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of the merchant service, if wounded in battle, and marines and foreigners who have served two years in the navy. The total expense of the establishment is £69,000 per annum,which is appropriated to the support of about 3000 seamen on the premises, and 5400 out-pensioners. Connected with this establishment is a naval asylum, designed for the support and education of the orphan children of seamen. On a rising ground in the park, 160 feet above low water mark, and commanding a rich and varied prospect, stands the royal observatory, celebrated by the great names with which it is associated. The private buildings are handsome, but the streets are in general irregular. Population of the parish in 1821, 20,712; 5 miles E. London bridge. The longitude in English geography is calculated from the meridian of Greenwich. Lat. 51° 29 N.

for the country?" he said; "I am accustomed to make them. Are the revenues of my bishopric required? I abandon them without regret. Is religion the subject of your deliberations? It is an affair beyond your jurisdiction. I demand the freedom of religious worship." At a later period, we find him in the senate, forming one of the minority of five, opposing the accession of the first consul to the throne, and alone in opposing the obsequious address of that body to the new sovereign. In 1814, he signed the act deposing the emperor, and, in 1815, refused, as member of the institute, to sign the additional act. On the restoration of the Bourbons, he was excluded from the institute, and from his episcopal see; and, on his election to the chamber of deputies in 1819, he was excluded from a seat by the royalist majority. Since this unmerited indignity, this venerable philanthropist and scholar has devoted himself to his literary and benevolent labors. His works are numerous.

GREGORIAN CALENDAR. (See Calendar.) GREGORY, bishop of Neocæsarea, in which place he was born, of pagan parents, was called, on account of the many miracles which he is said to have performed, Thaumaturgus (the worker of miracles). He was distinguished for his eloquence, and was a pupil of Origen. He died about 270. His works were published (in Greek and Latin) by Vossius, with scholia, Mayence, 1604, 4to.

GREFFIER; formerly, in the United Provinces, the first secretary of state; in France, the clerk of a court of justice. (For the etymology of the word, see Count.) GRÉGOIRE, Henry, count, former bishop of Blois, whose civil, literary and religious career has been characterized by love of liberty, active philanthropy, inflexible integrity and ardent piety. He was born at Vetro in 1750; he was a member of the states-general in 1789, and was one of the five ecclesiastics present at the session of the Tennis Court. In the constituent assembly, he was dis GREGORY OF NAZIANZEN, a celebrated tinguished for the boldness of his opinions teacher of the Greek church, born about on civil and religious liberty, and for the 328, at Arianzo, near Nazianzum, in Capeloquence by which he supported them. padocia, was at first presbyter and afterAt this early period, he began his efforts wards bishop of Nazianzum. He was in favor of the Jews and blacks, which the intimate friend of Basil, and a violent place him high among the friends of hu- enemy of the Arians. Among his pupils manity. He was the first among the cler- in eloquence, Jerome was the most disgy to take the constitutional oath. In tinguished. He died about 390, and left the convention, Grégoire advocated the many works, of which a complete edition abolition of royalty (September, 1792), (Greek and Latin) was published at Paris, but endeavored, at the same time, to save 1609, 2 vols. folio.. the king, by proposing that the punishment of death should be abolished. His absence on a mission with three members of the convention, prevented him from voting on the trial of the king; but he refused to sign the letter of his three colleagues to that body, demanding the sentence of death. In the reign of terror, when the bishop of Paris abdicated his dignity, and several of the clergy abjured the Christian religion in the presence of the convention, the bishop of Blois had the courage to resist the storm of invectives from the tribunes, and threats from the Mountain. "Are sacrifices demanded

GREGORY OF TOURS (his proper name was George Florentinus) was born in Auvergne (539), made bishop of Tours in 573, showed great firmness in the dreadful times of Chilperic and Fredegonde (q. v.), and died Nov. 27, 593. Besides his eight books on the virtues and miracles of the saints, he left Historia Eccles. Francorum Libri X., which he brought down to the year 591, and which, notwithstanding its marvellous tales and its want of method, has much interest, as being the only historical work of the time.

