in the recent periods of their history, we find that the more valuable ones came from Togarmah, or Armenia. (Ezek. 27. 14.) The "mules" mentioned in Esther 8. 10, are the

is achashtiranim, or great mules of Persia, celebrated for their swiftness.

There are various breeds of mules in Syria. Some very beautiful animals are produced from high blood Arab mares, but they are few in number, and can only be possessed by the wealthy. The more ordinary sort of mules, which are capable of carrying heavy loads, are employed in the caravans; and they are of great service for the mill and water-wheels. Both are maintained at less expense than horses, and, being surer footed, are better suited for traversing the rugged roads in mountainous countries. The domestic trade with the mari

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