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but caution; that he is so far from a radical that he has devoted a long life to the cultivation of his inborn conservatism; that, while asserting the claims of the new, he has never ceased to plead, in season and out of season, for the preservation of all that is best in the old."

A posthumous paper of H. H. Boyesen controverts accepted beliefs about the position of woman under ancient paganism, and ends with a warning to the present generation against the retention of "feudal ideas." "Until we cease to teach our girls the pernicious folly that they are to live only to love, they will, in my opinion, not be worth loving,-besides being exceedingly trying to live with."

THE ARENA.

IN the department of "Leading Articles"

"The Sociality of Jesus' Religion."

we have

Editor Flower continues his entertaining account of travels in England, illustrated by excellent half-tone cuts of important bits of scenery "beyond the walls of Chester."

Prof. Frank Parsons, who has been engaged for some months in an exhaustive inquiry into the cost of lighting in cities and towns, continues in this number of the Arena, his discussion of the electric light question. Having given in previous numbers the results of his examination of the investment and fixed charges of plants, he now proceeds to consider the cost of operation. The statistics which he has gathered are all decidedly favor able to the public ownership of electric light plants. Senator Morgan replies to the question, "Why does the South want Free Silver?"

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

HE Nineteenth Century has an imposing array of

Thames, but with the exception of the weighty pa

per by Sir Auckland Colvin on "Indian Frontiers and Indian Finance" the papers hardly come up to the expectations raised by their titles and their authors. We notice elsewhere Mr. Swinburne's poem, Mr. Somerset's article on the Venezuelan dispute, and Mr. Wilfred Ward's statement on the attitude of Rome toward reunion.

MR. GLADSTONE ON BISHOP BUTLER AND HIS CENSORS. Mr. Gladstone's paper is a shaving from the workshop in which he has been toiling for some time past. It is entitled "Bishop Butler and His Censors," and its author thus states its scope and object: "I propose to undertake a close examination of the criticisms of four writers who form or belong to the last-named class, and to take them in their chronological order. These are Mr. Bagehot (1854), Miss S. S. Hennell (1859), Mr. Leslie Stephen (1876), and Mr. Matthew Arnold (1877). Of these, one -namely, Miss Hennell-incorporates an important criticism by Dr. Martineau, which was first published about 1840, and which may in no vulgar sense be said to have been in the van of the attack." Mr. Gladstone is a great admirer of Butler, and concludes his paper by declaring that "the works of Butler will always render valuable service in the mitigation of controversy both by good example and in assisting men of upright minds, though of differing opinions, to regard each other with mutual sympathy and respect."

HERBERT SPENCER CORRECTS LORD SALISBURY.

Mr. Herbert Spencer is at much pains to correct the erroneous idea under which Lord Salisbury seemed to be laboring when he delivered his address at the British Association at Oxford. Mr. Spencer points out that "the Doctrine of Evolution, rightly conceived, has for its subject-matter not the changes exhibited by the organic world only, but also the changes which went on during an enormous period before life began, and the changes which have gone on since life rose to its highest form and Man, passing into the associated state, gave origin to the endlessly varied products of social life. The theory of natural selection is wrongly supposed to be identical with the theory of organic evolution; and the theory of organic evolution is wrongly supposed to be identical with the theory of evolution at large. In current thought the entire transformation is included in one part of it, and that part of it is included in one of its factors. Even were all theories about the special causes disproved, the doctrine of evolution would remain standing.

"While the hypothesis of organic evolution is indirectly supported by great masses of observed facts, the hypothesis of special creation is not only without indirect support from observed facts, but is indirectly contradicted by the enormous accumulation of observed facts constituting our daily experience."

Mr. Deane's exposition of the irreligion of the undergraduate has elicited two replies, one from Cambridge and the other from Oxford.

THE

THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW.

HE Contemporary Review contains several good articles. Two of them, Doctor Dillon's paper on foreign policy and Count Tolstoi's account of the persecution of the Russian Quakers, are noticed elsewhere.

A REFORM BILL FOR THE CHURCH.

Mr. Percy Bunting so seldom writes that it is a pleasure to welcome his contribution to the pages of the periodical which he so ably edits. The essay in which he sets forth his scheme for the reform of the Church of England, is characterized by great lucidity, much patient thought, and a logical intrepidity at which the ordinary man will stand aghast. For Mr. Bunting calmly proposes to attempt to create the Church of England. At the present moment Mr. Bunting points out that there is no Church of England, if by the church is understood a society of men organized and enrolled into a fellowship. The first thing, therefore, before reforming the church, is to bring it into existence. But who are the members of the church? Mr. Bunting says: "The church members, then, for the purpose at least of church government in every parish, would be those persons who, having been baptized and confirmed and having attained majority, are on the church roll, or better, have been on the church roll for twelve months."

