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oppression and righteous in freedom, that it would prove to be nothing else than the direct reign of God in human affairs, the manifest and indisputable setting of His government in the world. While Jesus' ideal of the kingdom was surpassingly purer than the popular and orthodox ideal, and His conception of the kingdom's law and methods radically different, it was none the less the same kingdom of heaven He intended. He did not expect, nor did He once lead the people to expect, anything other than the realization of the kingdom of heaven as a holy society of universal justice on the earth."
"That the banker does not open his bank in the morning with the doxology, that the legislation of the state is not worded in religious phraseology, that the carpenter does not saw off each board with the Lord's prayer, that the merchant does not dismiss his customers with a benediction, that the judge does not convene court with chapters from Leviticus, that the insurance company does not print the sermon on the Mount in its policies, renders these operations none the less social sacraments and rituals of justice. Whoever casts from his bank door, or barn door, or factory door, or club-house door, or political caucus door, or ball-room door, or kitchen door, or bedroom door, the social shrine, is so far an atheist. The atheism is God-out-ness from life; and religion is God-in-ness in relations, making every human act and intercourse a religious rite.”
THE PERSECUTION OF THE RUSSIAN QUAKERS. N the Contemporary Review Count Tolstoi tells
befallen the Dookhobortzy, who may be described as a kind of Russian Quakers, and who are now being harried by the Russian government because they refuse to bear arms. The following is the substance of the story which Count Tolstoi has to tell : "The Dookhobortzy settled in the Caucasus have been subjected to cruel persecutions by the Russian authorities; and these persecutions, described in the report of one who made inquiries on the spot, are now, at this moment, happening. These Dookhobortzy were beaten, whipped, and ridden down; Cossacks were quartered upon them in ехесиtions,' who, it is proved, allowed themselves every license with these people; and everything they did was with the consent of their officers. Those men who had refused military service were tortured, in body and in mind; and it is entirely true that a prosperous population, who by tens of years of hard toil had created their own prosperity, were expelled from their homes and settled, without land and without means of subsistence, in the Georgian villages. "The cause of these persecutions is, that for certain reasons three-fourths of the Dookhobortzy (that is about 15,000 people, their whole population being about 20,000) have this year returned with renewed force and earnestness to their former Christian profession, and have resolved to comply in practice with Christ's law of non-resistance to evil by vio
lence. This decision has caused them, on one hand, to destroy all their weapons, which are considered so needful in the Caucasus, thus renouncing the principle of fighting, and putting themselves at the mercy of every marauder; and, on the other hand, to refuse, under all circumstances, participation in acts of force which may be demanded from them by the government; which means that they must refuse service in the army or elsewhere that violence is used. The government could not permit such a desertion of the duties established by law on the part of so many thousands of people, and a struggle broke out. The government demands compliance with its requirements; the Dookhobortzy do not obey.
THE GOVERNMENT'S POSITION.
"The government cannot afford to yield. Not only because this refusal of the Dookhobortzy to comply with the requirements of the government has, from the official standpoint, no legal justification, and is contrary to the existing time-consecrated order; but such refusals must be discountenanced at once, for the sole reason that, if allowed ten, to-morrow there will be a thousand, ten thousand others who wish to escape the burden of the taxes and the conscription. And if this is allowed, there will spring up marauding and chaos instead of order and security; no one's life or property will be safe. Thus the authorities reason; they cannot reason otherwise; and they are not in the least at fault in so reasoning."
A RELIGIOUS STRIKE.
The Russian government, in fact, is face to face with an organized strike based on religious principle against compulsory military service. The peasantry hate conscription, and if conscientious objections to soldiering as anti-Christian were permitted to exempt from military service the numbers of Russian Quakers would increase by the million. Count Tolstoi takes the persecutions very philosophically. He rejoices in tribulation and sees in martyrdom the shortest road to victory: "The more indulgent the government the quicker the number of true Christians will grow. The more cruel the government the quicker the number of those who yield to the requirements of government diminishes. Thus, whether indulgent or cruel toward men who by their lives proclaim Christianity, government is forwarding its own destruction. 'Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out.'"
He prefaces his paper with the following prophecy of ultimate victory: "If we will only have courage and boldly profess Him, soon not only will those horrible persecutions of the body of true disciples of Christ who carry out His teaching practically in their lives disappear, but there will remain no more prisons or gallows, no wars, corruption, idleness, or toil-crushed poverty, under which Christian humanity now groans.
