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charge and oversight of the king's household in matters of justice and government, with a power to correct all offenders, and to maintain the peace of the verge, or jurisdiction of the court royal, which is every way about 200 yards from the last gate of the palace where his majesty resides. Without a warrant first obtained from this court, none of the king's servants can be arrested for debt.

GREENE, Nathaniel, a major-general in the American army, was born, May 22, 1742, near the town of Warwick in Rhode Island. His father was an anchor smith, and, at the same time, a Quaker preacher, whose ignorance, combined with the fanaticism of the times, made him pay little attention to the worldly learning of his children, though he was very careful of their moral and religious instruction. The fondness for knowledge, however, of young Greene was such, that he devoted all the time he could spare to its acquisition, and employed all his trifling gains in procuring books. His propensity for the life of a soldier was early evinced by his predilection for works on military subjects. He made considerable proficiency in the exact sciences; and, after he had attained his twentieth year, he added a tolerable stock of legal knowledge to his other acquisitions. In the year 1770, he was elected a member of the state legislature, and, in 1774, enrolled himself as a private in a company called the Kentish Guards. After the battle of Lexington, the state of Rhode Island raised what was termed an army of observation, in order to assist the forces collected in Massachusetts, for the purpose of confining the British within the limits of Boston, and chose Greene its commander, with the title of major-general. His elevation from the ranks to the head of three regiments, may give some idea of the estimation in which his military talents were held. June 6, 1775, he assumed his command before the lines of Boston; and, not long afterwards, general Washington arrived, to take the command in chief of the American forces. Between these two distinguished men an intimacy soon commenced, which was never interrupted. Greene accepted a commission from congress of brigadier-general, although, under the state, he held that of major-general; preferring the former, as it promised a larger sphere of action, and the pleasure of serving under the immediate command of Washington. When the American army had followed the enemy to New York, after the evacuation of Boston, they encamped, partly in New 5


York and partly on Long Island. The division posted upon the island was under the orders of Greene; but, at the time of its unfortunate affair with the enemy, he was suffering under severe sickness, and general Sullivan was in command. When he had sufficiently recovered his health, he joined the retreating army, having previously been promoted to the rank of major-general, and was appointed to command the troops in New Jersey destined to watch the movements of a strong detachment of the British, which had been left in Staten island. December 26, 1776, when Washington surprised the English at Trenton, Greene commanded the left wing of the American forces, which was the first that reached the town, and, having seized the enemy's artillery, cut off their retreat to Princeton. Next summer, sir William Howe having embarked with a large force at New York, for the purpose of landing on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake, and thence marching to Philadelphia, Washington hastened to oppose him; and, September 11, the battle of the Brandywine took place, in which the Americans were defeated. In this affair, Greene commanded the vanguard, together with Sullivan, and it became his duty to cover the retreat, in which he fully succeeded. After general Howe had obtained possession of Philadelphia, the British army, in consequence of this victory, encamped at Germantown, where an attack was made upon it by Washington, October 4, 1777, in which Greene commanded the left wing. The disastrous issue of this attempt is well known; but it has been asserted, that the left wing was the only part of the American army which had the good fortune to effect the service allotted it that day. The next service upon which general Greene was engaged, was that of endeavoring to prevent lord Cornwallis from collecting supplies, for which he had been detached into the Jerseys, with 3000 men; but, before Greene could bring him to an action, he had received reinforcements, which gave him so great a superiority, that the American general was recalled by the commander-in-chief. In March of the following year, Greene, at the solicitation of Washington, accepted the appointment of quarter-master-general, on two conditions; that he should retain his right of command in time of action, and that he should have the choice of two assistants. At the battle of Monmouth, in the ensuing month of June, he led the right wing of the second line, and mainly contributed to the partial success of the Americans. Af

