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which can appropriate, to the elevation both of the intellect and of the heart, the sublime instructions of Revelation. The only other articles I am permitted to identify are my own, bearing the signature T., and those written by Mrs. Taylor, which are signed A.

"Instead of writing a general preface to the entire work,-which would have been out of place, considering the limited portion of it for which I am responsible,—I have furnished for the Appendix a Brief Survey of the Succession of Sacred Literature, a subject of deep interest, but which could not be discussed at the length its merits deserve without greatly exceeding the limits assigned to my labours. Under these circumstances, I have principally directed my attention to those parts of this extensive field which have been hitherto comparatively neglected, and have dwelt at considerable, but I trust not too disproportionate length, on the literature of the Greek and Syrian Churches.

"The Geographical, Chronological, and other Tables appended to the work have been carefully compiled from the best authorities, and cannot fail to be highly useful to the Biblical student. It is stated in the proper place, that the Bibliographical List of Authorities, to which reference has been made, was prepared by Mr. Goodhugh before his lamented decease.


Sincerely praying the Great Author of the Bible that these labours for elucidating its written word may lead those for whom it is designed to a deeper and more thorough appreciation of its spirit, the Editor bids his readers and contributors an affectionate Farewell.



KADESH, or KADESH BARNEA, 7 TP is celebrated in Scripture for several remarkable events. Here Miriam, the sister of Moses, died, (Numb. 20. 1,) and the Israelites murmured against God. (v. 2-6.) It belonged to the tribe of Judah, and is usually supposed to have been situated about twenty-five miles to the south of Hebron, but was probably much further south. Dr. Wells is of opinion that the Kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin, was a different place from Kadesh Barnea, in the wilderness of Paran. (Comp. Numb. 13. 26 and Deut. 1. 19.) Dr. Lightfoot, however, considers them as one and the same place, and so does Winer, and this seems best to accord with the Scriptural statements.

Moses, by Divine command, sent twelve men, from each tribe a man, to spy out the land of Canaan; who, after a reconnoitre of forty days, returned to him into the wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh. Bringing back, however, such a report of the land as seemed highly discouraging to the people, God was provoked to decree, that none of those above the age of twenty years should enter Canaan, (excepting Joshua and Caleb, who had brought back a different report from that of the rest of the spies;) but that they should perish in the wilderness, where, also, the rest should wander till they should complete so many years from their leaving Egypt, as the spies had spent days in searching the land of Canaan. After a signal defeat from the Amalekites and Canaanites, therefore, in an impious and presumptuous attempt, in defiance of the command of God, to enter Canaan, (Numb. 14. 40-45,) the Israelites turned and took their journey into the wilderness, by the way of the sea, as

God had commanded them.

KADMONITES, Kadmoniy, (Gen. 15. 19,) were a tribe of Canaanitish people, who inhabited the promised land east of the Jordan, about Mount Lebanon. They derived their name from their eastern situation, Op kedem, signifying the East.

black tents would fully correspond with the simile of Solomon, (Cant. 1. 5,) while their pastoral traffic is in every respect that adverted to in Ezekiel 27. 21, in his denunciations of destruction against Tyre.

II. Kedar is sometimes used as a name for Arabia Deserta. (Psalm 128. 5; Isai. 21. 16.)

KEDEMOTH, a city of the tribe of Reuben. (Josh. 13. 18.)

KEDESH, a city of the tribe of Naphtali, (Josh. 19. 37,) appointed one of the cities of refuge. (20. 7.) In the apocryphal Book of Tobit (1. 2) it is called


KEILAH, a town in the tribe of Judah. (Josh. 15. 44.) It was situated about ten miles north-west of Hebron, and it is said, by Jerome, that the tomb of the prophet Habakkuk was once shown here.

KENATH, a city of Gilead in the tribe of Manasseh, (Numb. 32. 42,) was for a time called Nobah, after the name of one of that tribe, who captured it from the Canaanites, though afterwards it recovered its ancient name. Here Gideon defeated and took prisoners the Moabitish princes, Zebah and Zalmunna. (Judges 8. 11, et seq.) On the site of this city now stands the ruined village of Kannat.

KENITES, Sept. Kevator, were a Canaanitish people, who, according to 1Samuel 15. 6, compared with Numbers 24. 20,21, dwelt among the Amalekites. According to Judges 1. 16; 4. 11, they appear to have been descended from Hobab. They were carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar.

KENIZZITES, DP Sept. Kevelator, an ancient Canaanitish people, were probably descended from Kenaz, a grandson of Esau. (Gen. 15. 19; Numb. 32. 12.)

