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between the career of a jurist and that of a politician and statesman. In both capacities he attained great eminence, but his career might have been rounder and more satisfactory to himself if he had determined to follow one line or the other. His name will always be remembered and honored as that of an American public man of intellect, energy, courage and unspotted character.

A Secretary from Massachusetts.

With the exceptions of Henry Clay of Kentucky, and Lewis Cass of Michigan, our secretaries of state had always been appointed from the seaboard states until Mr. John W. Foster of Indiana succeeded Mr. Blaine in 1892, with Mr. Gresham of Indiana and Illinois following him in 1893. Elihu B. Washburn of Illinois, it is true, was appointed Secretary of State in 1869, but he chose to go to Paris as minister, and Mr. Fish of New York became secretary. The transfer of Mr. Richard Olney from the Attorney-Generalship to the post made vacant by Mr. Gresham's death, places the portfolio of state in the hands of a Massachusetts man for the first time since Edward Everett laid it down in 1853. Three other Massachusetts men had before Everett's time served as secretaries of state-namely, Daniel Webster, John Quincy Adams, and Timothy Pickering. Mr. Olney makes the thirty-third name

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SECRETARY OLNEY, FROM LATEST PHOTOGRAPH. have been Thomas Jefferson and Edmund Randolph of Virginia, Timothy Pickering of Massachusetts, John Marshall and James Madison of Virginia, Robert Smith of Maryland, James Monroe of Virginia, John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, Henry Clay of Kentucky, Martin Van Buren of New York, Edward Livingston of Louisiana, Louis McLane of Delaware, John Forsyth of Georgia, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, Hugh S. Legaré of South Carolina, Abel P. Upshur of Virginia, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, John M. Clayton of Delaware, Daniel Webster a second time, Edward Everett of Massachusetts, William L. Marcy of New Jersey, Lewis Cass of Michigan Jeremiah S. Black of Pennsylvania, William H. Seward of New York, Elihu B. Washburn of Illinois, Hamilton Fish and William M. Evarts of New York, James G. Blaine of Maine, F. T. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Thomas F. Bayard of Delaware, Mr. Blaine a second time, John W. Foster of Indiana, Walter Q. Gresham (assigned to Illinois), and Richard Olney of Massachusetts. When Mr. Cleveland designated Mr. Olney as Attorney-General in March, 1893, the country at large knew little about the appointee. But Mr. Olney's high standing at the Massachusetts bar, and his exceptional qualifications for the position of Attorney General were speedily made known. As the legal adviser of the administration he has been constantly consulted upon all questions of the government's foreign policy, and it is the prevailing opinion of the country that the President has

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done wisely in transferring Mr. Olney to the vacant post. It is not supposed that the appointment signifies anything new or sensational in the methods or policies of the state department.

The New AttorneyGeneral.

Mr. Olney's transfer to the cabinet post which carries with it the highest prestige left a vacancy which was promptly filled by the appointment of Mr. Judson Harmon, of Cincinnati, as Attorney-General. Mr. Harmon brings to his office an excellent reputation as a lawyer of ability and a man of qualities that make him worthy of the honor conferred upon him. He has been active in municipal reform movements in Cincinnati, and is known locally as a leader of the "better element" of the Democracy. He has acquired wealth as the attorney for several railway corporations, in which respect he resembles his predecessor. No other criticism has been passed upon his appointment.

Carlisle as

the Month.

On some accounts, the Hon. John G. Carthe Man of lisle, Secretary of the Treasury, may be considered as the man of the month. Mr. Carlisle's reputation as a financier has been very considerably enhanced in Eastern commercial circles through the practical success of the treasury operations which have restored the gold reserve of the government and thus helped to inaugurate a hopeful period of business confidence and activity. It is not a usual thing for the Secretary of the Treasury to go out and take the stump for the financial and monetary policies of his administration, but this is what Mr. Carlisle has been doing. Until recently, he was counted as one of the public men of the Democratic party favorable to the free coinage of silver by the United States. But in his present responsible position he has come to a perception of the dangers involved in any radical change of the monetary standard, and he has entered upon the greatest political struggle of

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his life in the endeavor to prevent the Democratic party from committing itself officially to the free-silver doctrine. Mr. Carlisle attended the so-called "soundmoney" convention at Memphis on May 23, and made the principal address. It was a very powerful speech, and it seems to us that its principal arguments, so far as they dealt with the immediate policy which this country ought to pursue, cannot be overthrown. Mr. Carlisle dwelt much upon the point that many millions of our people of small means have savingsbank deposits, building-and-loan-association shares, mutual-benefit insurance credits, or investments in some other form, and that all these people would suffer severely if there were any cheapening of the money standard.

