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The rendering of our version appears the most correct, but whichever reading we adopt, it is necessary to conclude (which the text expressly states) that the creatures were brought in swarms, most extraordinary even for Egypt, and thus a miraculous interposition was made manifest.

LID, лdaleth. This term is, in 2Kings 12. 9, applied to the lid of the chest, or as the Hebrew expresses it, "the door of the chest," through which Jehoiada the priest bored a hole, and set it beside the altar, on the right, for the purpose of receiving offerings of money for the repair of the Temple.

LIEUTENANTS. The word 'TTN achashdarpinim, (Ezra 8. 36; Esther 3. 12; 8. 9; 9. 3,) is

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LIGHT, in or, pws, is used in a physical metonymy, for a fire giving light, (Mark 14. 54; Luke sense, (Matt. 17. 2; Acts 9. 3; 12.7; 2Cor. 4. 6;) by 22. 56;) for a torch, candle, or lamp, (Acts 16. 29;) for the material light of heaven, as the sun, moon, or stars. (Psalm 136, 7; James 1. 17.) In figurative language it signifies a manifest or open state of things, (Matt. 10. 27; Luke 12. 3,) and in a higher sense the eternal rendered in our version "lieutenants." Gesenius it says source of truth, purity, and joy. (1John 1. 5.) God is may be properly rendered grand satrap, chief-governor, seems to contain a reference to the glory and splendour said to dwell in light inaccessible, (1Tim. 6. 16,) which a Persian title, somewhat corresponding with that of pasha among the Turks. The satrap or grand satrap appeared in the luminous cloud above the mercy seat, which shone in the holy of holies, where Jehovah had the civil and military power over several little pro-and which none but the high-priest, and he only once a vinces, in each of which presided a sub-governor, D pacha. The word is of Persian origin, and the first year, was permitted to approach, (Levit. 16.2; Ezek. 1. half of the compound is the Persian N achash, sig- 22,26,28;) this light was typical of the glory of the UN celestial world. nifying excellence, greatness. According to the letters, 1 darban answered to "door-keeper," that is, courtier in general, but the acceptation of D shadrapin, as equivalent to shadraph, Persian satrap, is

more suitable with the affixed termination.

LIFE, is properly a state of active and happy existence. (1.) Mortal life, since the fall, is the continuance or duration of our present state, which the Scriptures represent as blended largely with death, and consequently short and vain. (Gen. 3. 17; Job 14. 1,2; James 4. 14.) (2.) Spiritual life consists in our being in the favour of God, and living in dependence on Him to his glory. It is considered as of Divine origin, (Col. 3. 4,) hidden, (Col. 3. 3,) peaceful, (Rom. 8. 6,) secure. (John 10. 28.) (3.) Eternal life is the consummation of spiritual life, (Rom. 6. 22,) that never-ending state of existence which the saints shall enjoy in heaven. It is glorious, (Col. 3. 4,) holy, (Rev. 21. 27,) and blissful. (2Cor. 4. 17; 1 Peter 1. 4.)

LIFTING UP. To lift up the hands is among Orientals a common part of the ceremony of taking an oath. "I have lift up mine hand unto the Lord," says Abraham, (Gen. 14. 22,) and Jehovah himself says to the Hebrews, “I will bring you into the land concerning which I lift up mine hand," (Exod. 6. 8, margin,) that is, which I promised with an oath.

We read in Genesis 29. 1, "Then Jacob went on his journey, and came into the land of the people of the East." The margin has "lifted up his feet," which in Eastern language signifies to walk quickly, to reach out, to be in good earnest, not to hesitate. Thus Jacob journeyed to the East, he lifted up his feet, and stretched forth in good earnest, having been greatly encouraged by the vision of the ladder, and the promise, "Thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth."

In the form of blessing the people, which by Divine command Aaron was to observe, as mentioned in Numbers 6. 24-27, it is said, “The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee and give thee peace." Roberts says, this form of expression is still used in the East: "As I came along the road, I met Raman, and he lifted up his face upon me; but I knew not the end; which means, he looked pleasantly. Does a man complain of another who has ceased to look kindly upon him, he

Light itself is employed to signify the edicts, laws, rules, or directions that proceed from ruling powers for the good of their subjects. Thus of the great King of all the earth, the Psalmist says, "Thy word is a light unto my path," (Psalm 119. 105,) and "Thy judgments are as the light." (Hosea 6. 5.) Agreeably to the notion of lights being the symbols of good government, light also signifies protection, deliverance, and joy.

