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On the other hand, the startling triumph of Japan has some ominous possibilities for Australia. Experts like Colonel Maurice and Lord Wolseley hold that if Japan has secured the right of controlling the development of China she will quickly become "one of the most formidable powers in the world," both by sea and land. Victory, too, will quicken the pulse of a new pride, and a quite new passion for adventure in Japanese blood. Japan will be tempted to regard herself as the dominant power in the East, and will, in that event, come into conflict with the Western powers, and with England, perhaps, first of all. In the case of war with Great Britain, Japan would al most certainly strike at the Australian colonies. They are rich; they lie near; they are supposed to be weak; Japan is nearer to strike than Great Britain to defend. If the prospect of war and the chances of hearing the thunder of Japanese guns in Australian waters seem wildly remote, yet an authority like Colonel Maurice warns us that "if Japan insists on
the Chinese receiving the same right of entry into Australia as the Japanese, her navy, which has been greatly increased as a result of the war, will be a very powerful one with which to enforce the claim." It is clear that a quite new force has suddenly become visible in the political horizon of these Australian colonies, and no one can as yet be sure how that force may affect them.
Concerning Ocean Cables.
The Japanese, -as we predicted many months ago would be the case,-are now expressing a lively interest in the construction of a cable directly from their islands to our own coasts, and they are willing to subsidize the scheme quite handsomely. This does not harmonize with the plans of the Australians and Canadians, who are doing all that they can to promote the construction of a submarine line which will give the British empire a telegraphic system around the entire globe without touching other than British soil. The famous beginnings of submarine telegraphy have been brought
D. D. Field. Peter Cooper.
Marshall O. Roberts.
Wilson G. Hunt.
Cyrus W. Field. THE PROJECTORS OF THE ATLANTIC CABLE.-From the Chamber of Commerce Picture.
newly to our minds by a recent ceremony in the rooms of the New York Chamber of Commerce, the occasion being the formal presentation to the Chamber of a fine painting of the late Cyrus W. Field and his fellow promoters of the Atlantic cable. Those were men of large conceptions. Let us hope that new opportunities may not find our country lacking in men of creative force, breadth of view, and bold initiative. With our increased resources it ought to be possible for us to dig a Nicaragua canal, lay a cable across the Pacific, or carry out a dozen other enterprises of equal magnitude.
The Opening of the Kiel Canal. less acute.
Notwithstanding the questions that are threatening the peace of states, international animosities have been apparently The most notable event of the month of June has been the opening of the Kiel canal, at which all the powers were represented, including France. The hotheads of the Revanche objected to the presence of French men-of-war at a German function, but M. Hanotaux defended this act of international civility; and the tricolor was not absent at the opening of a canal one of whose objects is to increase the naval strength of Germany in any future war. The canal is a great engineering work which, as is well shown by the map, will enormously reduce the distance between London and the Baltic ports. To spend millions in expediting the shrinkage of the world is a piece of work eminently characteristic of the end of the century, which is becoming quite intolerant of time and space. The Nicaragua canal is the one most needed.
American Ships at Kiel and Elsewhere.
Our new American navy was suitably represented in the pageant at Kiel, by the participation of four cruisers, namely, the New York, Columbia, San Francisco, and Marblehead. Before proceeding to the German coast these handsome men-of-war had been much admired by Englishmen who visited them at Southampton. The port of Southampton, by the way, is becoming quite strongly American in the feeling of its townspeople, because it owes so much of its new prosperity to the enterprise of the American line of steamships which has preferred Southampton to Liverpool as a terminus. Since our last number was published, the American line has increased its active fleet of ocean cruisers by the addition of the St. Louis, built by the Messrs. Cramp, of Philadelphia. This new steamer, while not so large as the Lucania and Campania of the Cunard line, is one of the most beautiful and comfortable passenger steamers ever constructed. Her maiden trip was a brilliant success, and it is to be hoped that she may be the forerunner of a long list of American built steamers which can compete in every respect with the finest ships of Europe. Now that Japan and China are about to order a considerable number of new vessels it is expected that the recent achievements of American shipbuilders may win for them a fair share of these oriental orders. Americans will not for a moment admit that any nation can build better ships than we can, when once we have fairly given our attention to the subject of shipbuilding.
The Harlem Canal and the Greater New York.
While the Germans were celebrating the completion of the Kiel canal, New Yorkers were having a small and local holiday of their own in honor of the opening of the so-called "Harlem River Ship Canal." The upper end of Manhattan Island is bounded by the Harlem river and the Spuyten Duyvil creek, the one flowing into the East river which opens into Long Island Sound, and the other into the Hudson. A shallow natural waterway has long connected these two abbreviated steams. The object of the Harlem ship canal has been to convert the connecting link into a navigable passageway, thus not only facilitating the movement of freighting and coastwise shipping, but also increasing by a number of miles the water-frontage and dockage of New York city. The new passage is not really completed as yet, for it will ultimately be about twenty feet deep, whereas it is now only nine or ten feet. The railroads also are to cross it on bridges much higher than those in use at present, and it will be several years before these improvements are all completed. It is along the south shore of the Harlem river that the Park Commissioners of New York are now engaged in the construction of the famous speedway, which is to cost several million dollars and which will be one of the notable drives of the country. New York city extends a long way to the north of the Harlem river, but the population in the so-called annexed district is as yet very much scattered. Great parks have been reserved in this upper district by the exercise of a forethought which after generations will highly extol. A considerable further slice of country has been added to the municipal limits of New York by new legislation, and the municipal authorities took possession in
June. Under the new dispensation inaugurated by Mayor Strong, with good business men at the head of working departments, much in the way of external municipal improvement may be expected in the next two or three years. The Park Board and the other new boards are entering with zeal and efficiency upon their work, and a wholly new spirit is manifest everywhere. In spite of the reluctance of the last Legislature to promote at all points the programme of the New York municipal reformers, the city has begun to reap most substantial rewards from the victory gained at the polls last November. The reformers are determined to take an aggressive hand in the election next fall of a new Legislature, and the general outlook for municipal advance in America's greatest population centre is better than it ever was before. Among material signs of progress, apart from matters of municipal progress, are the prospects of an early construction of the long-mooted railway bridge across the Hudson, and the talk cf electricity as a motive power for the elevated railways.