THE FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS.
AN elaborate account of the women's club move
ment in the United States, by Mary C. Francis, appears in Godey's Magazine for December. The General Federation of Women's Clubs, formed six years ago, is to hold its third biennial convention in May, 1896, in Louisville. The recent Federation Congress, in connection with the Atlanta Exposition, has also done much to awaken the spirit of organization in the South. Concerning the present status of the movement, the article says:
"The Federation is an immense organization. It now numbers between five and six hundred individual clubs, and also the State Federations of Maine, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Nebraska, the Territorial Federation of Utah and the Federation of the District of Columbia. Thus it will be seen that the East leads, the Central states and the West and Northwest follow, and the South is last. The states contribute clubs to the General Federation as follows :
"New York, 85; Illinois, 63; Massachusetts, 48; Ohio, 44; Iowa, 22; Indiana, 21; Michigan, 21 ; Pennsylvania, 19; California, 16; New Jersey, 15; Colorado, 9; Minnesota, 9; Connecticut, 6; Washington, 6; Maine, 5; Missouri, 5; Kentucky, 5; Wisconsin, 5; Tennessee, 4; Kansas, 4; Texas, 3; Rhode Island, 3; Maryland, 3; Alabama, 2; Georgia, 2; Louisiana, 1; Arkansas, 1; North Dakota, 1; South Dakota, 1; New Hampshire, 1.
Altogether the South sends into the Federation thirty-two clubs, and more are to follow rapidly. New Orleans has a number of women's clubs, although only part of them are federated. The Woman's Council of Memphis embraces forty-eight of the leading clubs, showing a membership of between three and four thousand.
A MILLION CLUB WOMEN.
"The total membership of the General Federation is shown by its official records to run far up into the hundreds of thousands. In New York City and Brooklyn there are between forty and fifty thou sand club members. An approximate estimate of the entire number of club women in the United States federated and non-federated, must place it close to the million mark. The clubs which are not federated, make an unknown quantity difficult to compare with the official returns made to the Federation, but the unknown quantity is a very large one, for the Federation has not yet reached far into the South, and there are states like Vermont, which is represented in the Federation only by a chairman of State Committee of Correspondence, and there are great sections of the West and Northwest where the Federation must yet make its way. Neither of the Carolinas is represented.
"The Federation has ever since its organization been fortunate in its officers. Those who are at present in office are women of ability, experience,
tact and enthusiasm. They believe in organization, centralized power, focalized loyalty and united effort, and they are versed in all the best methods for obtaining these ends. Mrs. Ellen N. Henrotin of Chicago is the president, and has displayed great executive ability in the administration of the affairs of the Federation. She is deservedly popular, and her qualifications are greatly admired."
"The organization is compactly built. The club woman holds her relation to the club; the club is a member of the State Federation, and the State Federation is in its turn an affiliated branch of the General Federation, or, in many instances, the individual club is directly a member of the General Federation.. Running through this network of independence is the dominant idea of a true democracy. The motto of the Federation is 'Unity in Diversity,' and its fundamental principles are those of equality, of freedom, of largeness of thought, the development of individuality, and the dissemination of helpful thoughts and ideas."
WHAT THE CLUBS ARE DOING.
"A detailed classification of the lines of work of the various clubs is manifestly impossible. Twenty years ago nearly every club in the country was purely literary or social or both. To-day, after traversing apparently every field of art, history, music, literature, archæology, philosophy, science, ethics, religion and æsthetics, they have boldly reached out into other fields, and have been especially successful in exerting an influence on affairs hitherto supposed to be the especial domain of men.
"In practical work outside of purely mental development, they have done much. Many of the women's clubs have been active in promoting university extension centres, and establishing postgraduate courses; they have established and endowed chairs in colleges and universities, notably the Woman's Legal Education Society, which en dowed a chair for law lectures to women in the University of New York.
"Members of college clubs are nearly always active in university settlement work; they have established circulating libraries, one of the greatest needs of the country at the present time; they have taken an active interest in politics, have greatly influenced sanitary legislation in cities, have been influential in securing tenement house reform, and much-needed improvement in the management of jails, penitentiaries, almshouses and asylums, and they have secured representation on many school boards throughout the country, and in Chicago Mrs. Lucy L. Flower is a trustee of the University of Illinois. They have made practical investigations of sweat shops, factories and other great human hives, where the greed of the monopolist makes life cheap, and in many cases their reports represented to legislatures have secured laws which have granted shorter hours, better ventilation, and generally improved conditions; they have also suc
ceeded in regulating child labor in most of the states."