Having thus created his church, he would give it an organization which from bottom to top should be frankly representative. He would give the parish council power to appoint and to control the clergyman: "It would consort best with plain democratic principle to place the appointment of the clergyman and the assistant curates absolutely in the hands of the parochial council. But such a system would very likely work, in practice, so as to give the parish council the nomination under the advice and subject to the veto of the diocesan board."

TH

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. `HE Fortnightly Review is not a sensational number to look at, but it contains a great many articles of more than ordinary interest. We notice elsewhere the article by a Brahman upon Mr. Balfour's book, Mr. Chisholm's "How to Counteract the Penny Dreadful," and Mr. Davey's "The Sultan and his Harem.”

SOME UNPUBLISHED BURNS LETTERS.

Mr. L. M. Roberts has an interesting paper on the Burns and Dunlop correspondence, which contains some unpublished letters of the poet. The collection is to be published in full in celebration of the hundredth anniversary of Burns' death. There is no scandal about the matter, for the lady was fifty-five years of age before she made Burns' acquaintance, and his letters to her are carefully studied compositions; even what he calls "a destructed scrawl, which the author hardly dares to read," contains a deliberately copied extract from his commonplace book. Burns wrote to her uniformly in a strain of extravagant eulogy. She was the first woman of note who ever recognized his genius. Mrs. Dunlop did not wish her letters to be published, and when she found that Dr. Currie, his literary executor, had a packet of her letters in his possession, she bought them back by paying one of Burns' letters for each one of hers. As a result her letters have not been published until now, when she is far past caring anything about their fate.

66 BOOK-COLLECTING AS A FINE ART."

Mr. Julian Moore gossips pleasantly concerning bookcollecting and its pleasures. Apart from the bibliographical details, the best thing in his paper is the anecdote with which he concludes: "On the other hand, as regards the good sense, not to say the wisdom of collecting, I will quote an anecdote (a very short one) of a collector who was remonstrated with on his extravagance in the buying of handsome books. He answered: 'You approve, do you not, of a man sometimes going to the theatre with friends, of his keeping a horse to ride, or his playing a game of whist, or making an occasional bet, if he feels inclined?' 'Well,' he anwered to the obvious reply, 'I practiced these things as relaxation from the time I was twenty till I was thirty. Within that time, I think, I must have spent two thousand pounds on pleasure, all of which was not income. Since then I began to collect, and now I have recouped this sum and am besides five hundred pounds to the good on the purchase of things that give me permanent pleasure, that all my friends are interested in seeing, and which are as salable as bank-notes, though not, perhaps, shilling to shilling, for what I gave for them. Can you say as much, my friend, for the orchids or the yacht you are so fond of ?""

THE NEW STUDY OF CHILDREN.

Professor Sully writes pleasantly concerning the new interest in children that is supplied by the scientific study of the growth of their mind, or, as Professor Sully calls it," the generic tracing back of the complexities of man's mental life to their primitive elements in the child's consciousness." The first years of a child mirror for us in a diminished, distorted reflection the probable condition of primitive man. Professor Sully insists upon the importance of this study also from the point of view of the educationalist.

HOW CUBA MIGHT HAVE BELONGED TO FRANCE.

On January 8, 1837, Queen Christina of Spain offered Cuba and Porto Rico to France, with the Philippine Islands thrown in, for forty millions of reals. The bargain would have been completed, according to Madame Colmache, who tells the story in her paper on "How Cuba might have belonged to France," had it not been for the patriotism of the Spanish envoy Campuzano, and the higgling propensities of Louis Philippe. The king had agreed to give thirty millions for Cuba, but he boggled about the extra ten millions for Porto Ric and the Philippine Islands. At last he declared the reduction of price must be accepted. "Seven millions of reals is my offer, or else the contract must be thrown into the fire." Thereupon Campuzano jumped to his feet, stretched his whole body over the table, seized the contract, twisted it together, and, looking the king full in the face, exclaimed, "Your Majesty is in the right; the contract is worthless, and only fit to be thrown into the fire." Without another word he strolled across the carpet and flung the paper into the flames. The company broke up without another word. Thus Cuba remained as a Spanish possession down to this day.

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WHENCE AND WHAT THE MALAGASY ARE.