Light also frequently signifies instruction both by doctrine and example, (Matt. 5. 16; John 5. 35,) or persons considered as giving such light. (Matt. 5. 14; Rom. 2. 19.) It is applied in the highest sense to Christ, the true light, the Sun of Righteousness, who is that in the spiritual, which the material light is in the natural world, the great Author, not only of illumination and knowledge, but of spiritual life, health, and joy, to the souls of men.

"The images of light and darkness," says Bishop Lowth, "are commonly made use of in all languages to imply or denote prosperity and adversity, agreeably to the common sense and perception which all men have of the objects themselves. But the Hebrews, upon a subject more sublime indeed, in itself, and illustrating it by an idea which was more habitual to them, more daringly exalt their strains, and give a loose rein to the spirit of poetry. They display, for instance, not the image of the spring, of Aurora, or of the dreary night; but the sun and stars as rising with increased splendour in a new creation, or again involved in chaos and primeval darkness. (Isai. 30. 26; 60. 19,20.)”

In prophetic language, lights or luminaries signify ruling powers, because they show the way, and consequently direct and govern men in their conduct. reason of luminaries governing the day and night, all luminaries in symbolical language signify ruling powers.


LIGHTNING, Pa barak. The Psalmist says, "He causeth the vapour to ascend from the ends of the earth; he maketh lightnings for the rain; he bringeth the wind out of his treasures." (Psalm 135. 7.) Travellers state that in Syria lightnings are frequent in the autumnal months. Seldom a night passes without a great deal of lightning, which is sometimes accompanied by thunder and sometimes not. A squall of wind and clouds of dust are the usual forerunners of the first rains.


To these natural phenomena, the sacred writers frequently allude. The clouds are replenished by exhalations from every quarter, and when they are ready to open and pour out their refreshing showers on the parched ground, the glad tidings are announced by the rapid lightning, and the precious treasure is scattered over the fields by the attendant winds.

With respect to the weather at Aleppo, in September, Dr. Russell reports, that "during the first fortnight it is much the same as in the latter part of August, but rather more sultry. When no rain falls, the whole month continues clear and sultry; but commonly between the 15th and 25th heavy and black clouds arise, and hard squalls, blowing like whirlwinds from the west, fill the air with dust. This phenomenon forebodes rain; for within a day or two some heavy showers fall, called the first rains, by which although not considerable in quantity, the air being much refreshed, the remainder of the month is rendered very pleasant. Lightning, with out thunder, is seen almost every night, flashing from the edge of heavy clouds, in the north-west quarter; but when it appears in the west or south-west, it is a sure sign of approaching rains, which are often accompanied with loud thunder."

Lightnings, in figurative language, are the symbols of edicts enforced with destruction to those who oppose them, or hinder others from giving obedience to them. (Psalm 144. 6; Zech. 9. 14; Rev. 4. 5; 16. 18.) Thunders and lightnings when they proceed from the throne of God, as in Revelation 4. 5, are fit representations of God's glorious and awful majesty; but when fire comes down from heaven upon the earth, it expresses some judgment of God on the world, as in Revelation 20. 9. The voices, thunders, lightnings, and great hail, in Revelation 16. 18-21, are interpreted more particularly of an exceeding great plague, so that men blasphemed on account of it.


LIGURE, leshem; Sept. Xyvptov; Vulg. ligarius, is the name of a precious stone, which is mentioned only in Exodus 28. 19; 39. 12. Castellus and others take it for the hyacinth, the Lapis Lyncurius of the ancients, as being of a red colour, and in being electric, a property ascribed to the Lapis Lyncurius, or Συλυγκύριον of Theophrastus.

The hyacinth is a sub-species of pyramidal zircon, found in the beds of rivers in the East, and sometimes in Italy and Greece. Besides zircon it contains silica and iron, is of a reddish colour, and occurs crystallized in four sided prisms; it is now little esteemed as a gem.