KERCHIEFS. Considerable difficulty attends the explanation of the word nino mespachoth, (Ezek. KANAH, MP (Josh. 19. 28,) was the name of a 13. 18,) rendered in our version "kerchiefs." The Sepcity in the tribe of Asher. It was also the name of a tuagint and Syriac read "mantles, or cloaks," the Vulbrook on the confines of the tribes of Ephraim and gate "pillows." Kimchi says it was a rich upper garManasseh, (Josh. 16. 8; 17. 9,) termed, in the margin, It was probably some peculiar kind of veil or Brook of reeds. It rises in the mountains of Judah, but head-dress, denoting by its shape or ornament the chaonly flows during the winter, and falls into the Mediter-racter of those who wore them. The false prophetesses ranean Sea near Cæsarea; its present name is Nahr el alluded to, practised divinations, and pretended to deliver oracles, which contradicted the Divine prophecies.


KATTATH, a city of the tribe of Zebulun, (Josh. 19. 15,) in Judges 1. 30 called Kitron. The Zebulunites, it appears from the latter passage, were unable to drive out the ancient inhabitants.

I. KEDAR P was the name of a son of Ishmael, (Gen. 25. 13,) and also of a tribe of Arabian nomades, descended from him. Of the history of Kedar little is known, but his posterity were rich in flocks of sheep and goats, in which they traded with the Tyrians, (Ezek. 27. 21; Jerem. 49. 29,) and they were also celebrated for their skill in the use of the bow. (Isai. 21. 17.) The manners and habits of the Turcomans, a nomadic tribe, who infest the inland portions of Asia Minor, are precisely those of the wandering hordes of Kedar, as described in the books of the Old Testament; and their

The Eastern women bind on their other ornaments with a rich embroidered handkerchief, which is described by some travellers as completing the head-dress, and falling without order upon the hair behind. See HEAD-DRESSES.

KERI AND KETIB. In many Jewish manuscripts and printed editions of the Old Testament, a word is often found with a small circle annexed to it, or with an asterisk over it, and a word written in the margin of the same line. The former is called 'p ketib, that is, "written," and the latter keri, that is, 'read," or "reading," as if to intimate, write in this manner, but read in that manner. Some Jewish writers suppose them to have been made by Ezra; and others, that they originated in the observations and corrections.


of the Masorites at a much later period. When there is any such various reading, the wrong reading, the ketib, is written in the text, the true reading, the keri, is written in the margin. Thus, instead of the sacred name of Jehovah, the Jews substitute Adonai, or Elohim; and in lieu of terms not strictly consistent with propriety, they pronounce others less indelicate.

I. KERIOTH, a town belonging to the tribe of Judah. (Josh. 15. 25.)

II. A town of Moab, the destruction of which is alluded to by the prophets Jeremiah, (48. 24,41,) and Amos. (2. 2.)


doud, a pot or kettle. (1Sam. 2. 14; 2Chron. 35. 13.) The Syriac reads a large pot or kettle.

From the passage in 1 Samuel 2. 13,14, it seems evident that the kettle was employed for the purpose of preparing the peace offerings, as it is said, v. 14, "All that the flesh-hook brought up, the priest took for himself."

In the various processes of cookery represented on the monuments of Egypt, we see frequently large bronze pots or kettles placed over a fire; and in the Egyptian room of the British Museum may be seen various bronze buckets or kettles, which appear to have been used in the temples in some part of their religious worship. One of these has engraved on one side, Osiris, under the form of an emblem of stability, saluted by Isis and Nephthys, each pouring liquid from a vase of libations on the hands of two human-headed hawks, emblems of the soul of the deceased Petamoun, prophet of Amoun, in Thebes, chief scribe of Maut, scribe of the sledges of the abode of Amoun. On the other side is Petamoun, seated on a chair; his name is inscribed upon his dress; beneath the chair is a cynocephalus. His son, PreshKhons, prophet of Amoun, in Thebes, offers to him a libation from a vase, and incense from an amschoir, over an altar before a table. The hieroglyphical lines on the body contain the names of the personages and their invocations. The base is engraved in outline, to represent the calyx and expanded petals of the lotus.

KETURAH, the name of the second wife of Abraham, whom he married after the death of Sarah; she bore him six sons, (Gen. 25. 1,2,) who were settled by Abraham in the east country of Arabia, near the residence of Ishmael.

