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lation has "dregs stirred up," that is, sediment shaken together well thickened. Roberts says, "Of people who are in great straits, of those who are a strange compound of good and evil, of things which are difficult to understand, it is said, 'Ah! this is all kullumbin-vandal,' that is, stirred-up dregs. This appears to have been the state of the Jews, and they wanted to show that the Lord would neither do good nor evil; that in Him was not any distinct character, and that He would not regard them in their thickened and mixed condition; that though they were joined to the heathen, it was not of any consequence." To drink the cup of God's wrath "even to the lees," is to drink the whole cup. (Psalm 75. 8; Isai. 51. 17; Ezek. 23. 34.) See DREGS; WINE.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS. See TRIBUNALS.
LEGION, λeyewv. This term, borrowed from the Romans, is used in the New Testament for an indefinitely great number; it is applied to angels, (Matt. 26. 53,) and also to evil spirits. (Mark 5. 9.)
The legion was a body of Roman troops, which varied greatly in numerical strength at different times. In the time of Augustus it was composed of 6100 heavy armed foot, and 726 horse, and had usually near 6000 auxiliaries, who acted as light troops. Thus the total strength of the legion was 12,500 men, among whom every variety of equipment was to be found. The following representation of the legionary troops is copied from the sculptures on the column of Trajan at Rome.
centurion himself, who had the command of the soldiers." (Mark 15. 44.) It was customary, when their speedy death was desired, to maim or wound those who were crucified: thus the legs of the two malefactors were broken, as they were found not to be dead, and a soldier thrust his spear into Our Lord's side. The legs of Our Saviour not having been broken was a remarkable fulfilment of prophecy: "A bone of him shall not be broken."
In Psalm 147. 10, it is said, "The Lord delighteth not in the strength of the horse; he taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man." In this remarkable expression the allusion is most probably a military one, and cavalry and infantry are generally understood to be referred to. In Canticles 5. 15 we read, "His legs are as pillars of LEHI, signifying "a jawbone," (Judges 15. marble set upon sockets of fine gold." Sir William 15,17,) is the name of a country on the confines of PhiJones gives, "His thighs are as pillars of marble fixed listia, (Judges 15. 9,14,19;) it is more fully expressed upon pedestals of fine gold,' alluding to his sandals in verse 17 by ramath lehi, which, accordbound on his feet with golden ribands, or perhaps ex-ing to the etymology there given, Gesenius says, signifies pressive of the feet themselves, as being of a redder "the throw of the jawbone." Others suppose that the tincture than the legs and thighs. The Asiatics used to name was given in consequence of the natural features dye their feet of a deep red colour. Thus the lover in of the place, perhaps from its steepy cliffs (as it were Gitagovinda says, 'O damsel, shall I dye red with the rocky cheeks), and they translate it, the height of the juice of alactuca those beautiful feet, which will make jawbone; Dr. Boothroyd gives "the hill of the jawthe full-blown land lotus blush with shame?" bone." At this place Samson, when delivered by his countrymen into the hands of the Philistines, slew one thousand of the latter with the jawbone of an ass; and to quench his thirst the Lord graciously caused a fountain to spring up near the scene of action. The word Lehi, as before observed, was applied to the place, probably on account of its rocky crags, but, as Dr. Hales observes, "From a fondness for multiplying miracles, it would seem several of the ancient versions, followed by the English translation, understand 'lehi' here to denote the jawbone of the ass, rather than the place so called; which is at variance with the sequel. The marginal reading 'lehi,' is correct. All modern commentators concur in this; for if we have 'jawbone' here, we ought to retain
In the narrative of the crucifixion of Our Saviour given by the Evangelist John, (19. 31,) it is said, "The Jews, therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbathday, (for that Sabbath-day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away." A learned German physician, speaking of the crucifixion, observes, "The degree of misery is gradual in its increase, and the person crucified is able to live under it commonly until the third and sometimes until the seventh day. Pilate, therefore, being surprised at the speedy termination of Our Saviour's life, inquired in respect to the truth of it of the
it in the concluding clause of this verse; and instead of saying, which is in Lehi unto this day,' say, 'which is in the jawbone unto this day.""
