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thenish. They agreed only in this point,
differing among themselves on many
points of doctrine. The most zealous
sect were the Brownists, whose founder,
Robert Brown (q. v.), in 1580, attacked the
discipline and ceremonial of the church
of England, as unchristian. The name
Independents is derived from the circum-
stance that each congregation formed an
independent community, subject neither
to bishops nor elders, nor any other eccle-
siastical powers; the minister was elected
and dismissed by the votes of the congre-
gation, and every member had a right to
preach. The principles of church govern-
ment inculcated by the Independents,
spread rapidly, and became a subject of
alarm to the government; some were ar-
rested, some executed, and many fled the
country. The sect survived in England,
under the name of Congregationalists;
but the principles of Brown were modi-
fied. The name of Brownists they dis-
claimed, calling themselves Congregation-
alists, and consider John Robinson (q. v.)
their founder. In the civil wars of Eng-
land during the 17th century, the Inde-
pendents formed a powerful party. (See
Cromwell, Great Britain, and Puritans.)
The English Independents now differ
from other Protestant sects in rejecting
any formula of faith, requiring only a pro-
fession of belief in the gospel; and their
pastors are not ordained. Among them
are several distinguished men.

INDEX. A scientific work becomes
doubly valuable by a well arranged and
complete index, made under the eyes of
the author, which saves the reader an
immense expense of time. A scientific
work of value is a book of reference, and
a book of reference without an index is like
a chest with a troublesome lock, which
tries our patience whenever we attempt to
open it. The plan of some newspapers
(for instance, the London Atlas and Niles's
Register, in Baltimore), to issue a general
index at the end of each year, deserves
much commendation, and ought to be im-
itated by every editor who considers his
journal worth preserving. By the Roman
Catholic church, index is used absolutely,
to designate the catalogues, or list of books
prohibited by ecclesiastical authority, on
account of the heretical opinions supposed
to be contained in them, or maintained by
the authors or editors of them. The cata-
logue, or list of books absolutely prohibit-
ed, is simply called the Index, or Index Li-
brorum prohibitorum; but when the list, or
catalogue, is of books allowed to be read,
after correction or alteration, agreeably to

the orders of the papal authorities, it is
termed Inder expurgatorius, and, in the
later indexes, the words donec corrigantur
are subjoined to certain works, in order to
render a separate expurgatory index un-
necessary. (Townley's Essays on various
Subjects of Ecclesiastical History, page
133.) The beginning of the prohibitory
index is to be found in Gratian's Collec-
tion, being a prohibition to read pagan
books by the council of Carthage, held
about 400. The emperors also prohibited
the reading of certain books. Constan-
tine, for instance, prohibited the reading
of the works of Arius. The popes, too,
used to order obnoxious books to be burnt.
The books of whole sects are sometimes
prohibited in a mass. The invention of
printing, in the middle of the 15th centu-
ry, caused a rapid multiplication of books,
and induced the papal hierarchy to pre-
vent, if possible, the circulation of any
which might prove injurious to the inter-
est of the Romish church. Hence origin-
ated imprimaturs (q. v.), or official perinis-
sions to print works; and the promulga-
tion and diffusion of the doctrines of the
reformation, in the following century, in-
creased the determination of the powerful
adherents of popery to suppress and to
destroy all the books tinctured with Lu-
theranism, or maintaining any of the pe-
culiar opinions held by the reformed
churches. In 1546, in pursuance of an
edict of the emperor Charles V, the uni-
versity of Louvain published an index, or
catalogue of books regarded as dangerous,
of which a revised edition was published
in 1550. Similar lists of interdicted books
appeared, nearly at the same time, at Ven-
ice, Paris, Rome, Cologne, &c. (for an ac-
count of which, see Peignot's Dictionnaire
des Livres condamnés au feu, supprimés, ou
censurés, tom. i., p. 256-266; and Mend-
ham's Account of the Indices, both Prohib
itory and Expurgatory, of the Church of
Rome, p. 17 et seq.) Philip II of Spain
having caused a catalogue of all books
prohibited by the inquisition to be printed
(Venice, 1558), pope Paul IV followed
the example, and ordered an Index Libro-
rum prohibitorum to be published by the
Congregatio Sancti Officii (see Congrega
tion), in which not only all heretical books
were noted down, but also all which tend-
ed to lower the Catholic hierarchy, many
even written by Catholic clergymen. The
first part contains the names of the au-
thors whose works are altogether prohib-
ited; the second, single prohibited works;
the third, anonymous works. A particu-
lar part contains the names of 42 book-