LILY, JW shushan, κpivov. Lilies are natives of the East, and found plentifully growing in the fields. (Cantic. 2. 1,2; Hosea 14. 5; Matt. 6. 28.) There are many varieties, but it is generally supposed that the Amaryllis lutea, or yellow amaryllis, is the flower intended in Canticles 2. 1,2, which bears some resemblance to our yellow crocus, but with a larger flower and broader leaves. The blossom emerges from an undivided spathe or sheath, and is of a bell-shaped form, with six divisions and six stamens which are alternately shorter. The flower seldom rises more than three or four inches above the soil, accompanied by a tuft of green leaves, that continue their freshness throughout the winter. It was introduced into the English gardens by Gerard, in 1596.

Mr. Salt, in his Voyage to Abyssinia, says, "At a few miles from Adowa, we discovered a new and beautiful

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species of amaryllis, which bore from ten to twelve spikes of bloom on each stem, as large as those of the belladonna, springing from one common receptacle. The general colour of the corolla was white, and every petal was marked with a single streak of bright purple down the middle. The flower was sweet scented, and its smell, though much more powerful, resembled that of the lily of the valley. This superb plant excited the admiration of the whole party; and it brought imAmaryllis lutea. mediately to my recollection the beautiful comparison used on a particular occasion by Our Saviour: 'I say unto you, that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.""

Sir James Edward Smith observes, "It is natural to presume the Divine teacher, according to his usual custom, called the attention of his hearers to some object at hand; and as the fields of the Levant are overrun with the Amaryllis lutea, whose golden liliaceous flowers in autumn afford one of the most brilliant and gorgeous objects in nature, the expression of 'Solomon in all his glory not being arrayed like one of these,' is peculiarly appropriate. I consider the feeling with which this was expressed, as the highest honour ever done to the study of plants; and if my botanical conjecture be right, we probably learn a chronological fact respecting the season of the year when the sermon on the Mount was delivered." This species of lily is in full flower in September and October; Shaw states that he saw in January an elegant species of the blue lily, the same, he says, as the Lilium Persicum florens of Morison; Skinner saw lilies in the plain of Sharon in March; and about the middle of April, Mr. Wilde in the plain of Sharon saw numerous lilies with thousands of other gay flowers.

maasi מעשה שושן ,The work in the form of a lily

shushan, spoken of in 1Kings 7. 19, as an ornament on the pillars of the Temple, was probably work in the form of the lotus, for the lotus resembles the lily, and was very frequently used in Egypt as a decoration for the capitals of pillars.

Mr. Bardwell, the architect, in his work, entitled Temples Ancient and Modern, (1837,) says, "The two great columns of the pronoas in Solomon's temple were of the usual proportions of Egyptian columns, being five and a half diameters high, and as these gave the great characteristic feature to the building, Solomon sent an embassy to fetch the architect from Tyre to superintend the moulding and casting of these columns, which were intended to be of brass; and observe how conspicuous is the idea of the vase (the "bowl' of our translation) rising from a cylinder ornamented with lotus flowers; the bottom of the vase was partly hidden by the flowers, the belly of it was overlaid with net-work, ornamented by seven wreaths, the Hebrew number of happiness, and beneath the lip of the vase were two rows of pomegranates, one hundred in each row; these superb pillars were eight feet diameter, and forty-four feet hight, supporting a noble entablature fourteen feet high."

Among the ancient Egyptians the lotus was introduced into all subjects as an ornament, and as the favourite flower of the country; but not with the holy

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Lime is a very prevalent ingredient in rocks, and, combined with carbonic acid, forms marble, chalk, and limestone, of various degrees of hardness and every variety of colour. The purest carbonate of lime is found in calcareous spar, whose crystals assume a variety of forms, all, however, resulting from a primary rhomboid. When subjected to heat, carbonate of lime loses its carbonic acid, and becomes caustic lime, which has a hot pungent taste. In this state it can be sparingly dissolved in water. If lime be subjected to an intense heat, it fuses into a transparent glass. When heated under great pressure, it melts, but retains its carbonic acid.

Lime was obtained in ancient times by calcining or burning stones, shells, and other substances. From Isaiah 33. 12, it appears that it was made in a kiln lighted with thorn bushes; and from Amos 2. 1, that bones were sometimes calcined for lime.