The Season of
The past weeks have been full of interesting events for lovers of amaAmateur Sports. teur sports and athletic contests. In collegiate athletics the centre of attraction moves steadily westward. A great intercollegiate field day at Chicago on the first of June was participated in not only by the institutions of the Mississippi valley, but even by the University of California. The highest number of points was won by the California University, second, third and fourth places having been gained respectively by Michigan University, Iowa College, at Grinnell, and Illinois University. In the East, the great event in college sporting circles was the departure of the Cornell crew to row in England against the
University crews of Oxford and Cambridge. Through the spring and early summer, England was far more deeply absorbed in cricket than in politics or anything else. The central figure of the cricketing field was Dr. W. G. Grace, who had returned like a giant refreshed to the scene of his old exploits, and proceeded to show his juniors how to score. The letter which the Prince of Wales addressed to the veteran champion of English cricket may cause some people to sneer, but it is a frank and manly expression of
DR. W. G. GRACE.
the sentiments of the British public. Dr. Grace will probably prize it as much as a knighthood. The Prince's letter is as follows:
"Marlborough House, Pall Mall, S. W., 1st June, 1895. -Dear Sir.-The Prince of Wales has watched with much interest the fine scores which you continue to make in the great matches this year. He now learns that you have beaten all former records by scoring 1000 runs during the first month of the cricket season, as well as completing more than 100 centuries in first-class matches. His Royal Highness cannot allow an event of such interest to all lovers of our great national game to pass unnoticed by him, and he has desired me to offer you his hearty congratulations upon this magnificent performance. I remain, dear Sir, yours truly, FRANCIS KNOLLYS."
The interest which is taken in cricket is healthier than that taken in any other outdoor sport in England, and Dr. Grace, as the Archbishop of the cricket-field, has well deserved the Prince's com. mendation.
While the Prince of Wales was thus setting the seal of the Derby. his approval upon the pre
eminent national pastime, the Prime Minister in a still more practical fashion was promoting the national vice of betting by participating in the Epsom races. His horse, Sir Visto, starting with the pools selling at nine to one against him, surprised every one by carrying off the Derby, which his stable companion Ladas had won in 1894. Lord Rosebery has thus won the Derby twice in succession while he was Prime Minister, an achievement hitherto without precedent, and one which will probably have no parallel. As a doubleDerbied Premier he is the first and last in history.
The distribution of honors on the Queen's birthday excited in England. some remark. The Ministers, having a difference with the Upper Chamber, have passed a self-denying ordinance by virtue of which they make no Peers-to the no small disgust of the few Liberals and their wives who feel that they have deserved a peerage. The most notable political honor was the G.C.B. which Lord Rosebery offered to Mr. Stansfeld in a letter the perfect good feeling of which was in marked contrast to the extraordinary epistolary affront with which Mr. Gladstone thrust a peerage at the new G.C.B. But the honors
which excited most remark were not political. Knighthoods were bestowed upon Henry Irving, W. H. Russell, Walter Besant and Lewis Morris. Some future Prime Minister, improving upon this precedent, will be knighting J. L. Toole, G. A. Sala, Rider Haggard and William Watson. English knighthoods are becoming like the French Legion of Honor, and it will soon be as indispensable for journalist, author or artist to be a knight as it is for a notable Frenchman to have the red ribbon. Note among the minor honors Mr. Edward Fairfield, of the Colonial Office, who has his C.B. Mr. Fairfield, the second in command at the Colonial Office, is one of the ablest men in the Civil Service, and as a journalist one of the crispest and cleverest writers of the day. David Dale, of Darlington, one of the uncrowned kings of British commerce, receives a baronetcy, and Sir H. B. Loch becomes a Right Honorable.
The General While England was amusing herself with Election cricket and racing, Italy was passing in Italy. through the throes of a general election. The appeal to the people resulted in an overwhelming victory for Signor Crispi. The socialist vote showed an increase, radicals voting for socialists whenever
the socialists had the best chance of defeating the ministerial candidate. But, as the net result, Crispi will have in the new parliament 328 supporters and 150 opponents, of whom 19 are radicals, and 18 socialists. Friends of the Prime Minister treat this majority as a triumphant vindication of Crispi from the accusations brought against him of malversation and corruption. But universal suffrage in a country where the Pope's policy sterilizes half the electors is a very one-legged affair, and as such is capable of being swayed from one side to the other by considerations which have little to do with the merits and demerits of any particular case against the ministry of the day. The result does not prove Crispi to be innocent; it does not even prove that the electors believe him to be innocent. What it does prove is that Crispi is still the man on horseback, and that no one can as yet snatch the bridle rein from his hand. Italy therefore for another term of years will continue to be Crispi.