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bireth. (Josh. 9.6.) It was the custom among the ancient Hebrews to confirm covenants by sacrifice; and this practice was derived, Professor Jahn says, "from a usage among the Chaldæans. The practice to which we allude was this. Those who were about to confirm an agreement slew and divided the victims, and placed the parts opposite to each other. Then the party making the agreement or covenant passed between the pieces, declaring the terms by which he bound himself to abide. As this was the strongest and most solemn method Abram knew, of contracting a binding obligation, God thought proper to make use of it on this occasion, [the first covenant made with Abram. (Gen. ch. 15.)] The patriarch was directed to make the customary arrangements; and having made them, he remained till evening watching the carcasses, to protect them from injuries by beasts or birds: 'And when the sun was gone down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and lo! horror and great darkness fell upon him.' Then it was that God made a larger and more distinct declaration of his intentions than the patriarch had hitherto received. When the sun was set and it was dark, the patriarch saw a cloud of smoke, like that of a furnace, accompanied by a flame of fire, pass between the severed parts to ratify the covenant; and by that fire the victims were probably consumed. (Gen. 15. 8,9,17,18.) And by this ceremony the Hebrews not only confirmed their covenaat with God, (Deut. 29. 12,) but also with king Zedekiah. (Jerem. 34. 18,19.)

"There can hardly be a doubt, therefore," continues Professor Jahn, "that other covenants on other occasions were confirmed in like manner, (see Exod. 24. 4-8; Josh. 24. 25; 1Sam. 11. 15; 1Kings 1. 9, et seq.; 2Chron. 29. 10; Psalm 50. 5.) The hypothesis, therefore, of its being a customary thing to confirm agreements by sacrifices, accounts for the mention made in 2Chronicles 6. 22, of the oath before the altar, that is, before the victims slain upon it. And it may be observed further, that this was the practice not only in Judæa; but likewise among almost all the other nations of antiquity, of which we have proof in the words and phrases used on such occasions. For instance, bireth, meaning a covenant, is derived from a barah, to dissect or cut up, and means, literally, a dissection or cutting up of the victims that were sacrificed, when the covenant was confirmed. The Latin fœdus, covenant, in like manner, according to the etymology given by Servius, is derived from the epithet which was used to express the appearance of the wounds of the victims then slain. The Greeks had a corresponding phrase, and the Hebrews likewise, as karath bireth, to cut or to confirm, a covenant or oath. The Hebrew word ya nishba, to swear, means originally to swear by seven, that is, by seven victims. (Comp. Gen. 21. 24-31.) "These victims were symbols of the punishment which was to fall upon the violator of the covenant, and which those who passed through the victims imprecated on their own heads, in case of such violation."

In the account of that great covenant which God made with the Hebrews, (Exod. 24. 3-8,) it is added, that Moses sprinkled with the blood of the victims, the altar, the book of the covenant, and the whole people, saying, "This is the blood of the covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words." This signified to the Hebrews, that if they did not keep his commands, they would be accounted worthy to have their blood scattered in the same manner.

Traces of this custom may be perceived in the following superstitious observance related by Pitts. "If they

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[the Algerine corsairs] at any time happen to be in a very great strait or distress, as being chased, or in a storm, they will gather money, light up candles in remembrance of some dead marrabot (saint) or other, calling upon him with heavy sighs and groans. If they find no succour from their before-mentioned rites and superstitions, but that the danger rather increases, then they go to sacrificing a sheep, (two or three upon occasion as they think needful,) which is done after this manner; having cut off the head with a knife, they immediately take out the entrails, and throw them and the head overboard; and then with all the speed they can, (without skinning,) they cut the body into two parts by the middle, and throw one part over the right side of the ship, and the other over the left, into the sea as a kind of propitiation." In the case here referred to, the ship passes between the parts thus thrown on each side of it. See CONTRACTS AND COVENANTS; TREATY.

LEAH, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel, became the wife of Jacob, on whom her father imposed her in the place of Rachel. (Gen. ch. 29.)

Rosenmüller observes, "This deceit of giving Leah to Jacob instead of Rachel was the more easy because the bride was introduced veiled to the bridegroom. The following passage from Olearius [speaking of the modern Persians,] is particularly applicable here. If they are people of any consideration, they bring up their daughters locked up in their chambers, to hide them from view, and they cannot be seen by the bridegroom till they are received in the chamber. In this manner many a one is deceived, and receives, instead of a handsome, a deformed and ugly girl, nay, instead of the daughter, some other relation or even a maid. Also, when the bridegroom has sat down, the bride is seated by his side veiled, and magnificently dressed, and that neither may see the other, a piece of red silk is drawn between them, which is held by two boys.""