Burder remarks, "There is no good reason to suppose that the hollow place was cloven in the jawbone itself, for what can be understood by God's cleaving a cavity which was already in the bone? For if He clave a cavity previously existing, would not the water naturally run through it and empty itself upon the ground? But let the word Lehi stand untranslated, and all is plain. A certain cavity in the earth, in the place called Lehi, was miraculously claven and opened, and a refreshing fountain of water gushed forth, which continued thenceforth to flow, down to the time when the history was written. This was called, in memory of the circumstance which gave rise to it, 'En-hakkore,' that is, 'the well or fountain of him that cried.' Doubdan, in one day, when he visited the country about Jerusalem met with two such places. On Easter Monday, the 1st of April, 1652, he set out, he informs us, with about twenty in company, to visit the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. They went the same road the two disciples are supposed to have taken, when Our Lord joined them, when he made their hearts to burn within them. A convent was afterwards built in the same place where Our Lord is imagined to have met them. Only some pieces of the walls of freestone are now remaining, with some walls and half-broken arches, and heaps of rubbish, together with a great cistern full of water, derived partly from rain, and partly from the springs in the mountain there, particularly from a most beautiful and transparent fountain a little above it, which breaks out at the further end of the grotto, naturally hollowed out in the hard rock, and which is overhung with small trees, where they made a considerable stop to refresh themselves. The water of this spring running by a channel into the cistern, and afterwards turning a mill which was just by the cistern and belonged to the monastery, and from thence flowed, as it still does, into the torrent bed of that valley from whence David collected the five smooth stones, of which one proved fatal to Goliath. Here we see a hollow place, a grotto, in which the God of nature had divided the rock for the passage of the water of a beautiful spring. It was a grotto in Lehi, in which God on this occasion made the water to gush out, and run in a stream into the adjoining country, where the exhausted warrior stood."
LEMUEL, ↳ (Prov. 31. 1.) It is generally supposed that the name of Lemuel in this passage is a substitution, probably a familiar one, for that of Solomon. Lemuel being Solomon, the "mother" was consequently Bathsheba, who appears to have composed the admonitory verses in the 31st chapter of the Book of Proverbs, for her son, when he was in the flower of youth and high expectation.
LEND, (in Hiphil,) liveh, to lend. (Exod. 22. 25.)
Michaëlis observes, "Among the Israelites, in the time. of Moses, it must have been very common to lend on pledge; and that, according to the meaning of the word in natural law, which allows the creditor in case of nonpayment to appropriate the pledge to his own behoof, without any authoritative interference of a magistrate, and to keep it just as rightfully as if it had been bought with the sum which has been lent for it, and which remains unpaid. But while pledges are under no judicial regulation, much extortion and villany may be prac
tised, when the poor man who wishes to borrow is in straits, and must of course submit to all the terms of the opulent lender. It will not be imputed to Moses as a fault that his statutes contain not those legal refinements, which probably were not then invented, and which even yet may be said rather to be in record in our statute books than to be in our practice. They would have been dangerous to his people, and peculiarly oppressive to the poor. He let pledge remain in its proper sense, pledge; and thus facilitated the obtaining of loans; satisfying himself with making laws against some of the chief abuses of pledging."
Roberts likewise observes, "From the numerous allusions in the Sacred Writings to the subject of lending and of usury, it is easy to perceive that this was a very common practice among the ancients of the East. There are thousands at this day who live on the interest of a very small capital, and thousands who make immense fortunes by nothing but lending. So soon as a man has saved a small sum, instead of locking it up in his box, it goes out to interest at the rate of twelve and sometimes twenty per cent. People of great property, on account of their anxiety to put out every farthing, often leave themselves in considerable difficulty. Children are taught in early life the importance of this plan: hence, striplings may be heard to boast that they have such and such sums out at interest. This propensity often places government in circumstances of great loss, in reference to their shroffs or native treasurers. They lend out money from the chest to a great amount, merely to gain the interest. "Ah! you shall lend money to many people,' is one of the blessings pronounced on a youthful pair. When a person acquires a new situation, when a man is prosperous, it is said, 'He will lend to many people,' which means, he will be rich, and have much influence."
