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The Republican and Democratic Candidates for Governorship of Massachusetts.

local lines of reform in the conduct of state affairs.
The sentiment against corrupt methods and extrava
gant and selfish administration was never so strongly
aroused in Maryland as this year. The Pennsylva-
nia contest was bitterest before the Republican con-
vention. The campaign has attracted little national
attention since Mr. Quay conquered the opposition
in his own party at the Harrisburg convention. In
Massachusetts Governor Greenhalge's campaign for
re-election has excited much local interest, without
appealing very widely to the attention of people out-
side of New England. The Ohio contest, like that of
Kentucky, has been fought largely upon national
issues, the tariff question being kept prominently in
the foreground Leadership on both sides has been
unusually strong.


As to


The people of the country at large may be New York pardoned if they have failed to comprehend precisely the nature and significance of the campaign in the state of New York. The issues are so imperfectly joined that a more confused and uncertain political battle has seldom been fought. Reformers in the city of New York are interested in the character of the legislature to be elected on November 5th, because they hope for several reform measures which the last legislature did not concede. But they are by no means certain that a Republican legislature, under Mr. Platt's guidance, would show itself much more friendly to municipal purification than a Democratic legislature under the control of Mr. Hill and Mr. Croker. As for the campaign in the city of New York, the particular issue is the defeat of Tammany. A fusion anti-Tammany ticket was agreed upon early in October by the Republicans and the anti-Tammany

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(Drawn for the N. Y. Recorder of Oct. 18.)

wing of the Democrats.

The movement was furthered and the fusion ticket endorsed by the Chamber of Commerce, which had appointed a committee of fifty to represent it in behalf of good municipal government. Dr. Parkhurst and the City Vigilance League also accepted the fusion ticket, although with evident regret that it savored so strongly of a party deal, whereas the need of the moment was a non-partisan, good-government ticket.

The Good-Government Clubs had taken the initiative with a ticket of their own, hoping that the other anti-Tammany organizations would come to their terms. The Good-Government Club men see Boss Platt's hand so plainly in the making of the fusion ticket that they feel it incompatible with the proper sense of their mission to the community to give that ticket their endorsement. They have been far from unanimous, however, and many of the Good-Government Club members have thought it best to join hands with the Chamber of Commerce and Dr. Parkhurst's society. The ticket in itself is not open to much criticism, and the great majority of good citizens in New York have considered that, in the face of Tammany's determined effort to regain power, it was a plain duty to join in the one movement which could defeat Tammany. The outcome as we write is very uncertain. The attempt to force the temperance and Sunday questions into the

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would be permitted. Dallas, Texas, was the town which was originally fixed upon, the Texas laws having been found defective in their prohibition of prize-fighting. Governor Culberson, however, was determined that the soil of Texas should not be disgraced. In the face of a great pressure against his action, Governor Culberson called the legislature together in special session and promptly secured the desired enactment. The prize fighters were accordingly driven from Texas, and they next fixed upon the Hot Springs, Arkansas, as the place of meeting. Governor Clarke, of Arkansas, was doing his best to prevent the contest at the time when our record for the month was closed; but the legal questions involved were not fully determined. The spirit shown by Governor Culberson has won the warmest approval of right-minded people in every portion of the country, and it is perfectly evident that there will not long remain an inch of territory in this country where a prize fight can occur, as a public exhibition openly announced and advertised.

Hall Calne

The question of Canadian copyright is and Canadian one which has been much more keenly Copyright. discussed in publishing circles than in the press at large. The main issue at stake may be very simply explained. The government of Great Britain, in entering upon its international copyright treaties, has never pretended to act for Canada and the great colonies in the same conclusive fashion with which it has acted for the United Kingdom. Canada has allowed herself to be included in the English copyright arrangements, but with the distinct understanding that she could withdraw upon due notice and make a separate copyright arrangement of her own. Canada has accordingly determined to act upon her own hook, as a separate country; and instead of granting foreign authors the right to control the publication and sale of their own books in the Dominion, the Canadian Parliament has passed an act which will allow any Canadian printer to manufacture and sell any American, English, or other non-Canadian book at his own sweet will, provided he deposits with the Canadian government a ten per cent. royalty, which the author of the book may claim. Now it happens that the Canadian market for books is too small to justify the manufacture in that country of separate Canadian editions, with the exception of a few popular and cheaply printed works. American publishers believe that this law has been framed at the instance of a group of printers who intend to pirate copyrighted English and American books, and flood the American market with them. It is true that these Canadian books could not lawfully be brought across the border; but, with an unguarded boundary line three thousand miles in extent, it would be a simple enough matter to smuggle vast quantities of books into the United States. We have no means of knowing the hidden aims and purposes of the Toronto printers, but we are assured that the New York and Chicago publishers take a very disagreeable view of

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the Canadian motive. Although Canada has a right to withdraw from the existing English copyright agreements, its own new law is subject to the veto of the colonial office in London. The English authors and publishers are much stirred up, because they fear that Canada's abrogation of the international copy. right agreement would result in the withdrawal by the United States of the benefits which the American market now affords to British writers and publishers. Mr. Hall Caine, the distinguished novelist, has been sent to Canada and the United States as a special representative of the English interests, in the hope of being able to avert so great a calamity as the total cessation of international copyright arrangements between Great Britain and America. Mr. Caine's visit to the United States is giving his many admirers an opportunity to show their appreciation of his powerful and worthy achievements as one of the greatest fiction writers of our generation.