KEY, л maphtiach. (Judges 3. 25; Isai. 22. 22.) This is a well-known instrument, and it is employed in the Scriptures as a symbol of government, power, and authority. "The key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open." (Isai. 22. 22.) (See Door.) The keys of the ancients were very different from ours, because their doors and trunks were closed generally with bands, and the key served only to loosen or fasten these bands in a certain manner. The stewards of a great family, especially of the royal household, bore a key, probably a golden one, in token of their office; the phrase, therefore, of giving a person a key, naturally grew into an expression of raising him to great power. Roberts observes, "How much was I delighted when I first saw the people, especially the Moors, going along the streets, each with his key on his shoulder. The handle is generally made of brass, (though sometimes of silver,) and is often nicely worked in a device of filigree. The way it is carried, is to have the corner of a kerchief tied to the ring; the key is then placed on the shoulder, and the kerchief hangs down in front. At other times they have a bunch

of large keys, and then they have half on one side of the shoulder and half on the other. For a man thus to march along with a large key on his shoulder, shows at once that he is a person of consequence. 'Raman is in great favour with the Modeliar, for he now carries the key.' 'Whose key have you got on your shoulder?" 'I shall carry my key on my own shoulder.'" The key of the house of David was to be on the shoulder of

Eliakim, who was a type of him who had the "government upon his shoulder;" "the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace." Our Saviour says.

to Peter, "And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven;" (Matt. 16. 19;) that is, the power of preaching the Gospel officially, of administering the sacraments as a steward of the mysteries of God, and as a faithful servant, whom the Lord hath set over his household. We read of the "key of the bottomless pit," (Rev. 9. 1; 20. 1,) that is, a commission to open it, to let loose Satan to deceive the nations; and in Revelations 1. 18, of the "keys of hell and of death," that is, power over the separate state of departed spirits; to call men out of this life into the invisible state, to raise them from death at last, and to reunite soul and body

at the resurrection.

Key is also used as a symbol of the ability to interpret Scripture. Our Lord says to the Scribes and Pharisees, "Ye have taken away the key of knowledge." (Luke 11. 52.) And, according to the same analogy, "to open the Scriptures," (Luke 24. 32,) is to exhibit their true meaning, whereby others may understand them. It is said that authority to explain the law and the prophets was given among the Jews by the delivery of a key; and of Rabbi Samuel it is said, that after his death, they put his key and his tablets into his coffin, because he did not deserve to have a son, to whom he might leave the ensigns of his office. See DOCTOR.

The Rabbins say, that God has reserved to himself four keys; the key of rain, the key of the grave, the key of fruitfulness; and the key of barrenness.

"Power of the keys," is a term made use of in reference to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, denoting the power of excommunicating and absolving. The Romanists assert that the pope has the power of the keys, and can open and shut Paradise as he pleases, grounding their opinion on that expression of Jesus Christ to Peter, "I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven." (Matt. 16. 19.)

KHAMSIN. There are various allusions to pestilential winds in the Scriptures; thus the prophet Jeremiah speaks of a "dry wind of the high places in the wilderness," (ch. 4. 11,) and the Psalmist, in Psalm 103. 16, evidently alludes to the effect of some desolating wind, which very probably was the khamsin, so often mentioned by travellers in Syria and Arabia, under the name of the poisonous wind, or hot wind of the desert; the heat being, during its continuance, so excessive that it is difficult to form any idea of its violence without having experienced it. When this wind begins to blow, the sky, at other times so clear, becomes dark and heavy, the sun loses his splendour, and appears of a violet colour, the air is filled with a subtle dust, which penetrates everywhere; respiration becomes short and difficult, the skin parched and dry, the lungs are contracted and painful, and the body consumed with internal heat. In vain is coolness sought for; marble, iron, water, though the sun no longer appears, are hot; the streets are deserted, and a dead silence pervades everywhere. The natives of towns and villages shut themselves up in their houses, and those of the desert in tents, or holes dug in the earth.