The records at hand would not justify any attempt to classify the work of clubs by subjects in geographical sections, yet it is evident at a glance that the clubs of the West are the most progressive and active in practical work and interest in current topics. The clubs of the South are almost purely literary and social. The Eastern clubs, so long conservative and literary, are rapidly imbibing the spirit of the times. Among clubs which are approximately models for others may be named : Sorosis, the New England Woman's Club; the Chicago Woman's Club and the Chicago Fortnightly; the Saturday Club, of Columbus, Ohio; the Professional Woman's League, of New York City, a club which holds its meetings year in and year out; the Indianapolis Woman's Club; the "Friends in Council," of Quincy, Ill.; the Brooklyn Woman's Club; the Portia Club, of New Or leans; the Phalo Club, of New York City; the Wednesday Club, of St. Louis; the Friday Club, of Chicago and the Sorosis of Cleveland, Ohio., which has recently taken up the plan of erecting a Cleveland club-house for all the clubs."
TENDENCIES IN THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN.
HE question of woman's higher education is
Mary R. Smith, of Stanford University, in Appleton's Popular Science Monthly. Assuming that two-thirds of all women college graduates marry, Professor Smith holds that the one-third who do not marry have as good opportunities for special postgraduate study as the men have in the same lines, and that their destiny should not concern us so much as the destiny of the two-thirds whose occupation is home-making. She insists that the college training of these women who marry bears no definite and satisfactory relation to their after lives. "The destiny of the girl who goes to college is carefully concealed from her." "Young women are turned blindly adrift among a mass of subjects, with no guide but a perverted instinct, and with many a hindrance in the shape of tradition and ridicule."
"The want of co-ordination between training and the needs of life in the education of women has repeatedly brought into question the desirability of the higher education at all for a woman who is to return to the home. As a result, there is a distinct tendency to demand a differentiation in the education of women. The recent proposal of a new type of woman's college is, in fact, a demand for a separate technical school in which there shall be a liberal scientific training with special reference to their domestic occupations and functions."
'Shall, then, the woman's college be a technical school, where she may learn all the practical details
of housekeeping and sanitary science? It is the same problem and must also be answered in the negative. Technical schools, wherever outside the university atmosphere show a fatal lack of breadth. Physicians with only the training of the medical school, engineers with no ideas beyond their own specialty, farmers who despise pure science, housewives who are only perfect housekeepers, are the inevitable product of a purely technical education.
"While such propositions as this are being widely discussed, the true solution is coming by a natural process. Within the boundaries of the new universities a few courses are offered to meet the specific needs of women's occupations. What women need is not to know how to cook, and wash and lay a table, but how to think out clearly, accurately and effectively any problem which they may meet in every-day life. As the numbers of women in the universities increase, and the influence of educated wives and mothers is more widely felt, there will be an adaptation of university work to the needs of women as well as of men. The now scarcely perceptible tendency to emphasize the profession of wifehood and motherhood in its proper relations will be increasingly controlling in all education of women. Surrounded by the atmosphere of generous culture, molded by men and women of varied abilities, guided in the special preparation for her future, the young woman will be soon able to obtain as broad and as specialized a training as her profession shall require a training which shall put her in touch with the best of the world for the benefit of her home and her children."
What Becomes of College Women ? President Thwing, of Western Reserve University, has also made recent investigations concerning the employments of American college women, as appears from his article in the North American Review. After showing that the teachers' profession is by far the most popular calling among college women who do not marry and devote themselves to home-making, President Thwing calls attention to the comparatively small number of college women in the ranks of the other professions.
"The last census of the United States shows that the number of women who are preachers is now 1,235, who are lawyers 208, and who are physicians and surgeons 4,555; but in these numbers are to be found only a few who are college women. A lamentably small proportion of the physicians of this country are college-bred. Out of the more than 4,000 women who are physicians it is probable that not more than 200 have had a college training. Out of the more than 1,800 women who are members of the Collegiate Alumni Association are only 34 physicians. The law, the ministry and journalism command a far smaller proportion, for, in the same association of college women, there are only half a dozen lawyers, preachers and journalists."