GREGORY I, pope; called also the Great. He was born at Rome, of a noble

family, about 544; and, having received an education suitable to his rank, he became a member of the senate, and filled other employments in the state. Italy was then subject to the emperors of the East, and Justin II appointed him to the important post of prefect or governor of Rome; which, after having held it for some time with great reputation, he resigned. The death of his father put him in possession of great wealth, which he expended in the foundation of monasteries and charitable institutions. Disgusted with the world, he took the monastic vows himself, and became a member of one of his own establishments. Pope Pelagius II sent him on an embassy to Constantinople, and made him papal secretary after his return to Rome. On the death of pope Pelagius, in 590, he was chosen his successor. He displayed great zeal for the conversion of heretics, the advancement of monachism, and the rigid enforcement of celibacy among the clergy. His contest for ecclesiastical superiority with John, patriarch of Constantinople, laid the foundation of the schism between the Greek and Latin churches, which has subsisted to the present day. The conversion of the Anglo-Saxonз to Christianity was a project honorable to his zeal and abilities. (See Augustin, St.) He died in March, 604. The works ascribed to this pope are very numerous, and have been frequently published. The most complete edition is that of the Benedictines of St. Maur (Paris, 1705, 4 vols. folio), under the superintendence of father Denis de St. Martha, who, in 1697, published a life of St. Gregory the Great. His genuine writings consist of a treatise on the Pastoral Duty, Letters, Scripture Commentaries, &c.

GREGORY OF NYSSA; born at Nyssa, in Cappadocia, younger brother of Basil the Great, celebrated as an ardent defender of the Nicene creed, and also for his eloquence. He died in his native city, of which he was bishop, some time after 394. Editions of his works were published at Paris in 1573 and 1605, and 1615 and 1638 (3 vols. folio).

GREGORY VII (Hildebrand). The year and the place of the birth of this great pope are uncertain. Some accounts say that he was born at Sienna, others at Soana, in Tuscany; others still, at Rome. It is, however, certain, that he lived at Roine when a child, and went to France when a young man, where he became connected with the monastery at Cluny, and returned to Rome in 1045. His history becomes more known after the time

of his return to the monastery of Chuny, where Leo IX saw him on his journey through France. He returned with this pope to Rome, and from that time, although in the back ground, he played an important part; and by the influence which great minds always exercise over ordinary men, he directed the measures of Leo and several following popes. On the death of Alexander II (1073), cardinal Hildebrand was raised to the papal chair. He now labored with the greatest energy to accomplish those plans for which he had prepared the way by the measures which the preceding popes had adopted through his influence. It was the object of his ambition not only to place the whole ecclesiastical power in the hands of the pope, but to make the church entirely independent of the temporal power. He wished to found a theocracy, in which the pope, the vicar of God, should be the sovereign ruler, in political as well as ecclesiastical matters-a bold idea, which he probably conceived in consequence of the wretched state of all civil authority. He therefore prohibited the marriage of priests, and abolished lay investiture, the only remaining source of the authority of princes over the clergy of their dominions. In 1074, he issued his edicts against simony and the marriage of priests, and, in 1075, an edict forbidding the clergy, under penalty of forfeiting their offices, from receiving the investiture of any ecclesiastical dignity from the hands of a layman, and, at the same time, forbidding the laity, under penalty of excommunication, to attempt the exercise of the investiture of the clergy. The emperor Henry IV refused to obey this decree, and Gregory took advantage of the discontent excited by the despotic character and youthful levity of the emperor, among the people and princes of Germany, to advance his own purposes. In 1075, he deposed several German bishops, who had bought their offices of the emperor, and excommunicated five imperial counsellors, who were concerned in this transaction; and when the emperor persisted in retaining the counsellors and supporting the bishops, the pope, in 1076, issued a new decree, summoning the emperor before a council at Rome, to defend himself against the charges brought against him. Henry IV then caused a sentence of deposition to be passed against the pope, by a council assembled at Worms. The pope, in return, excommunicated the emperor, and released all his subjects and vassals from their oath of allegiance. The