The Silver Issue in the West.

The resolutions adopted by this convention, over which Gen. Thomas C. Catchings, of Mississippi, presided, were unusually clear and strong. The convention was composed chiefly of business men. It has since been followed by a prosilver convention at Memphis, over which Senator Turpie, of Indiana, presided. This event brought together a great array of well-known public men, and as an oratorical occasion it unquestionably surpassed the meeting which Mr. Carlisle addressed. But it served chiefly to mark the firm and aggressive mood of the Western and Southern political leaders who are determined to make the silver question the one sharp

HON. A. J. WARNER, OF OHIO, A prominent leader in the silver movement.

issue in next year's national campaign. The Memphis pro-silver convention was a non-partisan gathering, although Democrats greatly predominated in it. The real struggle of the present season has been between the two wings of the Democratic party. In Illinois the silver men control the state organization, and on June 5 they held a state Democratic convention at Springfield, to commit the party to the doctrine of unrestricted free coinage of silver by the United States at the ratio of sixteen to one. Attempts have been made by the anti-silver press to minimize the influence and significance of this Springfield convention. It was in point of fact an immensely enthusiastic gathering, and its success seems to have made clear the fact that a large majority of the rank and file of the Democratic voters of Illinois are in favor of free silver. The lawyers and leading business men in the towns are disposed to side with President Cleveland and Mr. Carlisle ; but the farmers and workingmen, so far as we can learn, are at present under the spell of the cheaper money arguments. As we go to press the contest for control of the Kentucky state Democratic convention is still pending. The Republicans of Kentucky declared against free silver some weeks ago, and Mr. Watterson is quoted as saying that if the Democrats do not take the same position the Republicans will carry the state. In Ohio and Indiana the silver sentiment is exceedingly strong among the Democratic voters, and it would be a great

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mistake to assume lightly that the silver men may not be able to control the National Democratic Convention next year. In which case there will be a split.

The Political

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The Republicans of Ohio have held their convention and nominated the Hon. Asa Drift. Bushnell for Governor. They have en. dorsed Mr. Foraker as their candidate for the United States Senate to succeed Senator Brice, the Democratic incumbent, and have duly named Mr. McKinley as their candidate for the presidency. Their declaration on the silver question is somewhat ambiguously worded, but it cannot be contorted into an indorsement of the free coinage position. While the Republicans are declaring themselves friendly in a vague sort of fashion to what they call a larger use " of silver, they are evidently proposing to stand next year upon a platform which for all practical purposes can mean nothing else than a maintenance of the existing gold standard. The National League of Republican Clubs, at Cleveland, Ohio, took this position. The question of presidential candidates begins to interest the politicians not a little, and the newspapers have printed unmeasurable columns of speculative gossip. If Mr. Carlisle's monetary views should prevail it is quite possible that he will be the nominee of the Democracy. Mr. William C. Whitney is regarded as a promising candidate, and Mr. David B. Hill's aspirations are not considered hopeless. On the Republican side the names most frequently

heard are those of Ex-President Harrison, Ex-Speaker Reed, and Governor McKinley. But Governor Morton, of New York, is now strongly supported by many of the Republican leaders of his own state, and Senator Allison, of Iowa, has some elements of availability which none of the other candidates possess. Mr. Harrison spent a portion of May and June in New York, where he gave sittings to Mr. Eastman Johnson for a portrait to be. added to the White House gallery of presidents. The exaggerated political significance attached by the newspapers to every incident in what was a purely private visit of the expresident, was not creditable either to the good taste or the common sense of New York journalism. The newspapers were, however, quite pardonable in making much of one occasion in which Mr. Harrison played a part. This was the famous Republican harmony dinner given by Mr. Chauncey M. Depew, the guests including Ex-President Harrison, Governor McKinley, Governor Morton, Mayor Strong, Mr. Thomas C. Platt, and a number of other Republican party figures of considerable note. Mr. Depew's reputation as a humorist was distinctly enhanced by the giving of this dinner; and when the genial host was compared man for man with his distinguished guests it was impossible to avoid the passing reflection that, in the interests of harmony, Mr. Depew himself might be as desirable a candidate as the Republican party could find. He takes his European summer vacation this year, as usual; and he always spends these vacations as an unofficial ambassador-at-large of the United States of America in the interest of peace and good will.