"But one induction of a nature somewhat startling is made evident. It is that from the great field
of literature the college woman has been absent as a creator for the last twenty years. The number of books, of every sort, written by college women is very few. No college woman has yet arisen whose work is to be put into the same class with the works of Miss Wilkins, Miss Murfree, or of Miss Phelps, or of several others whose greatest works have appeared in the time since the first college was opened to The American college has given us great scholars, great philanthropists, great administrators, great teachers. It has given us Frances E. Willard and Lucy Stone. It has not given us great writers. It has given us no great novelist. It has given one or two, and only one or two, essayists, and, without doubt, the most conspicuous is Miss Vida Scudder.
"It is possible that one may say that the American college for men has not given us great writers. The remark is partially true and partially false. Of the great historians, all, with one exception, are graduates.
Of that generation of poets who have helped to render American literature illustrious, all, with the exception of Whittier, are graduates. Some of the greatest essayists are not indeed included in the list, but Emerson is there. Of our novelists, a part, and a part only, are graduates. One does not forget that Howells is not a graduate, neither is Aldrich, but one does not fail to remember that Hawthorne was trained at the college of Longfellow.
"But all exceptions aside, it is certainly true that the graduates of the colleges for women have not made that contribution to literature that they have made to scholarship, or to teaching, or to administration. To consider the cause of this condition would carry us too far afield for the present discussion."
The process which takes place in the brain of the growing child is thus portrayed in Self Culture : As the growing child is brought into closer and closer connection with the facts of the outer world -as its perceptions become more and more intensea double process occurs in the cortex of its cerebrum. And this process occurs uninterruptedly and pari passu with the development of intellectual life. The first change noticeable is that the round embryonic cells develop into multipolar, or spindle cells, with the manifold nerve fiber connections previously noted. Nor is this all. New cells are constantly being secreted or formed in the cortex of the cerebrum, in accordance with the growing demand for them by the processes of sensation and thought.
"It is therefore plain that the brain is not full formed at birth-a house ready built and furnished, into which
'The soul that rises in us
Our life's star-'
moves as a first occupant. Whatever exists in us
as soul or mind separate from brain, it is assuredly of very small amount at birth, and finds little if any promise of the manifold complexity of its future mansion. It seems to be an undoubted fact that each new sensation of the growing child demands the development of its particular store-house, and as sensations are classified into memory and thought, that this same process of house-building goes on in the higher frontal centres of the cerebrum.”
The following suggestive paragraphs are taken from an article by the same author, in Education: "A Stradivarius used during his lifetime by some eminent virtuoso, possesses during the balance of its lifetime musical qualities which its twin-born instrument, unused by virtuoso, could never possess.
'The strings of the first instrument have been molded, by the hand of the master, in the very shape of the soul of melody, and preserve that etherial sound-producing quality forever afterward. In just this same way nervous tissues which are composed of cells and connecting fibres, acquire a 'habit' of the transmission of certain sensations and the performance of certain thoughts.
"What is called 'racking the brain' is due to this condition of affairs. It is as if a solitary wayfarer in the woods had reached a point where his path branches out in half a dozen different directions, and not knowing which trail will lead him to his objective point of destination, he is obliged to try each path in turn, in vain, and is at last compelled to strike out of his own accord through the woods. Thus it is that a sensation (which did not sufficiently impress itself originally upon its sense centre) in search of this vague memory runs down this fiber and down that fruitlessly, and finally is obliged to absolutely create a new pathway of thought."
Dr. Miller thus describes, in the School Journal, recent experiments in dog-brain building: “A gentleman who is now in the employment of the government at Washington has spent a number of years experimenting with dogs, and he has found that he can bring about much this same state of affairs in their brains. A dog is, of course, much lower in the state of being than a man; its senses are not so delicate, except perhaps in the case of smell, and its muscular movements are not anything like so fine.
"This experimentalist has taken one dog and given it an excessive training in the use of the right leg, another in the use of the left leg; another in the use of the right eye, another in the use of the left eye -the other eye being covered; another was limited to seeing the color red; another was highly trained in hearing sounds; another in barking, and so on. After sufficient time had elapsed to render it plain to the mind of the master that he had practically finished the special education of his dogs, he put them to a painless death with chloroform and removed their brains and examined them under his microscope. And he found that all of these dogbrains differed; some had more structure in the eye centre, and some in the barking centre, and some in the tail-wagging centre. That no two of them had
what he called this structural dominancy in the same place, and that they all had better brains in
SLUM BOYS ON A FARM SCHOOL.
special directions than they would have had without THE December Century contains a brief article by
"His conclusion, and not unjustly, I think, is that the brain of the dog is pretty much in his hands what the dough is in the hands of the baker-that he can knead it into any shape that he wills."