LENT. A time of fasting in the Church, observed as a period of humiliation before Easter, is called the season of Lent, the word being derived from the Saxon lencten, to lengthen, in allusion to the lengthening of the days in spring, at which season this fast falls. The duration of this fast at first was only forty hours; in the time of Gregory the Great, it extended to thirty-six days; and by that pontiff, or by Gregory II., in the eighth century, it was extended to forty days, the duration of the recorded fasts of Moses, Elias, and Our blessed Saviour. (Exod. 34. 28; 1Kings 19. 8; Matt. 4. 2.) Hence the term Quadragesima, (forty,) which had been already used to denote this period, became strictly applicable, and this is still its name in the Romish church. Basil the Great, Ambrose, and Leo the Great, speak of this quadragesimal fast as a Divine institution; but this can mean no more than that the fast was observed in imitation of the example of our Divine Redeemer.
In the early ages the manner of observing Lent among those who were piously disposed, was to abstain from food till evening; their only refreshment was a supper, and it was indifferent whether it was flesh or any other food, provided it was used with sobriety and moderation. Lent was thought the proper time for exercising more abundantly every species of charity: thus, what they spared of their own bodies, by abridging them of a meal, was usually given to the poor; they employed their vacant hours in visiting the sick, and those that were in prison; in entertaining strangers and reconciling differences. The Imperial laws forbade all prosecution of men in criminal actions, that might bring them to corporal punishment and torture during the whole
This was a time of more than ordinary strictness and devotion; and therefore in many churches they
had religious assemblies for prayer and preaching every day. All public games and stage plays were prohibited at this season, and also the celebration of all festivals, birthdays, and marriages.
The Christians of the Greek church observe four Lents; the first commences on the 15th of November; the second is the same with our Lent; the third begins the week after Whitsuntide, and continues till the festival of St. Peter and St. Paul; and the fourth commences on the 1st of August, and terminates on the 15th. These Lents are observed with much strictness and austerity, but on Saturdays and Sundays they indulge themselves in drinking wine and using oil, which are prohibited on other days.
LENTILES, DUTY adashim, (Gen. 25. 34;) Sept. pakos; Vulg. lens. The lentile, Lens esculenta of some botanists, and Ervum lens of Linnæus, is a species of bean much used in cookery in the East, and in Southern Europe. The stem is slender and branched, and the leaves consist of about eight pairs of smaller leaflets. The flowers are small, and with the upper division of the flower prettily veined. The pods usually contain four seeds, which vary in colour from a tawny red to a black. The early use of lentiles as an article of food, is indicated in several passages of Scripture, and likewise on the paintings in the tombs of Egypt, from which we learn that they were employed in making pottage. St. Augustine says they grow abundantly in Egypt; are much used as a food there; and those of Alexandria are considered peculiarly valuable. Pliny mentions two Egyptian species, and takes occasion to remark that the lentile likes best a red soil, and infers that it thence derived the colouring principle by which it imparted a red colour to the pottage made with it. Dr. Shaw says, "Beans, lentiles, kidney-beans, and garvancos, are the chief of the pulse kind. Beans, when boiled, and stewed with oil and garlic, are the principal food of persons of all distinctions. Lentiles are dressed in the same manner as beans, dissolving easily into a mass, and making a pottage of a red or chocolate colour, much esteemed in Egypt and Western Asia." Lentiles remain about four months in the ground. If they have been sown along with other plants, they are rooted up, but if growing by themselves, are usually cut down with the scythe; they are then threshed, winnowed, and cleaned, the same as corn." See POTTAGE.
LEOPARD, nimir. (Cant. 4. 8; Isai. 11. 6; Jerem. 5. 6; Hosea 13. 7; Dan. 7. 6.) The leopard (Felis pardus) is still found in Syria, where it is known under its ancient name, nimir, and from the frequent
mention of this animal in Scripture, it appears that formerly it was by no means uncommon. (Isai. 11. 16.) Solomon speaks of "the mountains of the leopards," (Cant. 4. 8,) and there are several places in Palestine whose names intimate their having been its haunts, as Nimrah, (Numb. 32. 3,) Beth-Nimrah, (v. 36,) and waters of Nimrah. (Isai. 15. 6.) The animal, whose hide is of a yellowish colour, thickly dotted with black spots, is about four feet in length, exclusive of the tail, which commonly measures two feet and a-half. His eyes are lively and continually in motion; his aspect is cruel, and expressive of nothing but mischief; his ears are round, short, and always straight. Fierce, savage, and scarcely capable of being tamed, he attacks all sorts of animals, not excepting man.