LEATHER, y or. (2Kings 1. 8.) A girdle of leather is referred to in the above passage, which, with the mantle of hair, formed the humble attire that the Prophets usually wore. In like manner John the Baptist had his raiment of camels' hair and a leathern girdle about his loins. (Matt. 3. 4.) Strong and broad girdles of leather are still much used by the nomade tribes of Western Asia.

We learn from the monuments that the ancient Egyptians were well acquainted with the various processes of tanning and working in leather, and from this ingenious people there is no doubt the Hebrews derived their knowledge of the art of preparing leather for a variety of useful purposes. It appears that the Egyptian tan was prepared in earthen vessels, and that the workmen could preserve skins either with or without the hair. Oxen, goats, sheep, and other animals, seem to have been as much valued for their skins as for their flesh; and hence we find that, in the Levitical law, they were reserved as a perquisite for the priest: "And the priest that offereth any man's burnt offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt offering which he hath offered." (Levit. 7. 8.) The skins of the wild beasts taken by the hunters appear to have been highly valued as ornaments; the priest offering incense among the Egyptians wears a leopard skin, and there are examples of the lion and tiger skin worn as surcoats; but in general dresses of leather were only worn by the lowest orders. Leather was also employed for

the manufacture of ropes, and the cordage used on board circumstance of the lower part of the picture being occutheir vessels was generally formed of leather. The cut-pied by two persons engaged in chair-making, it has ting of the leather into thongs appears to have been an been considered probable that leather was employed in important business; for it frequently occurs on the that art also. monuments; the knife used for this purpose was very similar to the one we now employ for cutting leather. It is evident that thongs cut straight would be of very limited extent, but we see, in the examples given on the monuments, that the Egyptians had the art of cutting their leather by a circular motion, which gave them a thong of considerable length, and we also find that it was these long strings which were twisted into ropes, or cables. The process is represented in the subjoined engraving, as is also the making of shoes; and from the

Amongst the articles composed of leather in the Egyptian room of the British Museum, which have been brought from the tombs, there are several sandals and shoes, and a cap of a single piece of leather cut into network, having at one corner a ring; there is also a workman's leather apron, narrowing towards the bottom, where it is cut into a kind of fringe; it has two straps. above to pass round the body, and a small purse-shaped pocket at the right side, secured by a flap and tongue; and the edge ornamented with a painted black border.

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LEAVEN, N sior, the mass of sour dough used to produce fermentation in the making of bread, is, in Scripture, used symbolically for the doctrine of the Gospel, (Matt. 13. 33,) as well as for corrupt opinions (Matt. 16. 6,12) and vicious practices. (1 Cor. 5. 6.)

Leaven was forbidden to the Hebrews during the seven days of the Passover, in memory of their ancestors, who, when they went out of Egypt, were obliged to carry unleavened meal with them, and to make bread in haste, the Egyptians pressing them to be gone. (Exod. 12. 15,19; Levit. 2. 11.) The Lord also forbade either leaven or honey to be offered to Him in his temple; that is, in cakes, or in any baked meats; but, on other occasions, they might offer leavened bread, or honey. From Numbers 15. 20,21, we learn that they were required to give the first-fruits of the bread, which was kneaded in all the cities of Israel, to the priests and Levites. St. Paul (1 Cor. 5. 7,8) expresses his desire that Christians should celebrate their Passover with unleavened bread; which figuratively signifies sincerity and truth.

that they have employed to put any manner of leaven in heretofore. And therefore all those utensils which are to be used for the Passover are new, or such as have been reserved from one Passover to the other.

The Apostle Paul says, (1 Cor. 5. 6,) "Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?" Roberts remarks that, in India, "this is said of the man who corrupts others; also of a bad servant. When a mother has to administer nauseous medicine, she says, 'My child, take it; do you not know the more sour the leaven the better the bread?' meaning because the potion, or powder, is offensive, it will produce better effects."