ter this, he continued engaged in discharging the duties of his station until August, when he was sent to join Sullivan, who, with the forces under his command, aided by the French fleet under D'Estaing, was preparing to make an attempt upon Newport in Rhode Island, then in possession of the enemy. The command of the left wing of the troops was assigned to Greene. The enterprise, however, failed, in consequence of some misunderstanding between Sullivan and D'Estaign; and the consequent retreat of the American army was covered by Greene, who repulsed an attack of the enemy with half their number. When general Washington, aların ed for the safety of the garrisons on the North river, repaired to West Point, he left Greene in command of the army in New Jersey. The latter had not been long in that command, before he was attacked, near Springfield, by a force much superior to his, under sir Henry Clinton; but the enemy were repulsed, though they burned the village. This affair happened June 23. October 6, he was appointed to succeed the traitor Arnold in the command at West Point. In this station, however, he continued only until the 14th of the same month, when he was chosen by general Washington to take the place of general Gates, in the chief direction of the southern army. From this moment, when he was placed in a situation where he could exercise his genius without control, dates the most brilliant portion of Greene's career. The ability, prudence and firmness which he here displayed, have caused him to be ranked, in the scale of our revolutionary generals, second only to Washington. December 2, 1780, Greene arrived at the encampment of the American forces at Charlotte, and, on the 4th, assumed the command. After the battle of the Cowpens, gained by Morgan, January 17, 1781, he effected a junction with the victorious general, having previously been engaged in recruiting his army, which had been greatly thinned by death and desertion; but the numbers of Cornwallis were still so superior, that he was obliged to retreat into Virginia, which he did with a degree of skill that has been the theme of the highest eulogy. He, soon afterwards, however, returned to North Carolina, with an accession of force, and, March 15, encountered Cornwallis at Guilford court house, where he was defeated; but the loss of the enemy was greater than his, and no advantages accrued to them from the victory. On the contrary, Cornwallis, a few days afterwards, commenced a ret

rograde movement towards Wilmington, leaving many of his wounded behind him, and was followed for some time by Greene. Desisting, however, from the pursuit, the latter marched into South Carolina, and a battle took place, April 25, between him and lord Rawdon, near Camden, in which he was again unsuccessful, though again the enemy were prevented by him from improving their victory, and, not long after, were obliged to retire. May 22, having previously reduced a number of the forts and garrisons in South Carolina, he commenced the siege of Ninety-Six, but in June the approach of lord Rawdon compelled him to raise it, and retreat to the extremity of the state. Expressing a determination "to recover South Carolina, or die in the attempt," he again advanced, when the British forces were divided, and lord Rawdon was pursued, in his turn, to his encampment at Orangeburg, where he was offered battle by his adversary, which was refused. September 8, Greene obtained a victory over the British forces under colonel Stewart, at Eutaw Springs, which completely prostrated the power of the enemy in South Carolina. Greene was presented by congress with a British standard and a gold medal, as a testimony of their sense of his services on this occasion. This was the last action in which Greene was engaged. During the rest of the war, however, he continued in his command, struggling with the greatest difficulties, in consequence of the want of all kinds of supplies, and the mutinous disposition of some of his troops. When peace released him from his duties, he returned to Rhode Island; and his journey thither, almost at every step, was marked by some private or public testimonial of gratitude and regard. On his arrival at Princeton, where congress was then sitting, that body unanimously resolved, that "two pieces of field ordnance, taken from the British army at the Cowpens, Augusta, or Eutaw," should be presented to him by the commander-inchief. In October, 1785, Greene repaired, with his family, to Georgia, some valuable grants of lands near Savannah having been made to him by that state. He died June 19, 1786, in his 44th year, in consequence of an inflammation of the brain, contracted by exposure to the rays of an intense sun. General Greene possessed, in a great degree, not only the common quality of physical courage, but that fortitude and unbending firmness of mind, which are given to few, and which enabled him to bear up against the most cruel reverses, and struggle perseveringly with,

and finally surmount, the most formidable difficulties. He was ever collected in the most trying situations, and prudence and judgment were distinguishing traits in his character. In his disposition, he was mild and benevolent; but when it was necessary, he was resolutely severe. No officer of the revolutionary army possessed a higher place in the confidence and affection of Washington, and, probably, none would have been so well calculated to succeed him, if death had deprived his country of his services during the revolutionary struggle.

GREEN GAGE; a variety of the plum, the reine claude of the French, usually considered the most delicious of all. It is large, of a green or slightly yellowish color, and has a juicy, greenish pulp, of an exquisite flavor.