Leopards seem to have been once very common in Egypt, as, on the monuments, the priests offering incense are usually clothed with a leopard's skin. This leopardskin dress was worn, says Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, on all the most important solemnities, and the king himself adopted it when engaged in the same duties.
LEPROSY, ny tsoraath. In the 13th and 14th chapters of Leviticus, minute accounts are given of the leprosy of men, of garments, and of houses. The first and the last have been already noticed under the articles DISEASES and HOUSE; but some further details may not be out of place.
Leprosy has generally been held incurable in the East; hence there are no directions in the Mosaic law for its cure, but only to prevent its spread among the people. Lepers were obliged to wear a peculiar dress, and to live apart outside the camp, and, in the end, outside the towns, in a situation suitably detached, where they might have intercourse among themselves, but not with clean persons. From such they were to keep at a distance, and if any one drew near to them unawares, they were to announce their condition and proximity by crying out, "Unclean! unclean!" After the lapse of several thousand years, the leprosy is still common in Egypt and Syria, and is also met with in other hot countries. Mungo Park states that the negroes are subject to a leprosy of the very worst kind; and Jackson, in his account of Morocco, informs us that the species of leprosy called jeddem, is very prevalent in Barbary: "At Morocco there is a separate quarter outside the walls, inhabited by lepers only. Those who are affected with it are obliged to wear a badge of distinction whenever they leave their habitations; so that a straw hat, with a very wide brim, tied in a particular manner, is the signal for persons not to approach the wearer." The disease was also once prevalent in this and other northern countries, as the numerous hospitals for lepers which once existed fully prove.
Perhaps the most accurate conception of the real nature of this frightful disease may be gathered from the following extract from the report made to the French government by Peysonnel, a physician, who was sent out, in 1756, to the island of Guadaloupe, to examine into a new disease which had recently appeared there: -"The commencement of the leprosy is imperceptible; there appear only a few dark reddish spots on the skin of the whites; in the blacks they are of a coppery red. These spots are at first not attended with pain, or any other symptom, but they cannot be removed by any means. The disease increases imperceptibly, and continues for some years to be more and more manifest. The spots become larger, and spread indiscriminately over the skin of the whole body; they are sometimes rather raised, though flat; when the disease increases, the upper part of the nose swells, the nostrils distend, and the nose itself becomes soft. Swellings appear on the jaw-bones, the eye-brows are elevated, the ears grow thick, the ends of the fingers, as well as the feet and toes, swell, the nails grow scaly, the joints on the hands and feet separate and die off; on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet there are deep dry ulcers, which rapidly increase, and then vanish again. In short, when the disease reaches its last stage, the patient becomes horrible, and falls to pieces. All these circumstances come on very slowly, for many years are often required before they all occur; the patient has no severe pain, but he feels a kind of numbness in his hands and feet. These persons are not hindered, during the time, in any of the functions of nature; they eat and drink as usual, and even when some of their fingers and toes die off, the loss of the member is the only consequence, for the wound heals of itself without attention or medicine. But when the poor people reach this last period of the disease, they are horribly disfigured, and most worthy of pity. It has been observed that this disease has other dreadful properties, such, in fact, that it is hereditary, and, therefore, some families are more afflicted with it than others; secondly, that it is infectious, and that it is propagated by persons sleeping together, or even having long-continued intercourse; thirdly, that it is incurable, or, at least, that no means to cure it have been discovered. A very well-grounded fear of being infected with this cruel disease; the difficulty of recognising the persons attacked with it, before the disorder has attained its height; the length of time that it remains secret, from the care of the patients to conceal it; the uncertainty of the symptoms at the beginning, which should distinguish it from other disorders; excited extraordinary alarm among all the inhabitants of this island. They were suspicious of each, because virtue and rank were no protection against this cruel scourge. They called this disease the leprosy, and presented to the commander and governor several petitions, in which they represented all the above circumstances; the general food, the uneasiness caused in this newly settled country, the inconveniences and the hatred which such inculpations produced among them, the laws which had been made against lepers, and their exclusion from civil society. They demanded a general inspection of all those who were suspected of having this disease, in order that those who were found to be infected might be removed into a particular hospital, or some separate place." Rosenmüller remarks upon this:-"All that these people required, and which was also granted them, we find to be prescribed in the laws relative to the leprosy, contained in the 13th chapter of Leviticus."