This name, among the Hebrews, was given to a portion of that vast range of mountains which, springing from the table land of Asia Minor, runs southward through Syria and Palestine, and terminates in the desert of Sinai, on the shores of the Red Sea. The range consists of two well-defined chains, of which the western is the Libanus, and the eastern the Antilibanus, of antiquity. The chains run nearly parallel to each other through Syria, but near Tyre the western chain abruptly terminates upon the coast, and from this circumstance it forms the northern boundary of Palestine, while the eastern one skirts the Jordan and the Dead Sea, thus affording a barrier on the east and south.

The practice of the modern Jews in this particular is as follows. On the thirteenth day of the month Nisan, in the evening before the Passover, they are obliged to put away all manner of leaven out of their houses; saying the following grace: "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who hath sanctified us with his commandments, and commanded us to put away the leaven." Those who disobeyed this command- The general elevation of the western chain is much ment were threatened with excision: "Seven days shall greater than that of the eastern, some of its points apye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put proaching ten thousand feet, but one peak of the latter, away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth usually considered as the Scriptural Mount Hermon, and leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, now styled by the natives Djebel Es-sheik, has an elevathat soul shall be cut off from Israel." (Exod. 12. 15.) tion of nearly twelve thousand feet, and derives its modern Their houses are therefore cleaned in the most careful name from a fanciful resemblance between its snow-clad manner, so that no kind of leaven is found in them. summit and sides, and the head and flowing beard of an They must likewise put away all those utensils which old man. On one of the loftiest summits of the western they make use of at other seasons of the year. For chain, Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke, in the height of they are not allowed to use any article on the Passover summer, "observed the snow lying, not in patches, as

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he had seen it during the summer upon the tops of very | elevated mountains, but investing all the higher part with that perfect white and smooth velvet-like appearance which snow only exhibits when it is very deep-a striking spectacle in such a climate, where the beholder, seeking protection from a burning sun, almost considers the firmament to be on fire."

Lebanon formed an almost impregnable barrier to the Holy Land against invaders from the north, it being impossible for cavalry and chariots of war to pass it, except by very slow degrees. Thus, when Sennacherib, in his haughtiness, would express the ease with which he could overcome every obstacle that might oppose itself to his invasion, and hence the vanity of the resistance of Hezekiah and his people, he says, "By the multitude of my chariots am I come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon; and I will cut down the tall cedars thereof, and the choice fir-trees thereof; and I will enter into the height of his border, and the forest of his Carmel." (Isai. 37.24.) Imagery is frequently borrowed from Lebanon, to denote the growing improvement, and the imposing character of the moral changes that would be exhibited under the Christian dispensation as the effect of the preaching of the Gospel. While some parts of these mountains were prolific, others were extremely sterile. The prophet Isaiah, for the sake of his argument, assumes the latter to be their general character, and recognising in it a fit emblem of the moral aspect of the earth, he predicts of the Gentile portion of it, "Yet a very little while, and Lebanon shall be turned into a fruitful field." (Isai. 29. 17.) Speaking of the moral plenty that should characterize the reign of Messiah, the Psalmist says, "There shall be a handful of corn in the earth upon the top of the mountains; the fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon; and they of the city shall flourish like grass of the earth." (Psalm 72. 16.) Its extended range and towering height, its eternal snows and fertilizing rivulets, its forests of cedar, its plantations of the vine, mulberry, fig, and olive, and its fields of corn and pulse; the eagle soaring above its topmost summit, the lion roaring among its ridges, and the hart and roebuck skirting its base, are, together, assumed to be glorious; and it is predicted of the Gentile world, "The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it." (Isai. 35.2.)

Very little is known of the zoology, botany, and geo

logy of Lebanon. From the scattered notices of travellers we learn that, though the lion is no longer found there, wolves, and a small species of bear, are very common, as are also antelopes, roebucks, wild goats, and the mountain sheep; birds of prey also are numerous. The cedar, once "the glory of Lebanon," has almost disappeared, but its place is supplied by a variety of firs, and the valonea oak and sumach; the vine, the mulberry, and the olive, are cultivated on terraces cut like flights of steps on the sides of the mountains; and the valleys produce in abundance wheat, cotton, tobacco, hemp, indigo, and sugar. As to geology, it would appear that the whole range, as far as it has been investigated, is mainly composed of either carboniferous or mountain limestone, with primitive rocks occasionally appearing. The limestone in many places is very porous, easily acted on by air and water, and rapidly worn into hollows of various shapes and sizes, which have been formed into sepulchres and caves. Basalt and other igneous rocks appear east and south of Lake Tiberias; and the heights skirting the Dead Sea present granite, gneiss, dolomite, &c. Iron and coal are abundant in some parts of the range. The former is wrought in two districts; but owing to the distance from which the fuel has to be brought for smelting the ore, the produce of the mines is scarcely adequate to the consumption. The coal mines which during several years past have been wrought by Mehemet Ali, are situated about eight hours distance from Beiroot, at an elevation of about two thousand five hundred feet above the sea. The seams vary from three feet to four feet and a-half in thickness; but the coal, though abundant, is rather sulphureous. The quantity of coal dug up in 1837 amounted in all to only four thousand tons. Iron pyrites are found mixed with the coal, and smelting furnaces have been erected near the pits; but the returns are quite insignificant. See FUEL.