name is derived by us from the Greeks,
who seem to have borrowed it from the
Persians, as it is unknown to the natives.
It was at first used by the Grecian writers
to signify an indefinite extent of country,
lying beyond the Indus, with which they
were acquainted only through meagre and
vague accounts obtained from the Per-
sians. Darius crossed the Indus (B. C.
520), and conquered Cashmere and a part
of the Penjab. Alexander, 200 years later,
pushed his conquests a little farther, and
the narratives given by his officers sup-
plied Eratosthenes, Strabo and Pliny with
the materials which they arranged and
abridged. Ptolemy, who flourished at a
later period (A. D. 150), when commerce
had made his countrymen acquainted with
the southern parts of India, has given a
more accurate account of it. He divides
India into India within and India beyond
the Ganges. The former was bounded on
the west by the people of Paropamisus,
Arachosia and Gedrosia; on the north by
mount Imaus, the Sogdiæans and Saca;
on the east by the Ganges, and on the
south by the Indian ocean. Other writers,
as Arrian and Pliny, make the Indus its
western limit. Strabo calls the southern
and eastern boundary the Atlantic ocean.
Of the two great rivers, the Indus and
Ganges, the latter was not reached by Al-
exander, and was seen by very few of his
followers. The Indus and its five great
tributaries were known to all of them.
A more accurate acquaintance with Upper
India, obtained within the last 30 years, has
proved the general correctness of the an-
cient accounts, and settled many doubtful
points. Of the Deccan they knew nothing
but the coasts, and of India beyond the Gan-
ges they knew very little. The decline
of the Roman empire, the rise of the Par-
thian empire, and particularly the exten-
sion of the Mohammedan power over
Western Asia, broke off all direct inter-
course between Europe and India. Reli-
gious hatred and commercial jealousy con-
tributed to shut up the road to India
against Europeans. Caravans were then
the medium of Indian commerce, and
through them the productions of the East
were brought to the Mediterranean shores.
Not until the Portuguese had doubled the
cape of Good Hope (1498) were the Eu-
ropeans able to visit that region of wealth.

sellers, whose publications are altogether
prohibited. After this, the councils pub-
lished a number of such indexes, and these
were followed by some for single coun-
tries; for instance, by the Sorbonne for
France. The indexes assumed their most
systematic form at the council of Trent,
which, at its 18th session, referred the con-
sideration of works to be prohibited to a
select committee; and, in the 25th session,
what had been done by that committee
was referred to the pope (Conc. Trid. Ca-
nones, 177, 362, Paris edit., 1824), that it
might be completed and published with
his authority. The work was accordingly
published in 1564. Besides the catalogue
of prohibited books, it contains general
rules relative to such books, drawn up by
certain persons deputed for that purpose
by the council of Trent, and sanctioned
by pope Pius IV. These rules, which are
ten in number, are prefixed to the differ-
ent indexes which have been published
since that period. They are also contain-
ed in the Paris edition of the canons of
the council of Trent, already cited (p. 433
-440), and a translation of them will be
found in Townley's Illustration of Bibli-
cal Literature (vol. ii, p. 478-485). The
Congregation of the Index, which forms a
branch of the inquisition, holds its sitting
at Rome, and has the right of examining
generally all books which concern faith,
morals, ecclesiastical discipline, or civil
society, on which it passes judgment for
suppressing them absolutely, or directing
them to be corrected, or allowing them to
be read with precaution, and by certain
persons. Pius V confirmed the establish-
ment of this congregation. Persons spe-
cially deputed by it may give permission
to Romanists throughout the world to read
prohibited books, and the penalty de-
nounced against those who read or keep
any books suspected of heresy or false
doctrine is the greater excommunication;
and those who read or keep works inter-
dicted on any other account, besides the
mortal sin committed, are to be severely
punished, at the will of the bishops.
(Richard and Giraud, Bibliothèque Sacrée,
tom. viii, p. 78). The latest Index Librorum
prohibitorum appeared at Rome, in 1819.
(For the preceding Indexes, published in
Spain, Portugal, and at Rome, between
the years 1564 and 1806, see Mend-
ham's Account of the Indices, &c., p. 31-The islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Ce-