emperor soon found all Upper Germany in opposition to him, at the very moment that the Saxons in Lower Germany renewed the war against him; and when the princes assembled at Oppenheim came to the determination of proceeding to the election of another emperor, he yielded, almost unconditionally; he was obliged to consent to acknowledge the pope, whom they were to invite into the empire, as his judge, to abandon his excommunicated counsellors, and to consider himself as suspended from the government. To prevent being deposed by the pope, Henry IV (q. v.) hastened to Italy, where he submitted, at Canossa (1077), to a humiliating penance, and received absolution. In the mean time, his friends again assembled around him, and he defeated his rival, Rodolph of Suabia. He then caused the pope to be deposed by the council of Brixen, and an antipope, Clement III, to be elected in 1080, after which he hastened to Rome, and placed the new pope on the throne. Gregory now passed three years as a prisoner in the castle of St. Angelo, but could never be induced to compromit the rights of the church. He was finally liberated by Robert Guiscard, a celebrated Norman prince, whom he had made duke of Apulia; but the Romans compelled him to quit the city, because it had been plundered by the soldiers of Robert. Gregory then retired to Salerno, under the protection of the Norman prince, where he died, in 1085. By the celibacy (q. v.) of the clergy, Gregory aimed at increasing their sanctity, and making them entirely independent of family connexions. The same measure prevented the possessions of the church from becoming mere feudal dependencies on temporal princes, which would have been the natural course, if the clergy had become parents, and, of course, desirous of transmitting the estates which they enjoyed to their children. Matilda, countess of Tuscany, whom he induced to bequeath her almost regal possessions to the papal see, was his chief support. Most Protestant writers have accused him of insatiable ambition; but the impartial historian, who considers the spirit of his whole life, studies his letters, and observes that his severity towards himself was as great as towards others, will judge differently. Gregory must be considered as a great spiritual conqueror, who rendered the clergy independent of the temporal power, and secured their safety amid the scenes of violence with which Europe was filled; thereby rendering them capable of ad

vancing the progress of civilization, which was in great danger of being swallowed up in barbarism. The papal power, which he rendered independent of the imperial, was, for ages, the great bulwark of order amid the turbulence of the semicivilized people of Europe. In capaciousness and boldness of mind, he may be compared to Napoleon. His system undoubtedly became unsuitable, like all other systems, to the wants of a more advanced age; and the good of mankind, in the progress of time, required that the temporal powers should become again independent of the Roman see.

GREGORY, James, a mathematician and philosopher, the inventor of the reflecting telescope, was born at Aberdeen in 1638, and received his education at the Marischal college. In 1663, he published Optica promota, seu abdita Radiorum reflexorum et refractorum Mysteria, Geometrice enucleata (4to), explaining the idea of the telescope which bears his name; and, in 1664, visited London for the purpose of perfecting the mechanical construction of the instrument. Disappointed by the difficulty of getting a speculum ground and polished of a proper figure, he suspended his design, and set off on a tour to Italy. He staid some time at Padua, where he published, in 1667, a treatise on the Quadrature of the Circle and Hyperbola (reprinted at Venice, in 1668, with additions). On his return to England, he was chosen a fellow of the royal society, whose Transactions he enriched by some valuable papers. He was chosen professor of mathematics in the university of St. Andrew's, and, in 1674, was invited to fill the mathematical chair at Edinburgh, whither he removed; but, in October, 1675, while pointing out to his pupils the satellites of Jupiter, he was struck with a total blindness, and died a few days after, in the 37th year of his age.

GREGORY, David; nephew of the preceding, and the heir of his splendid talents, and emulator of his fame. The subject of this article was educated at Edinburgh, where, in 1684, he was elected professor of mathematics; and the same year he published a mathematical treatise from his uncle's papers, with important additions of his own. His lectures first introduced into the schools the Newtonian philosophy. In 1691, he was chosen professor of astronomy at Oxford, though he had the celebrated Halley for his competitor-a circumstance which laid the foundation of a friendly intimacy between these mathematicians. In 1695, he published, at Oxford, Catoptrica et Dioptrica Spherica Ele