Lebanon was anciently celebrated for its stately cedars, which appear to have been once very generally diffused; but they are now almost wholly destroyed. What few remain are found in a cluster near a village called Eden, thirty miles south-east of Tripoli; they grow among the snow high up the mountain, and are remarkable, as well for their age and size, as for the frequent allusions made to them in the Scriptures. See CEDAR TREE.

The general aspect of the scenery of Lebanon is thus described by the Rev. Mr. Elliot:-"Our route lay

directly across Mount Lebanon, the chief part of which | is nearly barren. Almost the only tree which it nourishes is the fir, and consequently the view is not of a character to interest a lover of scenery. From the sea and the plains the range forms a noble object for the eye to rest on; but when once the ascent is begun, few of the component elements of a beautiful prospect are discernible. Deep ravines, indeed, and rugged bristling precipices meet one at every turn, and render travelling both painful and hazardous; but there are neither glaciers nor waterfalls, neither lakes nor rivers, no verdant fields nor smiling valleys, no extensive forests, no floral richness, and no rural villages; even the cedars, once the glory of Lebanon,' (Isai. 60. 13,) have deserted it, and are replaced by the umbrella-topped fir. In one spot only called Bisharri, nearly opposite Tripoli, eight gigantic cedars, and a few of inferior size, attest the splendour of their by-gone race. The large trees mea sure about thirty-six feet round the trunk, and more than one hundred feet between the extreme points of the opposite branches; while at the base or a little above they send out five limbs, each measuring twelve or fifteen feet in circumference. At another spot, west of Bisharri, little known and seldom visited, this same interesting tree is found in much greater numbers, but of inferior growth. The mountaineers cut down the cedars for their charcoal and tar, which latter article is used medicinally to heal the wounds and diseases of the camel and the other animals." "In fact," says another traveller, "it is impossible to view these patriarchs of the vegetable world, the remains of vast forests that once supplied Jerusalem with its finest timber and its choicest incense, without feeling the truth, aptness, and precision of the prophecies concerning them: The rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, that a child may write them! Lebanon is ashamed and hewn down, The high ones of stature shall be hewn down. Lebanon shall fall by the mighty one.” (Isai. 10. 19,33,34; and 33. 9.)

judged of from the following account by Mr. Robinson of his visit to the Maronite convent of St. Anthony, otherwise called Kashheya:


"Nothing can be more romantic than the position which these holy anchorites have chosen for their retreat from the busy world. It stands on a narrow strip of land, at the foot of a precipitous height, rocky in the extreme, at the same time covered with the richest vegetation. A mountain torrent, bounding from rock to rock, passes rapidly before it, and seems, from the violence of its course, and its loudly-echoed murmurs, to interdict approach to the curious stranger. advanced hour of the day, and the apparent difficulty of access, made me hesitate whether I should be satisfied with external appearances, or verify the reports of travellers by personal experience. The latter finally prevailed. Accordingly, leaving my horse at the edge of the ravine, to wait my return, I descended alone by a circuitous path into the romantic valley of Abou Ali, so called from the torrent which intersects it. I found the convent gates open, and therefore entered, but did not meet with a soul to whom to address myself. After wandering for some minutes along its dark passages, I was about to retire from its solitary abode, when I was attracted by the sound of human voices to what turned out to be the church. Here I found the whole community, to the number of twenty or thirty, assembled for evening prayer. The service concluded, I introduced myself to one of the monks, who obligingly conducted me over the establishment, There is not much to be seen here. The whole claim of the place, as far as the eye is concerned, lies in its locality; but however picturesque it may be, seen from afar, when closely examined it is wretched in the extreme, being partly built and partly excavated in the rock. The church, for instance, is nothing more than an enlarged grot, perhaps the original habitation of some celebrated anchorite. The cells of the monks are small, and so damp, that, but for some legend which seems to be attached to the place, it seems It must not, however, be supposed, from these de- wondrous how human creatures could ever have taken scriptions, that the whole mountain region is barren and up their abode in so unhealthy a situation. I was shown uninteresting; for there are many fertile and well peopled a printing press with Syriac characters. It was interestvalleys, whose industrious inhabitants, chiefly Druses ing on account of its rarity in these barbarous countries, or Maronites, are occupied in the silk and dyeing trades, but it was in a sad neglected state, and it grieved me to and in raising wine, corn, tobacco, and cotton. Dr. Dr. find that those who superintended it were not the perBowring describes them as "an active and laborious sons likely to draw from it all the advantages of which race, who turn to good account such parts of the soil as it was susceptible. They were, no doubt, actuated by are suited to tillage; and in no part of Syria," he observes, the best of motives in obeying what they supposed to be is there so obvious an activity, in none are the inha- the mandates of their vocation; but it required no extrabitants so prosperous or so happy. The agricultural ordinary degree of perception to be convinced that they implements are rude; the plough is occasionally seen; themselves were drawn from a class of society very little but spade husbandry is much more used; and the steep- above those whom they were called spiritually to superness of the hill side requires a succession of terraces for intend. The Syriac language is known and spoken by cultivation. Almost every male inhabitant is a small many Maronites; and, in this district, the greater part proprietor of land; and some of the emirs are large of them write Arabic in the Syriac characters. On the owners, either cultivating their estates themselves, or left hand, on the approach to the convent, is a large natuletting them out to tenants." ral grotto, extending a great way under ground. I entered a few paces, when my ears were painfully struck with the cries of persons issuing from the further extremity, apparently in distress; upon inquiry I learned that this was the grotto in which mad persons are confined until cured. But what was the remedy resorted to? Scanty allowance of food, and severe discipline! I have heard it somewhere affirmed that apostates, whom they regard here as madmen, are subject to similar treatment. It is well that missionaries should be aware of this result of their benevolent intentions. The monks, when not engaged in their devotions, are severally employed either in cultivating the land belonging to the convent, or in supplying the few articles which their simple mode of life requires, and which their removal from any town

Lebanon is peopled by a great variety of religious sects, who, however, generally occupy distinct districts. Thus, the extreme north-east quarter is the seat of the Ansaries, who are believed to be the descendants of the ancient Ismaelians, or Assassins; Kesrouan, in the northwest, is peopled exclusively by the Maronites and other Christian sects; and the southern part is in the possession of the Druses. The Maronites, however, who are the most numerous as well as the most intelligent and industrious of all the sects, besides holding a large part of Kesrouan exclusively, have numerous villages in the Druse country, and are found in all the sea-ports of Syria. Churches and convents are very numerous in the Christian districts; their ordinary condition may be


prevents their purchasing." Some of the convents produce a wine called vino d'oro, of good quality, both red and white; but it is often spoiled by the practice of boiling, and the use of skins. The tobacco of Mount Lebanon ranks also as the best in Syria. The quantity of raw silk produced in the district, exclusive of Tripoli, amounts annually to 240,000 okes. The weaving industry of Mount Lebanon, however, is perhaps superior to its agriculture; for Mr. Consul Moore reports, that of about 1200 looms employed in this district, 300 were engaged in producing silk and cotton stuffs of the better qualities, 300 in weaving the abbas, or coarse woollen garment of the peasantry, and 600 in making coarse cotton shirting. Exorbitant taxes are, however, a great hindrance to industry, and it is only matter for surprise that, notwithstanding they are mulcted of nearly half their earnings, these people maintain their proud bearing and independent character.

The valley of El-Bekaah, the ancient Cole-Syria, which separates the two chains of Lebanon, is about one hundred miles long, and varies from ten to twenty miles in breadth, having an elevation, near the sources of the Orontes, exceeding 2000 feet above the sea. This valley, by collecting the waters from the mountains on either hand, is abundantly watered by rivulets; almost every village has its spring, all of which descend into the valley, and either lose themselves, or join the Liettani (the ancient Leontes), the source of which is between the towns of Zahle and Baalbec, about two hours from the latter place, near a hill called Tel Hushben. The soil is very fertile; and as the mountains concentrate the rays of the sun, a heat in summer is produced scarcely inferior to that of Egypt. Such a combination of water, warmth, and a good soil, produces exuberant fertility in the Bekaah, which is hence perhaps the most rich and beautiful part of Syria. The usual produce of the wheat harvest in the vale is tenfold; but in very good years it is often twentyfold.