INDIA; THE INDIES. This name has
been very vaguely applied, at different pe-
riods, to different extents of country, and
is still used in different applications. The

lebes, the Philippines, the Moluccas, &c.,
were discovered, and have often been in-
cluded under the general name of India,
which comprised, on the continent, all that
vast tract of country lying south of China,

Thibet and Persia. These regions have been divided by modern geographers into three parts-the islands, or the Indian Archipelago; India this side the Ganges, or Hindoostan; and India beyond the Ganges, or, as some writers call it, Chin-India, or Indo-China, including the Birman empire, Cambodia, Tonquin, Cochin-China, Laos, Siam, and the peninsula of Malacca. (See the separate articles.) The islands above-mentioned are Ceylon, the Laccadives, the Maldives, Andaman, the Nicobar isles, the Sunda isles, including Borneo, Sumatra, Celebes, Java, &c., the Moluccas, the Philippines. (See the articles.) When America was discovered, it is well known that Columbus supposed it to be the eastern coast of Asia, of which he was in search. These regions were, therefore, at first called India, and when the error was discovered, the name was retained, with the distinctive appellation of West, the proper India being called the East Indies. The Spanish kings assumed the title of king of the Indies, and the council for the colonies was styled the supreme council of the Indies. The name of West Indies was afterwards restricted to the islands, now so called, lying between North and South America.

European Commercial Colonies in India. In ancient times, India was the principal source of the commerce of the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Egyptians. (See Heeren's Ideas, 1st vol., 3d part, 4th edition, 1824.) Until the end of the 15th century, the Europeans obtained the precious merchandise of India only second hand, partly through Egypt, where it came by the way of the Arabian sea, and partly from the long journeys of the caravans through the interior of Asia. This commerce was in the hands of the Venetians and Genoese, who furnished the European markets with the productions of Asia, and thereby became rich and powerful.

Portuguese India. The doubling the cape of Good Hope, which, in 1498, showed the way by sea to the riches of India, led the Portuguese to the possession of a kingdom in Asia. A few years after Vasco de Gama (q. v.) had landed on the coast of India, they were already the most favored merchants upon the whole coast, and, in spite of the active jealousy of the Mohammedans, who had hitherto monopolized the lucrative commerce of India, they formed settlements, and made commercial treaties with the Indian princes, in which the latter acknowledged the king of Portugal for their lord. Francis of Almeida, the first Portuguese viceroy in India (from

1505 to 1509), increased the fame of his nation in the Indian seas. Wherever he landed, he formed commercial establishments, and even took possession of Ceylon in 1506. His more famous successor, Alphonso of Albuquerque, who held the chief command between 1510 and 1515, confirmed the proud edifice of Portuguese power in the Indies. He built fortresses for the protection of the factories, and conquered Malacca, to which merchant ships from Japan, China, the Moluccas, the Philippines, Bengal, Persia, Arabia and Africa, resorted; and the terror of his arms, which this conquest inspired, induced the most powerful princes of Farther India to seek the alliance of the Portuguese. He afterwards acquired possession of the Moluccas, and with them of the rich spice commerce, and ended his triumphant career by the conquest of Ormuz, the richest and most powerful city on the Persian gulf, the possession of which he secured by a castle. Soon after his death, the Portuguese ruled from the Arabian to the Persian gulf; nearly all the ports and islands on the coasts of Persia and India soon fell into their power; they possessed the whole coast of Malabar to cape Comorin, and had settlements on the coast of Coromandel and the bay of Bengal; Ceylon was tributary to them; they had factories in China; and the ports of Japan, to which a tempest had shown them the way, were open to their merchant ships. Their power had attained this extent in 1542; and, for 60 years, they carried on their lucrative commerce without any considerable rivals. They determined the price of merchandise in all the European and Asiatic markets. No foreign vessel could take a cargo in the Indian ports, before the Portuguese ships were freighted; no ship was safe in the Indian seas without Portuguese passports; and even those which carried on commerce by their permission, could not trade in cinnamon, ginger, pepper, steel, iron, lead and arms, because these articles were included in their monopolies. The central point of the Portuguese dominion, after the time of Albuquerque, was Goa, where the royal Portuguese governor, under the title of viceroy or governor, had his seat. By bold and often revolting acts of power, they secured their dominion in Asia. They bombarded the most powerful cities on the Indian coasts; they burnt the ships of their enemies in their own harbors; they instigated the inferior native princes to rebel against their sovereigns, that they might take advantage of internal