In reference to the passage in Deuteronomy 27. 2, "Set thee up great stones, and plaister them with plaister," Michaëlis remarks, "The book of the law, in order to render it the more sacred, was deposited beside the ark of the covenant, (Deut. 31. 26,) and we find the same procedure likewise observed afterwards with regard to other laws, such as that which was made on the first establishment of regal authority, or, in other words, the compact between the king and the estates, (1Sam. 10.25;) but I cannot precisely determine whether that was kept in the holy of holies beside the ark, or only in the holy place. The guardians of the law, to whom was entrusted the duty of making faithful transcripts of it, were the priests, (Deut. 27. 9;) but Moses did not account even this precaution sufficient for the due preservation of his law in its original purity; for he commanded that it should besides be engraven on stones, and those stones kept on a mountain near Sichem, in order that a genuine exemplar of it might be transmitted even to the latest generations. In his ordinance for this purpose there are one or two particulars that require illustration. He commanded that the stones should be coated with lime; but this command would have been quite absurd had his meaning only been, that the laws should be cut through the coating; for after this unnecessary trouble, they could by no means have been thus perpetuated with such certainty, nor have nearly so long resisted the effects of wind and weather, as if at once engraven in the stones themselves. Kennicott, in his Second Dissertation on the Hebrew Text, supposes that they might have been cut out in black marble, with the letters raised, and the hollow intervals between the black letters filled up with a body of white lime to render them more distinct and conspicuous. But even this would not have been a good plan for eternizing them: because lime cannot long withstand the weather, and whenever it began to fall off in any particular place, the raised characters would, by a variety of accidents, to which writing deeply engraved is not liable, soon be injured and become illegible. No one that wishes to write anything in stone, that shall descend to the most remote periods of time, will ever think of giving a preference to characters thus in relief. And besides, Moses, if this was his meaning, has expressed himself very indistinctly; for he says not a word of the colour of the

stone, on which, however, the whole idea turns. 1 rather suppose, therefore, that Moses acted in this matter with the same view to future ages, as is related of Sostratus, the architect of the Pharos, who, while he cut the name of the then king of Egypt in the outer coat of lime, took care to engrave his own name secretly in the stone below, in order that it might come to light in after times, when the plaister with the king's name should have fallen off. In like manner Moses, in my opinion, commanded that his laws should be cut in the stones themselves, and these coated with a thick crust of lime, that the engraving might continue for many ages secure from all the injuries of the weather and atmosphere, and then, when by the decay of its covering it should, after hundreds or. thousands of years, first come to light, serve to show to the latest posterity whether they had suffered any change. And was not the idea of thus preserving an inscription, not merely for hundreds but for thousands of years, a conception exceedingly sublime? It is by no means impossible that these stones, if again discovered, might be found still to contain the whole engraving perfectly legible. Let us only figure to ourselves what must have happened to them amid the successive devastations of the country in which they were erected. The lime would gradually become irregularly covered with moss and earth; and now, perhaps, the stones, by the soil increasing around and over them, may resemble a little mount; and were they accidentally disclosed to our view, and the lime cleared away, all that was inscribed on them 3500 years ago would at once become visible. Probably, however, this discovery, highly desirable though it would be, both to literature and religion, is reserved for some future age of the world. What Moses commanded, merely out of legislative prudence and for the sake of his laws, as laws, God, who sent him, may have destined to answer likewise another purpose; and may choose to bring these stones to light at a time when the laws of Moses are no longer of any authority in any community whatever. Thus much is certain, that nowhere in the Bible is any mention made of the discovery of these stones, nor indeed any further notice taken of them, than in Joshua 8, 30-35, where their erection is described; so that we may hope they will yet one day be discovered. The whole procedure of Moses in this matter, is precisely in the style of ancient nations, who generally took the precaution, now rendered unnecessary by the invention of printing, to engrave their laws on stones; only that he studied, by a new contrivance, to give to his stony archives a higher degree of durability than was ever thought of by any other legislator. What was to be inscribed on the stones, whether the whole Pentateuch, or only the Book of Deuteronomy, or but the blessings and curses pronounced in Deuteronomy ch. 27, or merely the ten commandments alone, has been the subject of a controversy, for particulars concerning which, I again refer the reader to Kennicott's Second Dissertation. In my judgment, the expression, all the words of this law,' implies, at least, that all the statutory part of the Mosaic books was to be engraved on the stones, which is far from being impossible, if we make but a distinction between the stones and the altar, which must no doubt have been too small for that purpose. It is well known that in very ancient times, nations were wont to engrave their laws in stones; and the Egyptians had recourse to stone pillars for perpetuating their discoveries in science, and the history of their country. All these circumstances considered, with this, above all others, that the Israelites had just come out of Egypt, where writing in stone was employed for so many purposes, (although, indeed, hieroglyphic characters were used, which Moses