menta (8vo.), in which he considers those branches of optics chiefly as respects the construction of telescopes, particularly those of his uncle and sir Isaac Newton. In 1697, he gave the first demonstration of the properties of the Catenarian Curve; and in 1702 appeared his most celebrated production, Astronomia Physica et Geometrica Elementa (folio). The object of this work is to explain Newton's geometry of centripetal forces, as far as his discoveries are founded on it; and to exhib it in a more familiar form the astronomical part of the Principia. In 1703, he published an edition of the books of Euclid, in Greek and Latin; and he afterwards engaged with doctor Halley in editing the Comics of Apollonius. He died Oct. 10, 1710. GREGORY, patriarch of the Eastern Greek church, a victim of the fanatical policy of the Porte, was born in 1739, and educated in Dimitzana, a town in Arcadia in the Morea. He studied in several monasteries, finally on mount Athos (q. v.), lived as a hermit, was made archbishop at Smyrna, and, in 1795, patriarch of Constantinople. When the French occupied Egypt, in 1798, the Greeks were accused of treating secretly with them, and the rabble demanded the head of the patriarch, who, in fact, by his pastoral letters, dissuaded the Greeks from taking up arms for the French. Selim III himself declared Gregory to be innocent, but banished him for security to mount Áthos. He was soon after restored to his former dignity. But in 1806, when the progress of the Russian arms, and the appearance of an English fleet before Constantinople, renewed the fury of the Mussulmans against the Greeks, and the life of the patriarch was threatened, although his exhortations had again prevented the Greeks from any hostile movements, Selim banished him a second time to mount Athos. After an interval, Gregory was a third time appointed patriarch. The apostolic virtues of love, charity and humility, gained this prelate universal esteem; he lived very simply, was strict with regard to the morals of the Greek clergy, and spent his income for benevolent objects, bestowing charity on the poor, without regard to the religion which they professed, promoting schools, the art of printing in Constantinople, and the publication of useful books. In particular, he promoted the establishment of schools of mutual instruction in Scio, Patmos, at Smyrna, Athens, Sparta (Misitra), and in Candia. His sermons and pastoral letters manifest his piety, tolerance, and knowledge of mankind. He

translated the epistles of the apostle Paul into modern Greek with a commentary. He constantly exhorted his brethren to obedience and patient submission to the will of God. But, in 1821, when the Greek insurrection broke out in the Morea, his native country, he became an object of suspicion to the Porte, and nothing but the hope of preventing the massacre of all the Greeks at Constantinople, which had already been determined upon, could induce him to excommunicate (21st March, 1821) Ypsilanti, Suzzo and all the insurgents, as the divan demanded, with threats. At the same time, he issued a pastoral letter to the clergy, declaring submission to the Porte to be the duty of the faithful. After the execution of the prince Morousi, the grand-vizier confided to Gregory the custody of the family of this prince. Without his knowledge, but perhaps by the assistance of a priest in the patriarchal palace, the family escaped on board a vessel, which, by the aid of the Russian ambassador, took them to Odessa. The old man did not doubt that this would decide his fate. He immediately went to the grand-vizier, the furious Benderli Ali Pacha, to inform him of the event. The vizier laid all the blame on him; but he was neither imprisoned nor subjected to trial. The grand vizier had determined to intimidate the Greeks by an act of violence yet unprecedented in Turkish history. They had already been exposed, for several weeks, to the fanatical rabble of Constantinople, which prevented the greater part of them from attending church on the first day of the Easter festival (April 22). The patriarch read the high mass surrounded by his bishops, with the usual ceremonies; but, as he left the church, the janizaries surrounded him, and seized the bishops. A natural respect prevented them from laying hands on the venerable old man; but their commander, having reminded them of the order of the grandvizier, they seized the patriarch, in his robes of office, and hanged him before the principal gate of the church. Three bishops and eight priests of the patriarchate, shared the same fate; they were all hanged before the gates of the churches or the palace, in their canonical robes. body was not cut down till the 24th, when it was given up to the lowest of the Jews, who dragged it through the streets, and threw it into the sea; but, being prevailed upon by a sum of money, they did not sink it, so that some Greek sailors recovered it during the night, and carried it to Odessa. Here, with the permission of the emperor, the martyrdom of the patriarch was


celebrated by the Russian archimandrite Theophilus, with a magnificent funeral. This act of barbarity towards an old man of eighty years, was followed by the destruction of many churches, and the most savage treatment of the Greeks in Constantinople; but instead of exciting fear, it had the opposite effect. The enthusiasm of the Greeks for their religion and freedom was increased, the war was carried on with more animosity, and reconciliation became more difficult, and, after some additional atrocities, impossible. (See Greece, Revolution of Modern.)