dissensions to extend their own power; and they granted peace and their alliance to no prince who did not do homage to the king of Portugal, and confirm his submission by permission to build a castle in his capital. Even on the coasts where they merely trafficked without governing, and where the natives were subject to the native princes, they ruled indirectly by the terror of their name. Portugal owed this power to a few able men, whose adventurous spirit led them to this distant scene of action. The inclination to knightly adventures, which, after the overthrow of the Moors, had no object of enterprise at home, found here a field for action. But the successors of the men who established the commercial greatness of their nation, were not endowed with the same talents. Avarice and love of plunder soon became the only motives of enterprise; the honor of the Portuguese name was sullied; a revolting abuse of power excited the resistance of the natives, who had been before armed against each other by the artful policy of the strangers, but now became united by the sight of their common danger. After the powerful John II, and the magnanimous Emanuel, weak princes succeeded to the throne of Portugal; under Sebastian, the disciple of the Jesuits, when the kingdom was fast approaching to its ruin, the Portuguese dominion in Asia was also lost. The union of Portugal with Spain, in 1580, decided the fall of their commercial power in India. The Spanish kings neglected the Asiatic settlements. Robbery, pillage and insubordination prevailed there. Some commanders in India made themselves independent; others joined the Indian princes; and others became pirates. The Portuguese were treated as Spaniards by the Dutch and English.

Dutch India. The Dutch had previously gone to the great commercial market of Lisbon for Indian merchandise, but Philip II closed the harbor of the Portuguese capital to the Dutch ships, on account of the revolt of the United Provinces, and thus obliged that industrious people to go to the sources of this commerce. They were engaged in fruitless attempts to find a passage to India by the Northern seas, where they might avoid their enemies, when Cornelius Houtmann (q. v.), a Dutchman who had made several voyages to India in Portuguese ships, offered his services to his countrymen. In 1595, he was sent, with four ships, to India, to explore the coasts and gain information concerning the inhabitants and the commercial

relations in that place, and he returned with favorable accounts; for, in this very first voyage, treaties of commerce were made with the princes of the island of Java. The company of merchants who had begun the undertaking, sent out admiral Van Steck, with orders to enter into treaties with the native princes, and to establish factories on the island, which was at a distance from the centre of the Portuguese commerce, but was near enough to the Spice islands to favor a contraband trade, and was very well situated for trade with China and Japan. The hatred of the natives against the Portuguese, who had at times landed here, assisted in the accomplishment of this enterprise. Several societies were now formed in Holland to prosecute the commerce with India; but the markets, both of India and of Europe, were soon overstocked. To avoid this inconvenience, and to be able to oppose a firmer resistance to the jealous Portuguese than they could do separately, the small commercial societies united in 1602, and formed the great East India company, which had power to make peace or war with the princes of Asia, to build forts, to maintain garrisons, and to choose a governor. Now, that they had formed settlements at Java and upon other points, and had made commercial treaties with several princes of Bengal, began the long struggle between the rivals. The Portuguese had the advantage of a better knowledge of the Indian sea, but the Dutch could rely on more powerful support from Europe; for Philip II and his successors often left their Asiatic settlements unprotected. Time and experience gave the advantage of knowledge to the Dutch, and their stronger and better served navy enabled them to take one place after another from the Portuguese. In 1621, the latter were stripped, by their victorious rivals, of the Moluccas; in 1633, of Japan; in 1641, of Malacca; in 1658, of Ceylon; in 1660, of Celebes, where the Portuguese had settled after the loss of the Moluccas, to retain by smuggling some part of the spice trade: and, after 1663, the most important places on the coast of Malabar, where they had longest maintained themselves, fell into the power of the Dutch. At the same time that the Portuguese were contending with the Dutch, the English also entered the lists.