Pasteur and his Successors.

The greatest of the names which our obituary list contains this month is that of Professor Louis Pasteur, the worldfamed biologist and chemist of France, the story of whose long career is so inseparably identified with the history of scientific progress and with splendid developments in several branches of the healing art. We have elsewhere presented a summary of Professor Pasteur's life and career, together with an appreciative review of his varied scientific services. It happens that only a few days before Pasteur's death Professor Percy Frankland, at the Ipswich meeting of the British Association, had presented a comprehensive account of Pasteur's discoveries and their significance. We have reproduced a considerable portion of Professor Frankland's address, and have. also appended an appreciative analysis of the character and value of the great Frenchman's services which the late John Tyndall prepared several years


ago. Apropos of Professor Pasteur's death it is worth while to mention the great practical results in two different directions which are attending the efforts of Pasteur's pupils and successors. Professor Roux has achieved a most brilliant success with his new anti-toxine cure for diphtheria. The latest reports from Europe, based upon an analysis of thousands of diphtheria cases in the hospitals, have shown a marvelous diminution of mortality from this dreaded scourge of childhood wherever the anti toxine remedy has been properly used. Another of Professor Pasteur's great lieutenants,-perhaps the greatest of all,-is Dr. Haffkine, the Russian bacteriologist and physician, whose experiments in the Pasteur laboratory at Paris with the anti-cholera virus were explained by the REVIEW OF REVIEWS some two years ago. Dr. Haffkine has now for some time past been in India, where the cholera is always more or less epidemic; and there he has, at his own expense, inoculated more than forty thousand persons. We may not here go into the details of the methods by which he has demonstrated the value of his method of inoculation; but it is enough to say that the Health Department of Calcutta has completely endorsed his discovery, while the President of the Calcutta Medical Society, at a special meeting in his honor, has pronouncd him one of the greatest benefactors of the human race. Dr. Haff. kine has just been compelled to leave India from the fact that his great labors have impaired his own health and strength; but it is to be hoped that his illness is not serious. With such men as Koch the German, Haffkine the Russian, and Roux the Frenchman pressing steadfastly forward,-together with many others whose patient experiments are destined to bear fruit,-the great work of Louis Pasteur is destined to go on uninterrupted to further triumphs.

Hardly less famous than Pasteur was Story, the Sculptor an American man of genius who died and Poet. in Rome on October 7. W. W. Story was one of the most brilliant men America has produced. He came of a gifted family, for his father was the great Massachusetts jurist Joseph Story, while his grandfather, Dr. Lewis Story, was a member of the "Boston tea party" and an active and influential man in the Revolution. W. W. Story followed the footsteps of his father and be came a lawyer, distinguishing himself particularly as a law writer. Some of his law books are still in constant use. But his love of art prevailed over his devotion to the law, and in 1848 he went to Italy to make his home. His creative gifts were not limited to sculpture and painting, in which he distinguished himself so greatly, but he was also a musician; while as a poet and man of letters he attained a high and distinguished reputation. He will be remembered as one of the foremost sculptors of the nineteenth century. Although he had lived abroad for nearly fifty years, he was a loyal and patriotic American to the last. His two sons are artists of


acknowledged talent. Few American families have exhibited so remarkable a transmission of great talent as the Story family.

The death of Professor H. H. Boyesen of Professor Boyesen's Columbia College has occasioned sorrow in Death. many circles. Professor Boyesen seemed to be in the very prime of his vigor, and he was full of plans for work. He hoped to achieve greater things in literature than he had yet attempted. His death was from rheumatism of the heart and was very sudden. Coming to this country after the completion of a university education in his native land, Professor Boyesen within a remarkably short time acquired so perfect a mastery of the English language as to become in the full sense an American man of letters, using the adopted tongue as if it were his own vernacular. Meanwhile he maintained his close acquaintance and sympathy with the literary life and production of the Scandinavian countries, of Germany and of other European countries. As a teacher of comparative literature, a lecturer on modern novelists, and a writer in various literary fields, Professor Boyesen attained high rank. He was a man of great geniality, and his personal acquaintance with authors and scholars in this country and in Europe was remarkable for its extent.

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THE LATE HJALMAR HJORTH BOYESEN, Professor of Germanic Literatures, Columbia College. States against the Stanford estate has been decided adversely to the government. It is true that an appeal will be taken to the higher courts, but it is generally believed that the decision will be sustained. The University has been subjected to great financial inconvenience during the pendency of this suit, and the end of the litigation will afford a welcome relief to President Jordan and his associates. The University of the City of New York, which has made great progress under the energetic chancellorship of Dr. McCracken, has begun the new year with a formal dedication of its new grounds and buildings at University Heights, in the far upper portion of the city. Its location is still more remote from the heart of the metropolis than the new site of Columbia College. From the western and southern, as well as the central and eastern institutions come cheering reports of growth, not only in numbers of students, but also in facilities for good educational work. The Atlanta Exposition, whose praises are in everybody's mouth, is evidently going to prove itself especially valuable in its influence upon southern educational progress. Educational men are conspicuously identified with it. President Gilman, of the Johns Hopkins, is at the head of the board of awards, and President Hopkins, of Georgia, is the efficient local secretary. The educational interests of the country as a whole are co-operating in the most useful fashion with the Exposition authorities; and the Exposition, with its accompanying congresses and meetings, is performing the function of a great popular university for the current season.

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