The origin and character of the people of Madagascar are thus described in an article on the French occupation of the island: "It is almost beyond doubt that the Malagasy (as we conveniently term the people of the island) are Indonesians, whose forefathers have sprung from successive waves of migration of those widely scattered races which inhabit Oceania, Indo-China, and the Malayan Islands. Both on ethnical and linguistic grounds, it is generally acknowledged that the separate tribes now inhabiting Madagascar have derived their origin from mixed types of these Indonesian or MalayoPolynesian peoples. No people unite to greater natural intelligence a better aptitude for work; the Hova, in fact, spare no pains in their agricultural or commercial undertakings, and they show an unconquerable perseverance and incredible activity, bestowing continued toil on ungrateful and laborious tasks, such as those involved in the cultivation of their sterile soil."

IN the Westminster Review Mr. Greenwood discourses upon the causes which enable dogmatic theology to hold its own. Captain Burton's paper on "Russian Fictional Literature" is rather slight. Ellen S. H. Ritchie writes on the ways of womanhood. Mr. Lloyd sets forth the individualism which is the basis of Nonconformist philosophy. There is a paper on "Scientists and Social Purity" which is a great deal more of an essay on Professor Drummond's "Ascent of Man" than on the subject with which it especially deals.

THE FRENCH REVIEWS.

THE REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.

Warticle on Pasteur.

WE have noticed elsewhere the Vicomte de Vogüé's

66

M. Berthelot, who himself bears a famous scientific name, contributes a most interesting article on Papin and the Invention of the Steam-Engine." A contemporary of Louis XIV, he oddly enough is now best known by the excellent stock-pot which bears the name of Papin's Digester. He was a most eminent scientific man, and a member of the Royal Society founded by Boyle. He spent many years in England, and it is to be regretted that he did not permanently remain in London. The then Grand Duke of Hesse Cassel invited him to settle at

attention since trains de luxes have so enormously increased the weight of both coaches and engines. Still he admits that this would not be of such capital importance were it not that there is always a tendency to rely absolutely on the perfection of automatic mechanism. How often, he observes, do brakes refuse to work at the critical moment. The third and, according to the French writer, the most serious cause of modern railway accidents, is the fashion in which the great companies overwork their signalmen and engine-drivers.

Cassel in 1695. Papin's London career was thus replaced TE

by dependence upon a semi-royal patron. In 1708 we find him writing to Isaac Newton, asking for the wherewithal to build a boat to be propelled by the agency of fire.. But though Leibnitz followed up Papin's request by a letter from himself, the money seems to have been wanting, and thus, for all we may know, the discovery of the steam-engine may have been retarded by a hundred years. Papin was last heard of at Cassel in 1714, but the date of his death is unknown.

TE

THE NOUVELLE REVUE.

HE Nouvelle Revue is distinguished among the October continental publications inasmuch as it has no article dealing with Pasteur; Russia and things Russian are also conspicuous by their absence. The two articles which call for the most notice are a well-written and anonymous analysis of the mistakes made by the French when preparing the Madagascar Expedition, and M. Toreys' article on railway accidents.

In the first of these the French Minister of War's unknown critic prepares a terrible indictment. He points out that Madagascar, unlike Tonkin, the Soudan, and Dahomey, was by no meana a terra incognita; for during the last two hundred years France has been represented at Antananarivo by missions, schools, and merchants, and the French naval authorities were familiar with the coast and the various harbors of the island. He points out, with some justice, that since the Franco-Prussian War the whole efforts of France have been concentrated on continental warfare, and that therefore, when the Ministry of War were called upon to furnish the wherewithal of such a force as the Madagascar Expedition, they found themselves far from ready to do so. One by one the writer passes in review the many mistakes made by those who organized the material side of the expedition. Not content with criticising what has been done, he tells us clearly what, according to his opinion, ought to have been done; and he especially asks why, instead of seeking fresh and untried volunteers among existing French regiments, some attempt was not made to choose a body of picked men already familiar with colonial life and warfare. It is, however, fair to add that this article was evidently written before the news had arrived of the success of the expedition.

If we are to believe M. Toreys, our lives may be said to be in danger every time we enter a railway carriage. He attributes the greater number of the accidents which have occurred on the continent during the last few months in a great measure to the bad state of the rail roads, or actual permanent way, which requires far more

THE REVUE DE PARIS.

HE editors of the Revue de Paris are devoting themselves more and more to fiction and biography, leaving philosophical, agrarian, and, even to a certain extent, political subjects to older rivals.

The Duc d'Aumale contributes to the October Revue what promises to be one of the most interesting chapters in his forthcoming history of the Condes, that dealing with a sojourn made by the most famous of his ancestors at Chantilly during the latter portion of the seventeenth century..