Our Duty Toward Secretary Olney's first important act Spaniard and in the state department was the issue of a proclamation warning American citizens against participating directly or indirectly in the Cuban revolution. This proclamation was evoked by the reports of considerable activity, on the Florida coast and elsewhere in the South, in the fitting out of small expeditions in aid of the patriots who are trying to throw off the Spanish yoke. The action of the state department was immediately followed by a corresponding display of energy in the naval department, and Secretary Herbert forthwith dispatched a vessel to patrol the Florida coast. We are not at war with Spain; and it becomes the duty of our government under the well-known rules of international law, no less than our express treaty obligations, to exercise a reasonable diligence in order to prevent the use of our territory as a base of operations by persons engaged in hostilities against the Spanish government. It must be remembered, however, that having duly abstained from overt acts, we cannot be prevented from entertaining the most lively sympathy for the Cubans. Nor is our government under obligation to incur any great or unreasonable expense in order to help Spain hold in subjection an American community which ought to have its freedom. The moral aspects of this case do not resemble in the faintest degree those of England's

conduct toward this country during our civil war. Cuba is in America, not in Europe. We in the United States are the purchasers of Cuba's entire exports. Cuba's connection with Spain has only been maintained by repression and military force. Whenever the Cubans will have formed a provisional government which can show that it has the support of the people of the island and that it is in tolerably complete control of the local situation, it will be the duty of our government to recognize Cuban independence, no matter how loudly Spain may bluster and protest. We do not believe that Mr. Olney and President Cleveland hold any other than the sound and clear American view of the situation. They must use all reasonable endeavor to prevent the departure of filibustering expeditions from our coast. They may with perfect propriety feel an ardent hope that Cuba will win her independence, but they could not express any such hope without giving offense to a power with which we are on friendly relations.

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MARTI, LATE POLITICAL LEADER OF CUBAN PATRIOTS. fleet of small steamers, which she will arm and place upon Cuban patrol duty. The hopes of the revolutionists grow higher every day, and if Spain should prevail in the end her victory will have cost her far more than it can ever benefit her. The death of Jose Marti, which was at first denied, is now confessed to be true by the insurgents. He was a popular Cuban editor, and was the political and intellectual head of the revolutionary movement. His death is bitterly mourned, but his loss only makes the Cubans the more stubbornly determined to persevere.

Unquestionably Russia has stolen a march Russia, China and upon the other great powers by coming into Japan. close and confidential relations with the Chinese government. Russia has made China a large preliminary loan; and the French government, with the aid of the Paris bankers, has found the money for Russia. The Trans-Siberian railway will find a route across China's territory to an advantageous harbor, and it is freely predicted that Port Arthur-which Europe has warned Japan that she must relinquish in due season-will fall eventually and permanently into Russia's hands. But this dénouement is highly disturbing to England and Germany. As for Japan, she is busily engaged in securing possession of Formosa, and in the end will surely find herself the stronger and safer for abandening the idea of holding territory upon the mainland. She will increase her navy as rapidly as possible, and will aim at nothing short of becoming the dominant naval power of the Pacific. With the extra fifty million dollars of indemnity money which it is expected that she will obtain for consenting to evacuate Port Arthur, Japan can build or purchase a fleet which would enable her to capture Port Arthur or any other fortress on the coast with considerable ease, whenever she might find it desirable to do so.


Australia's New Apprehensions.

The Australians, who until lately had never looked upon the progress of Japan as anything that could disturb their equanimity, are now becoming not a little apprehensive. England may soon come to the conclusion that she made a mistake in refusing to join the continental powers in their protest against the original terms of the treaty between Japan and China. Altogether the situation is an extremely interesting one. Our Australian colleague, Mr. Fitchett, writes as follows on these new international topics: The close of the war in the East may affect Australia very powerfully, and in two very unlike directions. Both Japan and China offer markets of unexplored vastness to the chief products of these colonies, and as one clause in the new treaty stipulates that China shall be open to Western commerce, it is clear that commercial possibilities of a very golden sort are unfolding for all the chief Australian products. Neither China nor Japan, for example, can hope to grow the fine wools of Australia, yet they offer an almost limitless market for them. Japan, in addition, promises to become an extensive purchaser of leather and butter, wines, etc., and the Japanese, with that same mental alertness which has made them victorious in the field over an empire ten times greater in bulk than their own, are clearly awake to the commercial value of Australia. The Japanese Diet on February 7 adopted a report in favor of subsidizing great lines of communication with Europe, America, and Australia, but these lines are to be subsidized in the order of their importance, and the Lower House declared the Australian service to be of the greatest immediate urgency, and recommended the expenditure of $300,000 in the establishment of a direct service with Australia.

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