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told this story in its own way, says a historian; but the main features of it are alike in all its versions.

When there were no more men remaining on the earth, some of the gods desired the re-creation of mankind; and they asked help from the supreme deities accordingly. They were then told, that if they were to obtain the bones or the ashes of the former race, they could revivify those remains by their own blood. Thereupon Xolotl, one of the gods, descended to the place of the dead, and obtained a bone (whether a rib, or not, does not appear). Upon that vestige of humanity the gods dropped blood drawn from their own bodies; and the result was a new vivifying of mankind.1

An ancient Chaldean legend, as recorded by Berosus, ascribes a new creation of mankind to the mixture, by the gods, of the dust of the earth with the blood that flowed from the severed head of the god Belus. "On this account it is that men are rational, and partake of divine knowledge," says Berosus.2 The blood of the god gives them the life and the nature of a god. Yet, again, the early Phoenician, and the early Greek, theogonies, as recorded by Sanchoniathon3 and by Hesiod, ascribe the vivifying of mankind to the outpoured

1 Mendieta's Hist. Eccl. Ind., 77 ff.; cited in Spencer's Des. Soc., II., 38; also Brinton's Myths of the New World, p. 258.

2 See Cory's Anc. Frag., p. 59 f.

4 Comp. Fabri's Evagatorium, III., 218.

3 Ibid., p. 15.

LIFE TO THE DEAD.

113

blood of the gods. It was from the blood of Ouranos, or of Saturn, dripping into the sea and mingling with its foam, that Venus was formed, to become the mother of her heroic posterity. "The Orphics, which have borrowed so largely from the East," says Lenormant,1 "said that the immaterial part of man, his soul [his life], sprang from the blood of Dionysus Zagreus, whom Titans had torn to pieces,

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partly devouring his members.”

Homer explicitly recognizes this universal belief in the power of blood to convey life, and to be a means of revivifying the dead. When Circé sent Odysseus

"To consult

The Theban seer, Tiresias, in the abode

Of Pluto and the dreaded Proserpine,"

she directed him, in preparation, to

"Pour to all the dead

Libations,-milk and honey first, and next

Rich wine, and lastly water;"

and after that to slay the sacrificial sheep. But Circé's

caution was:

"Draw then the sword upon thy thigh, and sit,

And suffer none of all those airy forms

To touch the blood, until thou first bespeak
Tiresias. He will come, and speedily,-
The leader of the people,—and will tell
What voyage thou must make."

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Odysseus did as he was directed.

The bloodless

shades flocked about him, as he sat there guarding the life-renewing blood; but even those dearest to him he forbade to touch that consecrated draught.

"And then the soul of Anticleia came,

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My own dead mother, daughter of the king
Autolycus, large minded. Her I left

Alive, what time I sailed for Troy, and now
I wept to see her there, and pitied her,

And yet forbade her, though with grief, to come
Near to the blood till I should first accost

Tiresias. He too came, the Theban seer,

Tiresias, bearing in his hand a wand

Of gold; he knew me and bespake me thus :—

Why, O unhappy mortal, hast thou left

The light of day to come among the dead,

And to this joyless land? Go from the trench
And turn thy sword away, that I may drink
The blood, and speak the word of prophecy.'
He spake; withdrawing from the trench, I thrust
Into its sheath my silver-studded sword,

And, after drinking of the dark red blood,

The blameless prophet turned to me and said—"1

Then came the prophecy from the blood-revivified seer. The wide-spread popular superstition of the vampire and of the ghoul seems to be an outgrowth of this universal belief that transfused blood is re-vivification. The bloodless shades, leaving their graves at night, seek renewed life by drawing out the blood of 1 Bryant's Odyssey, Bks. x. and xi.

BLOOD TRANSFUSION.

115

It has

those who sleep; taking of the life of the living, to supply temporary life to the dead. This idea was prevalent in ancient Babylon and Assyria.1 shown itself in the Old World and in the New,2 in all the ages; and even within a little more than a century, it has caused an epidemic of fear in Hungary, "resulting in a general disinterment, and the burning or staking of the suspected bodies."3

An added force is given to all these illustrations of the universal belief that transferred blood has a vivifying power, by the conclusions of modern medical science concerning the possible benefits of bloodtransfusion. On this point, one of the foremost living authorities in this department of practice, Dr. Roussel, of Geneva, says: "The great vitality of the blood of a vigorous and healthy man has the power of improving the quality of the patient's blood, and can restore activity to the centres of nervous force, and the organs of digestion. It would seem that health itself can be

1 See Sayce's Anc. Emp. of East, p. 146.

2 Among the ancient Peruvians, there was said to be a class of devilworshipers, known as canchus, or rumapmicuc, the members of which sucked the blood from sleeping youth, to their own nourishing and to the speedy dying away of the persons thus depleted. (See Arriaga's Extirpacion de la Idolatria del Piru, p. 21 f.; cited in Spencer's Des. Soc., II., 48.). See, also, Ralston's Russian Folk Tales, pp. 311–328. 3 Farrer's Primitive Manners and Customs, p. 23 f.

The primitive belief seems to have had a sound basis in scientific fact.

transfused with the blood of a healthy man";1 death itself being purged out of the veins by inflowing life. And in view of the possibilities of new life to a dying one, through new blood from one full of life, this writer insists that "every adult and healthy man and woman should be ready to offer an arm, as the natural and mysteriously inexhaustible source of the wonderworking elixir." 2 Blood-giving can be life-giving. The measure of one's love may, indeed, in such a case, be tested by the measure of his yielded blood.3

Roussel says that blood transfusion was practised by the Egyptians, the Hebrews, and the Syrians, in ancient times; and he cites the legend that, before Naaman came to Elisha to be healed of his leprosy,5 his physicians, in their effort at his cure, took the blood from his veins, and replaced it with other blood. Whatever basis of truth there may be in this legend, it clearly gained its currency through the prevailing conviction that new blood is new life. There certainly is ample evidence that baths of human blood were anciently prescribed as a cure for the death-representing leprosy; as if in recognition of this root idea of the re-vivifying power of transferred blood.

Pliny, writing eighteen centuries ago concerning 2 Ibid., p. 5.

1 Transfusion of Human Blood, pp. 2–4.

3 See pages 85-88, supra.

52 Kings 5: 1–14.

4 Transf. of Blood, p. 5.

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