prohibited, because, when not understood, they might give a handle to idolatry.) I do not see why the phrase, all the words of this law,' should not be left in its full force, nor what should oblige us to limit it, with Dr. Kennicott, merely to the decalogue."

The notion the Jews themselves entertain is, that the stones were to be covered with plaster, and the law written or inscribed thereon. Some think that the stones were not to have their surfaces covered with the plaster; but that it was used as a cement for the sides of the stones, joining them firmly together. Another conjecture is the one that Dr. Kennicott has adopted; and a third is, that the same mode may have been followed as we know was customary in Egypt. In that country we find paintings and hieroglyphic writing upon plaster, which plaster is frequently laid upon the natural rock, and after the lapse of perhaps more than three thousand years, we find the plaster still firm, and the colours of the figures painted on it still remarkably fresh. The process of covering the rock with plaster is thus described: "The ground was covered with a thick layer of fine plaster, consisting of lime and gypsum, which was carefully smoothed and polished. Upon this a thin coat of lime white-wash was laid, and on it the colours were painted, which were bound fast either with animal glue, or occasionally with wax." If it be insisted that the words of the law were actually cut in the rock, it would seem best to understand that the word does not here mean a plaster, but indicates that the stones, after they had been engraved, were covered with a coat of tenacious lime whitewash, employed for similar purposes by the Egyptians, who, when the face of a rock had been sculptured in relievo, covered the whole with a coat of this wash, and then painted their sculptured figures.

We read in Amos 2. 1, "He [the king of Moab] burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The interpretation of the Targum and some of the Rabbins is, that the burnt bones were made into lime and used by the conqueror for plastering his palace; if this explanation be the correct one, it would seem to suggest one of the uses to which bones were in those times employed. See BONES.

LINE, ban hhebel, signifies a rope, or cord, in Joshua 2. 15; in other places, a line to measure with. (28am. 8. 2; Amos 7. 17; Psalm 78. 55; Zech. 2. 1.) There can be little doubt that the Hebrews acquired the art of measuring land from the ancient Egyptians. Sir John Gardner Wilkinson observes, "To the effects of the inundation of the Nile has been reasonably attributed the early advancement of the Egyptians in geometry and mensuration. Herodotus, Plato, Diodorus, Strabo, Clemens of Alexandria, Jamblichus, and others, ascribe the origin of geometry to changes which actually took place from the inundation, and to the consequent necessity of adjusting the claims of each person respecting the limits of the lands; and though Herodotus may be wrong in limiting the commencement of those observations to the reign of Sesostris, his remark tends to the same point, and confirms the general opinion that this science had its origin in Egypt. But it is difficult to fix the period when the science of mensuration commenced; if we have ample proofs of its being known in the time of Joseph, this does not carry us far back into the ancient history of Egypt; and there is evidence of geometry and mathematics having already made the same progress at the earliest period of which any monuments remain, as in the later æra of the patriarch, or of the Great Rameses. The Egyptian land-measure was the aroura, which, according to Herodotus and Horapollo, being a square of one hundred cubits,

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covered an area of ten thousand cubits, and, like our acre, was solely employed for measuring land. The other measures of Egypt were the schoene, equivalent to sixty stades in length, which served, like the Greek stade, the Persian parasang, and the more modern mile, for measuring distance, or the extent of a country; and the cubit, which Herodotus considers equal to that of Samos; for though the stade is often used by Greek writers in giving the measurements of monuments in Egypt, it was not really an Egyptian measure, as Herodotus plainly shows by ascribing its use to the Greeks, and the schænus to the Egyptians. It is highly probable that the aroura, or square land-measure, was divided into poles, answering to the kassobeh (reed), now used in Egypt, by which the feddan is measured; and in the absence of any explanation of the ancient landmeasure, it may not be irrelevant to notice the mode of dividing the modern feddan. Till lately it was a square of twenty keerat (carrots), or four hundred kassobeh (reeds) or rods; and each kassobeh was divided into twenty-four kharoobeh or kubdeh; but various alterations have taken place in the modern land-measure of Egypt; and even supposing the ancient aroura to have been divided in a similar manner, nothing can be obtained respecting the real contents of it beyond what we learn from Herodotus, of its being a square of one hundred cubits."