In curious contrast is M. Edmond de Goncourt's really remarkable and delightful analysis of the career of the Japanese artist Hokousai, who flourished in the early part of this century, and of whom M. de Goncourt is now writing a biography. Hokousai spent his life illustrating the strange, primitive stories in which the Japanese delight, and whenever it is possible the French critic novelist analyzes the plot of first one and then another of those fragments of Japanese literature.

In the second October number the Revue, for the first time, ventures on illustrations, including three excellent reproductions of Meissonier's family portraits, as well as one of the famous artist as a child, drawn by his mother, and a really admirable reproduction of a pencil sketch, entitled "The Eve of Marengo." M. Gréard contributes the first portion of what should be a very valuable biog. raphy of the painter. M. Duclaux, who is said to have been Pasteur's favorite pupil, contributes some striking pages on his late master, whose laboratory he entered as long ago as 1862, when Pasteur was known but to a small circle of his fellow scientists. M. Duclaux brings out in striking fashion Pasteur's great love of his native country. Nothing seems to have given the great savant more pleasure than Professor Huxley's well-chosen remark that his discoveries had already more than replaced in material wealth the terrible Prussian War indemnity.

The July Revolution, in other words the events of 1830, are dealt with in both numbers of the Revue.

Under the title of "The Garden of England," M. Potez gives an amusing account of a late visit to Devonshire. The following few lines on London are not complimentary: "In a cab driven by a poverty-stricken cabman, whose melancholy countenance was that of a sickly drunkard, and whose mad eyes glared above his untrimmed beard. The fog acted as a shroud, while the sun's red disk gaped like a wound through the atmosphere of this accursed city; " but once the traveler found him. self in South Devon he had nothing but praise for people, scenery and architecture; everything about him reminded him of Shakespeare's "Midsummer Night's Dream," excepting that he was extremely impressed by the number of religions which flourished in each small town.

RECENT AMERICAN AND ENGLISH PUBLICATIONS.

RECENT FICTION.

The Days of Auld Lang Syne. By lan Maclaren. 12mo, pp. 366. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.25.

A Doctor of the Old School. By Ian Maclaren. 12mo, pp. 208. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. $2.

Nothing could be more welcome than the new volume of Drumtochty stories by Ian Maclaren which comes to us under the attractive title of "The Days of Auld Lang Syne," as a companion to the earlier series "Beside the Bonny Briar

ish of Drumtochty. It is a book to be read and reread. If any reader of ours is grateful to his family physician for unselfish and assiduous care, let him lose no time in buying a copy of this book, "A Doctor of the Old School," as a Christmas present for his own beloved physician. Maclaren may write all the rest of his life; but he can never pass the mark of this story of Dr. MacLure; and it gives him an undying place in literature.

The Men of the Moss-Hags. By S. R. Crockett. 12mo, pp. 370. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.50.

Mr. Crockett's new story of Scotch life carries us back to the time of the Covenanters, and it is destined to have a permanent popularity. Mr. Crockett has spared no pains to study the history as well as the topography involved in his tale of the heroic struggle of the Covenanters and viewed as a historical novel it is unusually accurate. Regarded as a romance, it is full of thrilling combat and reeks with gore, while its abundant love-making is in Mr. Crockett's well-approved and congenial vein.

A Monk of Fife. A Romance of the Days of Jeanne D'Arc. By Andrew Lang. 12mo, pp. 335. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. $1.25.

Mr. Lang has a great literary versatility, and is thoroughly in love with the method of the new romancers whose work wins so much popular favor. He has succeeded in spinning a very charming tale of the days of Joan of Arc, his leading characters being chosen from the band of Scotchmen who went to France and participated in the stirring campaign under the leadership of the Maid of Orleans which rescued France from the English. The many readers and students who are just now attracted by the revival of interest in the character and achievements of Jeanne D'Arc should by all means read Mr. Lang's romance.

The Second Jungle Book. By Rudyard Kipling. 12mo, pp. 324. New York: The Century Company.

It will be with no ordinary regret that Mowgli's friends will bid him farewell, for the tales of the Man Wolf and his fascinating Jungle Folk touch chords in the reader, young or old, which vibrate none the less responsively from long disuse. It is a new Mowgli whose adventures we follow, a Master of the Jungle instead of the humble neophyte who took Baloo's corrections so meekly, but the interest is if any. thing increased. The picture of the young demi-god-for his

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DOCTOR MACLURE.

(From "A Doctor of the Old School.")