M. Dumas gives us the following graphic description of this wind, which he encountered in the desert:"The night was delightful; we possessed water and shade, the two great requisites of which the desert is so sparing. After a night of sweet repose, we awoke fresh and vigorous, and commenced our journey in the highest spirits. At the moment of starting, our Arabs showed each other some red lines that streaked the eastern horizon; nevertheless, they did not seem to take further heed of them, and we had already forgotten these disquieting symptoms, which, however, had not escaped our notice, when, on entering the Wadi Pharan, we felt passing round us some of those fierce blasts of wind, the feverish pantings of the desert. The heat soon became insupportable; the sand, raised by an imperceptible breeze, which seemed an exhalation from the earth, enveloped us in a cloud, which burned our eyes, and every respiration choked our mouths and noses. Our Arabs, on their part, contrary to their habit, seemed to suffer from these inconveniences as well as ourselves, though it might be supposed that they were used to such attacks. They exchanged brief and hurried phrases with each other, and by degrees the remains of the hostility of the preceding evening were extinguished in a common anxiety. The two tribes closed and mingled together; the very dromedaries seemed anxious to seek each other, galloping with great agitation, never relaxing their pace, and stretching out their long necks so that their lower lips brushed the ground. From time to time they gave irregular and sudden starts, as if the ground burned their feet. Taleb then called out, Have a care; and after him the Arabs repeated the warning, which I heard without being able to comprehend by what danger we were menaced. I approached Bechara to ask him the cause of the uneasiness which pervaded us all, men and beasts. His only answer was, to take the skirt of his long robe and fling it over his shoulder, enveloping himself so as to cover his nose and mouth. I did the same, and on turning round, I perceived that our example had been followed by the Arabs, of whom nothing was seen but their black and brilliant eyes, which seemed still more black and brilliant, peeping out of their bournouses and abbayes. Finally, at the end of a quarter of an hour, there was no further necessity for asking any questions; we all, Franks and Arabs, knew equally well what was coming. The Desert forewarned us by all its signs, and spoke by all its voices; it was the khamsin.

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"The desert was imposing and melancholy; it seemed to pant and heave beneath us, and to force up a burning breath from its inmost depths. The transition had been rapid and singular; it was no longer the oasis of the preceding evening, the repose at the foot of the palmtrees, the refreshing sleep, lulled by the murmuring sounds of the fountain; it was the burning sand, the terrible shock of the dromedary; the devouring thirst, fierce, terrible, and maddening; the thirst which makes the blood boil, and displays to the wretch that it scorches, lakes, islands, trees, fountains, shade, and water. I know not whether the rest felt like me, but I was really a prey to temporary insanity, to a reverie, to an endless delirium which extended itself through all the vagaries of imagination. From time to time our dromedaries sank down, digging the scorching soil with their heads, to find some semblance of coolness beneath the surface; they then rose, feverish and panting like ourselves, and resumed their fantastic course. I do not know how often these falls were renewed; I cannot tell how we were so lucky as to escape from being crushed under our haghins, or buried beneath the sand; but I do remember that scarcely had we fallen, when Taleb, Bechara, and Araballah were close to us, prompt and ready to give assistance, but mute as spectres; they raised up the men and camels, and then resumed their course, silent and folded in their mantles. An hour longer of this tempest, and I am convinced that it would have buried us all. Suddenly a blast of wind passed, illuminating the horizon, as when the curtain is raised at a theatre. The Mokatteb!' cried Taleb. "The Mokatteb!' repeated all the Arabs. Then the sand rose again between us and the mountain; but Providence, as if to restore our strength, had shown us the desired haven. 'The Mokatteb! the Mokatteb!' we repeated, without knowing what the Mokatteb was; but guessing that it was our haven, safety, and life. Five minutes after, we glided like serpents into a deep cavern; the narrow entrance of the cave allowed very little light to come in'; our exhausted dromedaries knelt down with their heads extended to the rock, and remained so motionless, that their skins covered with sand gave them the appearance of camels in stone. On our side, without thinking of tent, carpet, or food, we lay down as best we could, a prey at once to a numbness and delirium which held the midway between sleep and violent fever; then, without speaking, sleeping, or stirring, we remained there until the next morning, extended on our faces, like statues hurled from their base."

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קברות התאוה

graves of desire," (Numb. 11. 34,35,) the name of one of the encampments of the Israelites in the wilderness, where they desired of God flesh for their sustenance, declaring they were tired with manna. Quails were sent in great quantities, but while the meat was in their mouths, (Psalm 78. 30,31,) the wrath of God In came upon them, and they were visited with a destructive pestilence, so that the place was called the graves of those who lusted. (1Cor. 10. 6.)

“Our course was very irregular, for the sand rose like a wall between us and the horizon. At every moment the Arabs, whose eyes could not penetrate this curtain of flame, shaded them with their hands to aid their sight, while their faces displayed anxiety and irresolution. In the mean time, the tempest continually augmented; the desert became more and more billowy; we entered deep furrows of sand, agitated like the billows of the ocean, and crossed the burning crests of these hillocks as a skilful swimmer cleaves the wave. spite of the precaution we had taken to cover our mouths with our mantles, we breathed as much sand as air, our tongues clave to the roofs of our mouths, our eyes became haggard and bloodshot, our respiration rattling in our throats revealed our sufferings without the use of words. I have often been exposed to danger and peril, but I never felt such an impression as that which I then experienced; it was nearly similar to that of a shipwrecked mariner exposed on a plank in the midst of a tempestuous ocean. We advanced almost senseless, without knowing whither, always more rapidly and obscurely, for the cloud of dust which surrounded us became every moment more dense and burning.