Michaëlis observes, "When we hear of the leprosy of clothes and houses, we must not be so simple as to imagine it the very same disease which is termed leprosy in
man. Men, clothes, and stones have not the same sorts of diseases; but the names of human diseases are by analogy applied to the diseases of other things." The "leprosy of clothes" is described in Leviticus 13. 47-59, as consisting of green or reddish spots, which remain in spite of washing, and continue to spread, so that the cloth becomes bald or bare, sometimes on the one side, sometimes on the other. It is not easy to identify this disease in clothes, or to say exactly in what it consisted. The Jewish writers themselves are rather at a loss upon the subject; and most of them rest in the conclusion that it was peculiar to themselves, and unknown to other nations; but there are some, as Abarbanel, who conclude that the disease was derived from the cloth having been touched or used by leprous persons, and imbibed from them the purulent matter in which the infection lay. Michaëlis says, "I have not been able to obtain complete information on this subject; but in regard to wool and woollen stuffs, I have consulted the greatest manufacturer in the electorate of Hanover, and he informs me that what he has read in my German Bible, at this passage, will be found to hold good, at any rate, with regard to woollen articles; and that it proceeds from what is called dead wool, that is, the wool of sheep that have died by disease, not by the knife; that such wool, if the disease has been but of short duration, is not altogether useless, but in a sheep that has been long diseased, becomes extremely bad and loses the points; and that, according to the established usage of honest manufacturers, it is unfair to manufacture dead wool into any article worn by man, because vermin are so apt to establish themselves in it, particularly when it is worn close to the body and warmed thereby. When I told him that, in the countries with a view to which I questioned him, the people, from want of linen and from poverty, had always worn and still wear, woollen stuffs next the skin, he stated it as his opinion that there the disagreeable effect just mentioned must take place in a still higher degree than in countries where a linen shirt is worn between the woollen clothes and the body. He added that dead wool was usually manufactured into sacks and horse-cloths. With regard to leather and linen, I can say nothing with historical certainty, because I know no great wholesale manufacturer or merchant in either line, and I do not choose to trouble my reader with conjectures." Clothes suspected to be thus tainted were to be inspected by the priest. If they were found to be corroded by the leprosy, they were to be burned; but if, after being washed, the plague was found to have departed from them, they were to be pronounced clean.
When a house was suspected to be tainted with leprosy, which is described as the appearance of spots on the wall, which continued to spread from day to day, the priest examined it, and ordered it to be shut up seven days. If he then found that the signs of the "plague" had not spread, he ordered it to be shut up seven days more. At the expiration of that time, he paid another visit, and if he found the infected spot dim, or extinct, he caused that part of the wall to be taken out and removed to an unclean place, the wall to be mended, and the whole house to be newly plastered. It was then shut up for another seven days; and if he then found that the plague had broken out anew, he caused the whole house to be pulled down. But if there were no such appearance, he pronounced it clean; this served to apprise every one that the suspected house was not infected, and thereby relieved the neighbourhood from any apprehension which might have been entertained. See HOUSE.
LEVIATHAN, (Job 3. 8, margin; 41. 1; Psalm 74. 14; 104. 26; Isai. 27. 1.) This word, Gesenius says, signifies "properly the twisted animal;" hence the name for every great water animal, especially a great serpent, also the crocodile.
All the old commentators supposed the whale to be here intended. But Bochart has supported the opinion of Beza and Diodati that it was the crocodile with such a train of argument, that nearly all modern Biblical students have concurred in it.