THE OUTLOOK FOR IRELAND UNDER TORY RULE.
IN the American Catholic Quarterly Review, Bryan
J. Clinche discusses at some length "The Outlook for Ireland" under Tory rule. Notwithstanding that Salisbury has returned to power with a larger number of followers than he had before Mr. Gladstone's last victory, Mr. Clinche is not one to believe the home rule question has thereby been banished to the list of political impossibilities. He says that the Irish home rule representatives have returned to Parliament after the political cyclone in Great Britain with undiminished numbers. They have even gained a couple of seats in Ulster, giving them a majority in the representation of that province as well as of every other in Ireland. Whether Tory or Liberal holds office in Westminster the Irish question will continue to block the way of British legislation until the legitimate demands of the Irish people are satisfied. The Conservatives, as a party, may care less for activity in legislation than the Liberals, but they must move or be crushed by the popular feeling of England. In short, he says, the fate of Irish home rule is not to be settled by any changing majority in the Imperial Parliament.
CHANGE IN THE TEMPER OF ENGLAND TOWARD
He points out that the temper of the people of Great Britain toward the national aspirations of Ireland has undergone a remarkable change during the past twenty years, favorable to more liberal legisla tion. Even Sir William Harcourt, the present leader of the Liberals in the Commons, was a most valiant opponent of home rule during the first ten years of its agitation. To Clinche, therefore, it does not appear that the late Tory triumph indicates any real revulsion of English sentiment against home rule. Eventually he believes that home rule will pass the House of Lords, and he is supported in this belief by the evidence of English history, which shows that in every case of serious conflict the Lords have given away to the elected representatives of the people; but it has always required a certain amount of time to accomplish that result. He says: A ministry, supported by the Commons and public opinion, could at any time swamp the House of Lords by the creation of an overwhelming number of peers, but to take such a step, the ministry must be sure of the popular support. as a new election would be unavoidable."
Jacob A. Riis, entitled "One Way Out," in which this well-known student of the submerged half describes a very fresh and charming method of dealing with slum children. This is no less than the utilization of a farm school for city waifs and pauper children.
FROM BAXTER STREET TO THE HILL-FARM. "From Baxter street to the hill-farm is a stride that fairly measures the length of the one the society has taken by forging this link in its educational machinery. It is well to remember that it is the one step that leads visibly out of the slough in which we are floundering more helplessly year by year. As it is the congestion of our city population that has got us into it, the way out of it is naturally to bring as much of the congested population as possible back to the soil; and the younger the transplanted contingent the greater the relief at one end and the gain at the other. This is not a new gospel. The farm has always been the most important end of the society's scheme. The regiment of boys the Children's Aid Society has sent forth from New York's tenements in forty years has helped to people more than one young State. But there was always this gap upon which Mr. Brace dwelt so anxiously. The small boys, as a rule, took kindly to the farm, and the farm to them. But with the larger boys that was not always the case. With all the unrestrained passions of the full-grown man in their half-grown bodies, with the roving spirit of the street strong in them, with its characteristic aversion to continued effort of any kind, and without any sense of responsibility, they were not always made welcome. It was not in reason that they should be. Even of these the great majority turned out all right in the end. Mr. Brace pointed with great pride to one who had been blacklisted for twenty years as a lost sheep, yet turned up suddenly as mayor of his town and a member of the State legislature.'
SIGHTS AT THE FARM SCHOOL.
"A walk over the 125 acres of the farm shows the boys at work hauling stone, cutting corn, and storing the stalks away for the winter, tending the cattle, and doing the hundred and one things farmers find to do in the busy autumn months. In the fields they are ever under the eye of the farmer and his assistants, who work with them, teaching them how to take hold. They are required to work steadily rather than hard. The idea is to teach them habits of industry and thrift as the beginning of their new life. A wagon load of apples is coming in from the orchard. On the load behind the ox-team half a dozen of the lads are perched, munching away at the apples and enjoying the ride. One of them has the characteristic features and complexion of the refugee Jew. The sweaters' district on the East Side gave him up not long ago. What comparisons he