The site of this, like many of the other encampments of the Israelites, is unknown, but it is conjectured that it was situated without the wilderness of Sinai; for it is said, (Numb. 33. 16,) that they removed from the desert of Sinai, and pitched at Kibroth Hattaavah.

KID, gedi. (Exod. 23. 19.) Among the Jews the kid was reckoned a great delicacy; and it appears to have been served for food in preference to the lamb. (See COOKERY.) It still continues to be a choice dish

Jews: it is, that hhaleb, rendered "milk," here means "butter;" and that the literal force of the command is, "thou shalt not dress meat with butter." He observes that the Orientals have many words or circumlocutions arising from composition with the words, son,

among the Arabs. The Hebrews were forbidden by Moses to eat a kid boiled in the milk of its mother, (Exod. 34. 26; Deut. 14. 21;) and this remarkable prohibition is repeated three several times by the inspired lawgiver. As it is one which has been variously understood, we may here state the chief of these inter-daughter, sister, brother, mother; and that in Arabic, pretations. Some writers maintain that its object was, that a kid should not be killed till it was eight days old, when as it was thought it might subsist without the milk of its dam. This conjecture is derived from a supposed analogy between the injunction, and that which forbids a kid to be offered before the eighth day in sacrifice; others think that the interdiction is altogether against the eating of a sucking kid. Another view is, that it was in order that the dam and kid might not be slaughtered at the same time, which is elsewhere forbidden as regards the cow, the sheep, and the goat, and probably had reference to the cherishing of kind and humane feelings. Understanding the prohibition literally, it has been supposed that it was intended to guard the Hebrews against some idolatrous or superstitious practice of the neighbouring heathen nations. This appears to be the opinion of some of the Jewish expositors, though they have not been able to cite any instance of such a practice. Cudworth, however, states that in an old Karaite commentary on the Pentateuch, he met with the statement, that it was a custom of the ancient idolators, at the ingathering of their fruits, to take a kid and seethe it in the milk of its dam; and then to go about and sprinkle with the broth their trees, fields, and gardens, in a magical manner, under the impression, that by this process they insured their fruitfulness in the ensuing year. Spencer likewise mentions a similar rite as in use among the Zabians.

Michaëlis supports another interpretation which seems founded on the general opinion and practice of the

for instance, a kid's mother means nothing more than a goat-any goat that has yeaned. Moses also frequently gives his laws in special examples, without directly mentioning all those of a like description, to which they are applicable, so that what he enjoins with respect to goat's milk must be understood also of that of cow's; and all butter is originally milk, so that we can dress no victuals with butter without dressing it with milk. This is certainly the opinion which the Jews themselves entertain; and to this day they do not use butter combined in any way with meat, employing animal fat in its stead. The question may be asked, why was butter interdicted? To which it may be replied, that the interdiction of butter is one of the body of regulations, the combined operation of which was calculated to make their new country necessary to the Israelites, so as to render it impossible for them to abandon it for any other, or to resume their former mode of life. Two objects which we discover in many of the laws, are, for instance, to prevent their return to Egypt on the one hand, and on the other, to change their character from that of wandering shepherds to that of a settled agricultural people. The prohibition of butter would contribute to both these objects. It would oblige them to turn to oil as a substitute, and therefore not to neglect the cultivation of the excellent olive-trees, in which their new country abounded.

The modern practice of the Jews respecting butter, we have stated in the article EARTHEN VESSELS.

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KIDRON, P The brook Kedron, Kidron, or Cedron, as it is variously termed, (2Sam. 15. 23; 1 Kings 15. 13; 2Kings 23. 6,12; 2Chron. 29. 16; Jerem. 31. 40; John 18. 1,) flows through the valley of Jehoshaphat, eastward of Jerusalem, between that city and the Mount of Olives. Except during winter, or after heavy rains, its channel is generally dry; but when swollen by torrents, it flows with great impetuosity. Its bed is very narrow and rather deep, and is now

crossed by a bridge of one arch. Its waters are said to be dark and turbid, probably, because it collects the waste of the adjacent hills; and, like other brooks in cities, it is contaminated with the filth of which it is the receptacle and common sewer.

This was the memorable brook which David crossed barefoot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom, (2Sam. 15. 23,30;) into which Asa, Hezekiah, and Josiah cast the ashes of the accursed things used in idolatrous

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