Bush." The new stories deal with the same characters we came to know so well in the earlier volume. Best of all, Dr. MacLure comes back to us briefly in one of the stories. But, if the new book is welcome, what shall we say of the illustrated reprint of the last five chapters of the former volume, under the title "A Doctor of the Old School"? In all the literature which extols the virtues of the medical profession nothing, so far as we are aware, compares in beauty and pathos with this story of the heroic Dr. William MacLure of the par

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human mother's reception of him as a Godling corresponds exactly to the attitude of the sympathetic readerwho controls even Hathi the Silent and his mysterious elephant-tribe, is so entirely captivating that the finale seems at first almost like a retrogression. Even the many hints through the tales, the prophecies by old Raksha and Akela that "Man goes to Man at the last," fail to reconcile one to the inevitable, and one feels that the Man Wolf gave up more than he got. Mr. Kipling's style is as indescribable as could be expected of anything so charming. The rich flavor of the Jungle is never absent, and there is throughout the tales a suggestion of deeper things.

"Now these are the Laws of the Jungle

And many and mightly are they,

But the head and the hoof of the Law

And the haunch and the hump is-Obey !"

66

This is one of many Jungle precepts which manlings" might take to themselves with no little profit.

Uncle Remus, his Songs and his Sayings. By Joel Chandler Harris. Illustrated by A. B. Frost. 12mo, pp. 265. New York: D. Appleton & Co. $2.

Few Americans need an introduction to Uncle Remus. For fifteen years he has been with us, and his inimitable animals are as mirth-provoking to-day as when that superhumanly acute Brer Rabbit first delights us. It would be interesting to read of Mr. Harris's "creeturs" along with the Kipling tales merely to note how inmeasurably differently two practically similar subjects can be handled by different people, but the present volume has a much more valid claim upon the attention in its illustrations. It is a dangerous task to attempt to give pictorial expression to creations which are already household words, but Mr. Frost is peculiarly qualified for just this work, and the pictures add hugely to the attract iveness. The greatest triumph is perhaps in the Tar-Baby, which even Mr. Frost has rarely surpassed.

others, have shown a delightful appreciation of the literary possibilities that belong to a study of New York tenement house life. Mr. Townsend has in this new tale ventured beyond the domain of sketchy characterization and the short story, and has attempted a novel. Whatever the critics may say from their own point of view touching the artistic qualities of this piece of writing, the general public will pass a very favorable verdict upon it. It is an intensely readable story, Mr. Townsend is thoroughly in love with all of his characters except the villain and one or two minor people, and everything comes out as happily and successfully as in one of Ned Harrigan's plays. If Mr. Townsend will understand that we

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A Daughter of the Tenements. By Edward W. Townsend. 12mo, pp. 301. New York: Lovell, Coryell & Co. $1.75.

Mr. Townsend in his "Chimmie Fadden " and other stories of New York life has made for himself a real and not unenviable position among our writers, both as a humorist and as a story teller. The strange contrasts of life in the city of New York afford a rich field for character study. Journalists like Julian Ralph, Mr. Townsend, Mr. Jacob A. Riis, and several

EDWARD W. TOWNSEND.

mean the comparison as a compliment, we will confess that his story in many ways positively suggests some of Mr. Harrigan's creations. It ought to be dramatized, and Mr. Harrigan should play "Uncle Dan." Mr. Townsend has supplied plot enough for half a dozen stories; but the best thing about the book is not the story. The great merit lies in the pictures of East Side life based upon a careful study of Mulberry Bend and that vicinity. Mr. Townsend has been rather severely criticised for the incidental reflection which his story makes upon the methods of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, but we do not think he intends to find fault with the main purposes and results of that noble charity. His story has wholesomeness of tone, and staunch regard for everything that is good and true in personal character; but Mr. Townsend does not like municipal reform, and cannot help giving Tammany a little bit of aid and comfort.

Katharine Lauderdale. By F. Marion Crawford. 12mo, pp. 500. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.

This novel of Mr. Crawford's, which formerly appeared in two volumes, is now issued under a single covering, as one of the uniform edition offered by his publishers.

Casa Braccio. By F. Marion Crawford. Two vols., 16mo, pp. 334-332. NewYork: Macmillan & Co. $2.

While the tragedy in three acts, to which Mr. Crawford has given the above name, and which tells of an Italian vengeance waiting a quarter of a century for its consummation, could hardly flow as smoothly as the minutely detailed "Katharine Lauderdale," it repeatedly shows the author at his best. The plot is far too complicated to synopsize, but the characters of Gloria Dalrymple, the wonderfully beauti

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