English India. In 1600, queen Elizabeth gave to the merchants of London an exclusive right to the commerce of India for 15 years; and, soon after, the four first

merchant ships of the East India company sailed from Lancaster to the Moluccas. The profits upon this first voyage induced the associated merchants to use every exertion to overcome the obstacles which the new settlements of the Dutch, and those of the Portuguese, upon the Indian coast, placed in their way; and they soon succeeded in forming establishments and building forts in Java, Amboyna and Banda, and shared the spice trade with the Dutch. This privilege, indeed, was soon after lost, the Dutch having obtained sole possession of the Moluccas; but the English were more successful in their settlements on the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel, and always repelled the attacks of the Portuguese. They obtained yet more important advantages in 1623, when the Persians requested their assistance to drive the Portuguese from Ormuz; for, independently of their share of the rich booty of merchandise which they gained, they formed a settlement at the entrance of the Persian gulf (Gambroon), and obtained possession of the commerce in silks, carpets, gold stuffs, and other Persian commodities. Thus, in the middle of the 17th century, the commercial power of the Dutch and British rose upon the ruins of the Portuguese. But the friendly reception which the natives had given to the Dutch, when they freed them from the hated power of the Portuguese, was soon followed by discontents. They saw that they had exchanged a hard yoke for one still harder; that avarice and a commercial spirit produced, under their new masters, the same effects, which, ever since the first arrival of the Europeans, had disturbed their peace and destroyed their freedom. The Dutch, as well as the Portuguese, were almost continually at war with the natives on the islands and on the continent, wherever they formed settlements. After the expulsion of the Portuguese from the Spice islands, the Dutch government became so oppressive as to compel the destruction of the spice trees upon all the islands except Amboyna. At Banda, the natives were massacred because they would not submit to become slaves, and the whole island was divided among the whites, who used slaves from the neighboring islands to cultivate their lands. The magnificent city of Batavia, upon the northern coast of Java, became, after 1619, the seat of the Dutch government in India, and the principal seat of the Asiatic trade of the East India company. From this place the governor-general, during the five years of his power, ruled with

regal sway over the princes of the interior. Until modern times, when the whole European colonial system was shaken, and almost all the commercial establishments in Asia fell into the hands of the British, who ruled the sea, the Dutch, notwithstanding the struggles of the natives, remained in possession of their settlements, among the most important of which were Surat, on the coast of Hindoostan; the government of Malabar, with Cochin, its fortress; that of Coromandel, with the fortified Negapatam; Chinsura, in Bengal; the government of Malacca, the farthest Dutch settlement at the southern point of the peninsula beyond the Ganges; Celebes, the only place where they formally ruled after disarming and subduing the native princes; Java; the Moluccas; and the southern coast of Borneo, their latest settlement.

Danish India. Before we return to the English colonies in India, we must cast a glance at the other commercial establishments, those of the Danes and the French, likewise formed in the 17th century. A Dutch factor, Boschower, who had obtained from the king of Ceylon, as a mark of high favor, the title of prince, being coldly received when he returned home, from resentment offered his services to king Christian IV for forming a colony in Ceylon. An East India company was immediately established in Copenhagen, and, in 1618, Boschower sailed for India with six ships, of which half belonged to the king, and the others to the company. He died on the way. The Danish mariner who commanded the ships was ill received at Ceylon, and immediately turned to the coasts of Coromandel, the nearest part of the Indian main. The native prince of Tanjore granted him, for a yearly rent, a fertile strip of land, where were laid the foundations of the city of Tranquebar, and where, soon after, the fortress of Dansburg was built for the protection of the new settlements. The other Europeans, who had established themselves in India, at first placed no obstacles in the way of the Danes, who thus were enabled to carry on an extensive trade. But when the Dutch became more powerful and more arrogant, they excluded their new rivals from all the markets. The affairs of the Danish company declined; it ceded its possessions to the government, and, in 1634, was dissolved. After 1643, the Danes ceased to navigate the Indian seas. In 1670, Christian V formed a new society, which he so generously supplied with ships, that nearly

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