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months. The inhabitants are very fond of it, eating it raw as a sauce for their roast meat; the poor people eat it raw with bread, especially for breakfast, and would scarcely exchange their leeks and bit of bread for a royal dinner."

The question, however, does not appear to admit of a positive determination; and Scheuchzer, Bishop Lowth, and others, think it is the lotus, a sort of water lily, peculiar to Egypt, that is referred to. The root of this plant is round, of the size of an apple, of an agreeable flavour and refreshing quality, especially in the heats of summer. Herodotus thus describes it:-"Those who dwell in the marshes have the same customs as the rest of the Egyptians; but to procure themselves easily the means of sustenance, they have devised the following inventions. When the river is full and the plains are become a sea, there springs up in the water a quantity of lilies which the Egyptians call 'lotus.' After they have gathered these, they dry them in the sun; and then squeezing out what is contained within the lotus, resembling the poppy, they make it into loaves, which they bake with fire; the root also of this lotus, which is round, and of the size of an apple, is edible, and imparts a sweet flavour." This food is prepared in Egypt to this day in nearly the same manner. Representations of the lotus are extremely numerous in the ancient paintings and sculptures, where they are supposed to be the emblems of life. See LILY; LOTUS.

Roberts says, "Cucumbers in India are eaten in abundance in hot weather, and melons are most delicious and plentiful. I have never seen leeks in the East, and I am doubtful whether they are to be found; but whether or not, there is much difference of opinion as to the translation of the word. The Tamul name of the lotus is the tamari. The Materia Medica, under the article Nelumbium speciosum, says this plant is the true lotus of the Egyptians, and Nymphea Nilufer of Sir William Jones. Its beautiful and fragrant flower is sacred to Lechemy, the goddess of Maga Vishnoo. It has a bulbous root, and is highly esteemed as an article

LEBBEUS, a surname of the Apostle Jude, brother of food. As it grows in tanks, it can only be had in the of James the Less. (Matt. 10. 3.)

LEBONAH, the name of a town belonging to the tribe of Ephraim, near Shiloh. (Judges 21. 19.) A village called Leban, situated about ten miles south of Nablous, (the ancient Shechem,) is supposed to occupy its site.

LEDGES, Db shilabim. (1 Kings 7. 28,29.) In the Chaldee shilab signifies the step of a ladder. Here it indicates the ledges, which in the form of a border covered the joinings of the sides of the bases of brass, placed by Solomon in the Temple, and were made so broad, according to Josephus, as to contain graven work.


LEEKS, hhatsir, (Numb. 11. 5;) Sept. 137 paca; Vulg. porrum. This word, which is derived from the root hhatsar, “to grow green," is rendered in many other places "grass," in one instance "herb," and in another "hay." Being thus variously rendered, doubts have been expressed whether the leek is here intended. The Septuagint and Vulgate coincide with our version, and Hasselquist is of opinion that the Allium porrum of Linnæus, called karrat by the Arabs, must have been one of those vegetables after which the Hebrews pined. He observes, "This was certainly one of those desired by the children of Israel, as it has been cultivated from the earliest times to the present in Egypt. The seasons for this are the winter and spring

hottest weather, when the water is dried up; and in this we see a most gracious provision in allowing it to be taken when most required. Its cooling qualities are celebrated all over India. The natives eat it boiled, or in curry, or make it into flour for gruels. I am therefore of opinion, that it was the lotus of Egypt, respecting which the Israelites were murmuring."

LEES, DDV shimarim. In Isaiah 25. 6, we read that in the last days the Lord shall "make unto all people a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees." Gesenius says, "it should be termed properly the preservers, because by keeping the wine on the lees they sought to preserve its strength and colour." In illustration of this passage a modern author states, "There is a custom which still prevails in some parts of Western Asia, where new wine is poured into vessels that have been kept for several generations, upon the lees of old wines of former years. When finally drawn off for use, the strength and quality of the wine is considered to have been greatly improved by this process; and it is often mentioned as a reason for recommending a particular wine to one who purchases or drinks."

In Zephaniah 1. 12 we read, "And it shall come to pass at that time, that I will search Jerusalem with candles, and punish the men that are settled on their lees: that say in their hearts, The Lord will not do good, neither will he do evil;" the margin has in place of "settled," "curded or thickened." The Tamul trans

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