GREIFSWALDE; a town in Hither Pomerania, belonging, since the war of 1815, to Prussia. Lat. 54° 4′ 35′′ N.; lon. 13° 33′ 23" E. Population in 1822, 8080. From 1648 to 1815, it belonged to Sweden, except that from 1715 to 1721 it was in the possession of Denmark. In 1455, Wratislaus IX, duke of Pomerania, founded the university here. It does not flourish like the other Prussian universities, and contains only 130 students; for the government does not see fit to support it as they do the others, and, at the same time, does not wish to break up so ancient an establishment. It is one of the few German universities which have a right to assist in choosing the professors. The university of Greifswalde nominates new professors, and the king appoints. The town is well built. GRENADA. (See Granada.)

GRENADA, NEW; formerly a viceroyalty of South America, called the New Kingdom of Grenada, now forming the greater part of the republic of Colombia; bounded N. by the Caribbean sea and Guatimala, E. by Venezuela and Guiana, S. by the Amazon and Peru, and W. by the Pacific ocean. Lat. 6° S. to 12° N.; 1200 miles in length, and 276 in mean breadth. This country, together with Venezuela, was formerly called Terra Firma. It was formerly divided into three audiences, Panaina, Santa Fé and Quito, and subdivided into twenty-four provinces; but a new division has been made since New Grenada and Venezuela have been united, and formed into a republic. There are universities at Santa Fé de Bogota, Quito, and Popayan. The principal rivers are the Magdalena, Cauca, Apure, Meta, Putumayo and Caqueta. New Grenada abounds in the most sublime mountain scenery. The great chain of the Andes traverses this country from north to south, and within the audience of Quito are found the lofty summits of Chimborazo, Pinchinca, Cotopaxi, &c. The mountains of this country are extremely rich in gold

and silver, and have also mines of platina, copper, lead and emeralds. The value of gold and silver produced annually is stated at £650,000 sterling. There are two mints, at Santa Fé and Popayan. (For further information, see Colombia, and Venezuela.)

GRENADE; a hollow sphere of iron, differing from a bomb by the smallness of its diameter. The smallest grenades, or those thrown by the hand, are called hand grenades; they are from 24 to 34 inches in diameter. The fusee is calculated to burn from 12 to 15 seconds, so that time is allowed for throwing them. The short distance to which they can be thrown, and the danger of accidents, have occasioned them to be disused. The small grenades are now only employed for what are called, in French, perdreaux, several of them being fastened to a board, and thrown from mortars. The grenades in general use are thrown from howitzers, and are of very different sizes, from 2 to 20 pounds weight. They are chiefly calculated to act against cavalry and distant columns, where they may do great harm. In the battle of Wagram, one grenade killed and wounded 40 men. As the utility of large grenades at sea is acknowledged, but objections exist to the use of howitzers of large calibre, the U. States introduced the use of oval grenades in 1815, which may be fired from 12 and 24 pounders. The English imitated this, and made the grenades with a spiral thread on the surface, that the opposition of the air might give them a rotatory motion, and thus more certainty of direction. Grenades are often thrown from cannons. During the siege of Gibraltar, they were thrown 3000 yards upon the Spanish works.

GRENADIER; originally a soldier destined to throw the hand grenades. (See Grenade.) Soldiers of long service and acknowledged bravery were selected for this service, so that they soon formed a kind of élite. They were the first in the assaults. When hand grenades went out of use, the name grenadier was preserved, and the troops so called generally formed one battalion of a regiment, distinguished by the height of the men and a particular dress, as, for instance, the high bear-skin cap. This continues to be the case in most armies. In the Russian and Prussian armies, the grenadiers form whole regiments belonging to corps d'armée of the guards. With the French, the grenadier company is (and was under Napoleon) the first of each battalion. The dragoons among them also had grenadier companies, which were afterwards united

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