In Joshua 18. 9, we read, "And the men went and passed through the land, and described it by cities into seven parts in a book, and came again to Joshua to the host at Shiloh." These circumstances clearly indicate that a survey of the whole country was made, and the results entered carefully in a book. This appears to be the earliest example of a topographical survey on record, and it proves there must have been some knowledge of geometry among the Hebrews; and this had no doubt been acquired in Egypt.

LINEAGE, Tатρia, paternal descent; a family, or race. (Luke 2. 4.) See GENEALOGIES.

LINEN, bad. (Exod. 28. 42.) All the priestly garments among the Hebrews were to be composed of white fine linen, the product of a well-known plant, flax. No wool was to form or enter into the texture of the garments in which they ministered, and the reason assigned for this was, that it conduced to preserve cleanliness, which was also the Egyptian practice, for the priests of that country were of all people the most studious of personal cleanliness. They wore linen robes; and although their outer garment, when dressed in their ordinary attire, was, as among the other people, a sort of woollen mantle, they were compelled to throw it off before they entered a temple. No person was allowed to be buried in woollen, and all the bandages of mummies that have been examined are found to consist of linen. See CLOTHES; FLAX.

There is another sort of linen mentioned in the Scriptures, called shish, (Gen. 41. 42,) which is generally supposed to be the byssus, or fine white Egyptian cotton, and the cloth manufactured from it. (Exod. 26. 1.) The later name is buts. (Prov. 31. 24.) Under both words have also been understood fine linen garments; as the words for flax and cotton, in the Oriental languages, are indifferently used; thus the same clothes which in Ezekiel 44. 17 are called a bigdiy pishtim, linen or flaxen garments, are in Leviticus 16. 4 expressed by 7 bigdiy bad; and in Exodus 39. 28, michnisiy bad, the "linen breeches," are made of shish. The Chaldee has likewise often

translated bad, the Hebrew word for "flax," by byssus, as in Ezekiel 44. 18. The word shish appears to be of Hebrew, or at least of Semitic origin, from the root VW shush, to be white.

When the prophet Isaiah wishes to describe the misery which the folly of the Egyptian princes was likely to bring on the labouring classes of their subjects, he mentions the weavers as next in importance to the fisher-men; "Moreover, they that work in fine flax, and they that weave net works, shall be confounded." (ch. 19. 9.) Instead of "networks," the margin of our version has "white works," which is the correct translation. The linen and cotton were exported in the shape of yarn. We are told that "Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn; the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price." (1 Kings 10. 28.) That the linen of Egypt was highly valued in Palestine is evident, for it is said, "I have decked my bed with coverings of tapestry, with carved works, with fine linen of Egypt." (Prov. 7. 16.) The prophet Ezekiel also says, | in his enumeration of the articles of traffic in Tyre, "Fine linen, with broidered work from Egypt, was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail." (Ezek. 27.7.)

Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says, "Much flax was cultivated in Egypt, and the various processes of watering it, beating the stalks when gathered, making it into twine, and lastly into a piece of cloth, are represented in the paintings."

"The Egyptians, from a remote æra, were celebrated for their manufacture of linen and other cloths, and the produce of their loom was exported to, and eagerly purchased by, foreign nations. The fine linen, and embroidered work, the yarn and woollen stuffs of the upper and lower country, are frequently mentioned, and were highly esteemed. Solomon purchased many of these commodities. The quantity of linen manufactured and used in Egypt was truly surprising, and independent of that made up into articles of dress, the great abundance used for enveloping the mummies, both of men and animals, shows how large a supply must have been kept for the constant demand at home, as well as for that of the foreign market." See APPAREL; FLAX; WEAVING.

