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abroad. He, at the same time, persuaded Dr. Alston, then a young man, to give some public lectures on botany. Accordingly, in the beginning of the winter of 1720, these two young professors, began to give regular courses of lectures, the one on the materia medica and botany, the other on anatomy and surgery; which were the first regular courses of lectures on any of the branches of medicine, that had ever been read at Edinburgh, and may be looked upon as the opening of that medical school, which has since acquired so great reputation both in Europe and America.

In the summer of 1722, Dr. Monro read some lectures on chirurgical subjects; which, however, he never could be prevailed on to publish, having writ ten them in a hurry, and before he had much experience; but he inserted, from time to time, the improvements he thought might be made in surgery, in some volumes of Medical Essays and Observations, published chiefly under his own inspection.

About the year 1720, his father communicated to the physicians and surgeons at Edinburgh, a plan, which he had long formed in his own mind, of having the different branches of physic and surgery regularly taught at Edinburgh, which was highly approved of by them, and, by their interest, regular professorships of anatomy and medicine were instituted in the university. His son, Dr. Monro, was first made university professor of anatomy; and two or three years afterwards, Drs. Sinclair, Rutherford, Innes and Plummer, were made profes sors of medicine: the professorship of materia medica and botany, which Dr. Alston then held, having been added to the university many years before. Immediately after these gentlemen had been elected, they began to deliver regular courses of lectures, on the different branches of medicine, and they and their successors have uniformly continued to do so every winter since that period.

The plan for a medical education at Edinburgh, was still incomplete without an hospital, where students could see the practice of physic and surgery, as well as hear the lectures of the professors. A scheme was, therefore, proposed by Dr. Monro's father and others, particularly the members of the royal college of physicians, for raising by subscription, a fund for building and supporting an hospital, for the reception of diseased poor: and our author published a pamphlet, setting forth the advantages which would attend such an institution. In a short time, a considerable sum of money was raised; a small house was fitted up, and patients were admitted into it, and regularly attended by many of the physicians and surgeons in town. The fund for this charity encreasing very considerably, the foundation was laid of the present large, commodious, and useful hospital, the Royal Infirmary; in the planning of which, Dr. Monro suggested many useful hints; and, in particular, the elegant room for chirurgical operations, was designed and executed under his direction. This fabric has since been so largely endowed, as to be capable of receiving a great number of diseased poor, whose cases the students of physic and surgery have an opportunity of seeing daily treated with the greatest attention and care, by those who are most eminent in their profession; and a register of the particulars of all the cases, which have been received into the house, since its first opening, has been kept in books appropriated to that purpose, for the use of the students.

Dr. Monro, though elected professor of anatomy, in the year 1721, was not received in the university till the year 1725, when he was inducted along with that great mathematician, the late Mr. Colin M'Laurin, with whom he ever lived in the strictest friendship. From this time, he regularly every winter gave a course of lectures on anatomy and surgery, from October to May, upon a most judicious and com

prehensive plan, a task, in which he persevered with the greatest assiduity, and without the least interruption, for near forty years; and so great was the reputation he had acquired, that students not only flocked to him from every part of Europe, but likewise from the American colonies.

In 1759, our professor entirely relinquished the business of the anatomical theatre to his son Dr. Alexander, who had assisted him in the course of lectures the preceding year. After this resignation, however, he still endeavoured to render his labours useful to mankind, by reading clinical lectures at the hospital, for the improvement of the students.

His father, old Dr. Monro, lived to an advanced age, and enjoyed the unspeakable pleasure of beholding a son, esteemed and regarded by mankind, the principal actor in the execution of his favourite plan, the great object of his life, the founding a seminary of medical education in his native country. The son, who survived him near thirty years, had the satisfaction to behold this seminary of medical education frequented yearly by 400 or 500 students, and to see it arrive to a degree of reputation, far beyond his most sanguine hopes, being equalled by few, and inferior to none in Europe.

Few men were members of more societies than Dr. Monro; still fewer equally assiduous, in their attendance of those, which, in any way, tended to promote general utility. He was a manager of many public charities; and not only a member of different medical societies, but, likewise, of several others instituted for promoting literature, arts, sciences and manufactures in Scotland, and was one of their most useful members. While he was held in high estimation at home, he was equally esteemed and respected abroad, and was elected an honorary member of the royal academy of surgery, at Paris.

He was not only very active in the line of his own profession, but as a citizen and general member of

the community: for, after he had resigned the anatomical chair to his son, he executed, with the strictest punctuality, the duties of several engagements, both of a civil and political nature. At length, after a life spent in the most active industry, he became afflicted with a tedious and painful disease, which he bore. with equal courage and resignation till his death, which happened, July 10th, 1767, in the 70th year of his age.

Of his works, the first in order is his " Osteology," which was written for the use of the students, but is capable also of affording instruction to the oldest and most experienced practitioners: as, besides a minute description of the parts copied from nature, it every where abounds with new and important observations immediately applicable to practice. This work has been translated into most of the European languages. The six volumes of Medical Essays and Observations, published by a society in Edinburgh, are universally known and esteemed. To that society, he was appointed secretary; but, after the publication of the first volume, to which he had largely contributed, the members growing remiss in their attendance, he became the sole collector and publisher of the work. To him we are, therefore, in a great measure indebted for these numerous and important discoveries, with which this publication has enriched every department of medical knowledge.

His account of the success of innoculation in Scotland, may be considered as his last publication. It demonstrates his extensive correspondence and indefatigable industry, and had great influence in promoting that salutary practice. Besides these, he was also the author of several other elegant and masterly productions. A collection of all his works, properly arranged, corrected and illustrated with copper-plates, was published at Edinburgh, in a splendid quarto, by Dr. Alexander Monro, his son and successor to

the anatomical chair: to this is prefaced the life of the author, by his son Dr. Donald Monro.

MONTESQUIEU, (CHARLES DE SECONDAT) Baron de Montesquieu, of a distinguished family in Guienne, was born at the castle of Brede, near Bourdeaux, on the 18th January 1689. Scarcely had he advanced beyond the period of infancy, when the philosophical turn of his mind began to appear. At the age of twenty he prepared materials for his Spirit of Laws, by making concise extracts from those immense volumes, which compose the body of Civil Law. An uncle by the mother's side, who was a president of the parliament of Bourdeaux, having bequeathed to him his whole wealth, as well as his office, our young philosopher was admitted to the lat

ter in 1716.

Six years after, in 1722, his company having appointed him to present a remonstrance and petition against a new tax, he displayed so much zeal and eloquence upon the occasion, as to obtain its suppression. A year before, he had finished his Persian Letters, which he began in the country, and completed at such hours of relaxation as he could procure from the duties of his office. This profound work, under an air of lightness, announced to France and to all Europe, a writer superior to his works. It opened to Montesquieu the doors of the French academy. The death of Mr. Lacy, the translator of Pliny, having left a vacancy, our philosopher who had resigned his office, and who wished now to devote himself entirely to literary pursuits, offered himself as a candidate, and was received. His discourse upon. this occasion, is replete with energy and learning: it was pronounced on the 24th of Jan. 1728.

The design which Montesquieu had formed of painting the character of different nations in his Spirit VOL. III. No. 23.

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