Dr. Mason Good, in the notes to his Translation of the Book of Job, says, "It is a sufficient objection to the whale tribes, that they do not inhabit the Mediterranean, much less the rivers that empty themselves into it; some of the species have occasionally been found in this quarter; but the great whale, or Balana mysticetus, perhaps never. This family of marine monsters, moreover, have neither proper snout nor nostrils, nor proper teeth. Instead of a snout they have a mere spiracle or blowing hole, with a double opening at the top of the head, which has not hitherto been proved to be an organ of smell; and for teeth, a hard expanse of horny laminæ, which we call whalebone, in the upper jaw, but nothing of the sort in the lower. The eyes of the common whale, also, instead of answering the description here given, are most disproportionally small, and do not exceed in size those of an ox. Nor can this monster be regarded as of fierce habits or unconquerable courage; for instead of attacking the larger sea animals for plunder, it feeds chiefly on crabs and medusas, and is often itself attacked and destroyed by the osk or grampus, though less than half its size.
"The crocodile, (Crocodilus vulgaris,) on the contrary, is a natural inhabitant of the Nile and other Asiatic and African rivers; of enormous voracity and strength, as well as fleetness in swimming; attacks mankind and the largest animals with most daring impetuosity; when taken by means of a powerful net, will often overturn the boats that surround it; has, proportionally, the largest mouth of all monsters whatever; moves both its jaws equally, the upper of which has not less than forty, and the lower than thirty-eight, large teeth; and is furnished with a coat of mail so scaly and callous, as to resist the force of a musket-ball in every part, except under the belly. Herodotus expressly asserts that one of the modes by which this unconquerable monster was occasionally taken in his time, was by means of a hook (aYKLOTрov), which was baited with a hog's chine, and thrown into the midst of the river; the crocodile having swallowed which, was drawn on shore and despatched."
The Talmudists represent leviathan to be a great fish, so great that one day it swallowed another fish which was nearly a thousand miles in extent. There were two, male and female, at first, but if they had both lived, the world would soon have been destroyed; therefore the female was killed and laid up in salt for the great feast of the Messiah in the latter days. (See FABLE.) Kimchi, a Jewish commentator, distinguishes leviathan and tannin (the "sea-monsters" of our version, probably the Phoca vitulina,) by their magnitude alone: "Leviathan," says he, "is that enormous serpent or dragon: hence leviathan is a sinuous animal, which coils itself up like a dragon; and is described by the Prophet Isaiah as the oblique, tortuous, or crooked serpent. But as the word tannin is often used to denote the whale, and other marine animals, so the term leviathan is, in Scripture, sometimes employed to denote the same creaDavid's description of the sea: There go the ships, tures. An example of this use of the term occurs in there is that leviathan whom thou hast made to play leviathan is ever used in this general sense; for the crotherein."" It is not, however, certain that the term codile, the creature to which it properly belongs, often Africa and the East. infests the sea near the mouth of the great rivers of
has given of leviathan in the Book of Job exactly corEvery part of the sublime description which Jehovah responds with the natural history of the crocodile, which lives equally in the sea and in the river. He has the shape of an asp; his legs are so short that, like the serpent, claws, his back-bone is firmly jointed, and his tail is a he seems to go upon his belly. His feet are armed with claws, his back-bone is firmly jointed, and his tail is a lated for strength. Diodorus Siculus speaks of the Nile most formidable weapon; his whole formation is calcuand its adjacent lakes as swarming with crocodiles in his time; yet very few were taken, and those not with hooks, but with iron nets. That this was a difficult undertaking may be inferred from the coin which Augustus the Roman emperor caused to be struck when he had completed the reduction of Egypt, on which was exhibited the figure of a crocodile, bound with a chain to a palm-tree, with this remarkable inscription, Nemo antea relegavit, which words seem to intimate that, in the experience of the ancients, to chain the crocodile was an achievement of the utmost difficulty. Plutarch asserts that no creature is so ferocious; and in another part of his works, that it is an animal extremely averse to society, and the most atrocious of all the monsters which the rivers, the lakes, or the seas produce.
When the crocodile is satiated with prey, he leaves the deeps to repose on the banks of the river, or on the shore of the sea. At such a time, none are so bold as to disturb his slumbers, or provoke his vengeance,