In the New Testament, "fine linen," Buoσos, is mentioned, (Luke 16. 19, and Rev. 18. 12,) concerning which a variety of opinions have been offered, but the subject presents many difficulties as to whether cotton or linen is referred to.

LINTEL, 1 mashkoph. (Exod. 12. 22,23.) The lintel of the door is the head-piece; that part of the frame that lies on the side-pieces. The Israelites in Egypt were thus commanded, on the occasion of the institution of the Passover: "Ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side-posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two sideposts, the Lord will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you." See PASSOVER.

LINUS, a Christian mentioned by St. Paul. (2Tim. 4. 21.) Irenæus, Eusebius, Jerome, and others, affirm that he succeeded the Apostle Peter as bishop of Rome; and Dr. Burton, in his History of the Christian Church, expresses it as his opinion that such was the fact; he conceives Linus to have become bishop about

| A.D. 58, and to have suffered martyrdom under Nero, about ten years afterwards; other writers, however, believe that Linus lived till nearly the conclusion of the first century of the Christian æra.


laish, a ליש

Isai. 30. 6.)

LION. There are several names given in Scripture to the lion, according to its different ages or character; asari, or 8 ariyeh, (Gen. 49. 9; Isai. 21. 8,) which is the general name, and occurs frequently for a full-grown and vigorous lion. goor, a young lion, a whelp. (Gen. 49. 9; Ezek. 19. 3.) kiphir, also a young lion, but applied to one which has begun to seek prey, therefore different from fierce or enraged lion. (Prov. 30. 30; shachal, supposed by Bochart to be the black lion of Syria. (Job. 4. 10; Psalm 91. 13.) shachats, a powerful lion. (Job 28. 8.) labe, a lion, perhaps lioness, used poetically. (Gen. 49. 9; Numb. 24. 9.) Bochart always considers * labe in Hebrew as feminine, (Job. 4. 11,) and the context of Ezekiel 19. 2 is in favour of his assertion that labe signifies lioness. Though the lion does not now exist in Palestine, there is abundant evidence, both historical and critical, to prove that it was once found there. We may cite, in support of this, the adventures of Samson with a young lion, on his way to Timnath, (Judges 14. 5,6;) and likewise David's slaughter of "a lion and a bear." (1Sam. 17. 34-36.) The adoption of the lion as the symbol of the tribe of Judah, (Gen. 49. 9,) and the allusion to its ferocity, (Isai. 11. 6,) its terrible roar, (Prov. 19. 12,) and its habit of sheltering among the brushwood which lines the Jordan, and of ascending thence when the river overflowed its banks, (Jerem. 1. 44,) clearly indicate that the Hebrews possessed an intimate knowledge of the animal. Palestine is not the only country in which the lion has become extinct within the historic period; but confining ourselves to Scriptural localities, we know that in ancient times the lion inhabited the deserts of Egypt, and Athenæus mentions one killed by the Emperor Adrian, while hunting near Alexandria; yet the lion is quite unknown there now. We have no evidence whether the Hebrews succeeded in taming lions, and in training them to assist in the chase, but the Egyptians, it appears, did so. By them the animal was frequently brought up in a tame state, and many Egyptian monarchs seem to have been accompanied in battle by a favourite lion, as we learn alike from the sculptures at Thebes and from the authority of Diodorus Siculus. Sir John Gardner Wilkinson informs us that "the worship of the lion was particularly regarded in the city of Leontopolis; of more than one deity. It was the symbol of strength, and other cities adored this animal as the emblem of and therefore typical of the Egyptian Hercules. With this idea, the Egyptian sculptors frequently represented a powerful and victorious monarch, accompanied by it in battle, though, as Diodorus says of Osymandyas, some suppose the king to have been really attended by a tame lion on these occasions. Macrobius, Proclus, Horapollo, and others, state that the lion was typical of the sun; an assertion apparently borne out by the sculptures, which sometimes figure it borne upon the backs of two lions. It is also combined with other emblems appertaining to the god Rê. In the connexion between the lion and Hercules may be traced the relationship of the sun and the god of strength.

"Macrobius pretends that the Egyptians employed the lion to represent that part of the heavens where the sun, during its annual revolution, was in its greatest force, the sign Leo being called the abode of the sun;' and the different parts of this animal are reputed by him to have indicated various seasons, and the increas

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