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scientific attainments, their traditions, their religious conceptions, must, of necessity, have been those of the Mayas.
Will any one object to the fact of a small colony of civilized immigrants establishing themselves in the midst of barbarous peoples, and growing, in the course of a few centuries, so as to form a vast and powerful empire, exercising great influence on the populations within its limits and even beyond ? To such objection it may be answered, History repeats itself. Without speaking of the origin of the great kingdoms whose history forms our ancient history, let us cast a glance at what happens round us.
See what has occurred in the same countries within the last two hundred and fifty years. From Fort St. George and the small settlement called Madras, on the narrow strip six miles long and one mile deep, bought by the English in 1639, on the coast of Coromandel, in the peninsula of Dekkan, and for which they had to pay, as tribute, every year, the sum of twelve hundred pagodas, or about two thousand five hundred dollars, has not the East India Company by little and little, extended its domains, until in our day, after a lapse of only two centuries and a half, they have become the rich and mighty British Indian Empire, whose viceroys now rule part of the same territories conquered in olden times by the Nagás and governed by their Cans, or kings?
Are not the English to-day endeavoring to obtain a foothold in Afghanistan, where, as we have already seen, the names of cities and localities are identical with the names of villages and places in Yucatan, some of which are actually inhabited, others being in ruins ? For instance, Kabul is the name of the Afghan capital, and of the river on the banks of which it stands. It is likewise that of a celebrated mound in
See p. 27.
the city of Izamal in Yucatan. On its summit once stood a temple dedicated to the “miraculous hand.” It was famous throughout the land, even to the time of the Spanish Conquest. Father Cogolludo, in his “ Historia de Yucatħan,” 1 says: “To that temple they brought their dead and the sick. They called it kabul, “the working hand,' and made great offerings.
The dead were recalled to life, and the sick were healed."
The Nahuatls, who settled in the northwestern parts of the peninsula of Yucatan about the sixth century of the Christian era, used to offer at that temple human sacrifices to obtain from the god the benisons they sought. This fact we learn from a mezzo-relievo, in stucco, that adorned the frieze that ran round the temple. (Plate LXVIII.) It represents a man with Nahuatl features. His body is held in a posture that must have caused great suffering. His hands are secured in stocks; his elbows rest on the edge of a hollow support; his emptied abdomen is propped by a small stool; his knees touch the ground, but his feet are raised and wedged by an implement; his intestines hang from his neck and shoulders; his heart is strapped to his thigh.
It is much to be regretted that since the author took the photograph here reproduced, this figure, with its accompanying inscription, has been purposely destroyed by the owner of the premises, because he considered it an annoyance to have interested parties coming to see it. This is but one instance of that lack of appreciation manifested by the people of Yucatan regarding the interesting and historically important remains that make the Peninsula famous and attractive. It is lamentable that the Mexican Government authorities take no
* Cogolludo, Hist. de Yucatħan, lib. iv., chap. viii.
steps toward compelling the preservation of ancient works of art, even in their deteriorated condition. The legend on the right, in front of the figure, translated verbatim, reads as follows:
That is: Ta ox uuɔ, u tem kam uuch noocol oxmal. Freely translated: “ The thrice bent man,” " the altar welcomes the crushed body, lying face downward, of the man from Uxmal."
It is well to notice that all the signs forming this legend are