GREENLAND (Groenland); an extensive country of North America, belonging to Denmark, the extent of which is unknown. Since lieutenant (now captain) Parry advanced from Baffin's bay into Lancaster sound (1819), it has been supposed to be an island. As far as it is now known, it extends from lat. 59° 38′ to 78° N. Its southern point is cape Farewell. On the western coast lie Davis's straits and Baffin's bay. It is divided into two parts by a chain of mountains passing through the middle of the country from north to south. Greenland was settled 800 years ago, by two colonies from Norway and Denmark, of which the one occupied the eastern, the other the western coast. Their intercourse was carried on by sea, the mountains rendering any communication by land impossible. A Runic stone found in Greenland in 1824 (now in the museum of northern antiquities at Copenhagen) proves the early discovery of Greenland from Scandinavia. The western colony, after numerous vicissitudes, still exists. The population in the southern part to the river Frith (68°), amounted, in 1811–13, to 3583: northern Greenland contained only 3000 natives. From 67 to 69°, the country is uninhabited. The fate of the eastern colony, which in 1406 consisted of 190 villages, and had a bishop, 12 parishes and two monasteries, is unknown. Up to that time, 16 bishops had been sent from Norway in regular succession; the 17th was prevented by the ice from reaching the land. Danish sailors, in the 16th and 17th centuries, attempted, without success, to land on the eastern coast. Attempts made in 1786 and 1829, by the command of the Danish government, failed. This lost East

Greenland, Von Egger, in his Prize Essay (1794), maintains, is the country now called Julianenshaab, on the western coast; but a manuscript now in the library at Dresden, maintains that the old settlement of Osterbygde was actually on the eastern coast of Greenland.* A traveller of the 14th century, Nicolas Zeno, describes Greenland as it existed in his time. In 1818, England sent an expedition to the Polar sea, because the ice at the north pole was said to have decreased, and a north-west passage was believed practicable; the ships returned, however, without accomplishing any thing. Captain Scoresby found the eastern coast free from ice in 1822; he sailed along it from 75° to 69°, and examined it with care (see his Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale-Fishery, &c., 1822). To this trayeller we are indebted for the latest and most correct accounts of East Greenland, which refute Egger's opinions. He found fields producing luxuriant grass, but no inhabitants. He met, however, with some houses, containing household utensils and hunting apparatus, and a wooden coffin. The English captain Sabine describes the eastern coast of Greenland (see his Experiments to determine the Figure of the Earth, &c.), from 72° to 76° Ñ. latitude. He also found it impossible, on account of the permanent mass of ice, to approach the eastern coast north of 74°; his examinations proved that there was no current which carries the ice from those coasts towards the south. The western coast was also cut off, in the middle of the 14th century, from its usual intercourse with Norway and Iceland, by a dreadful plague, called the black death. In the reign of queen Elizabeth, Frobisher and Davis again discovered this coast of Greenland. From that time, nothing was done to explore this country, until the Danish government, in 1721, assisted a clergyman, Hans Egede, with two ships, to effect a landing in 64° 5′, and establish the first European settlement, Good Hope (Godhaab), on the river Baal. Egede found the country inhabited by a race of people which had probably spread from the west over Davis's straits, and which resembled the Esquimaux of Labrador in their language and customs. In 1733, the Moravian Brothers were induced by count Zinzendorf to attempt the establishment of

*The Paris Archives du Christianisme says, that an expedition, which left Copenhagen in May, 1830, has found the long lost colony, professing the Christian religion, and speaking the Norwegian of the 10th century.

settlements and missions on these inhospitable shores. There are now on the western coast of Greenland twenty settlements, of which the most southerly, Lichtenau, is situated in 60° 34' N. latitude. Near it is the second settlement, Juliana's Hope (Julianen shaab): in the vicinity, the ruins of an old Icelandic and Norwegian church are still visible. Farther to the north lie Frederic's Hope, Lichtenfels, Good Hope, New Herrnhut, Zuckerhut, Holsteinburg, Egedesminde, Christian's Hope, Jacobshaven, Omenack and Upernamick, in 72° 32′ N. latitude, the most northern settlement, now occupied only by Greenlanders. The governor of

South Greenland has his seat in Good Hope, and the governor of North Greenland is stationed at Guthaven, on the island of Disco, in 70° N. latitude. There are five Protestant churches on the coast, in which the gospel is preached in the Danish and Greenlandish dialects. The Moravian Brothers have three houses of public worship in Lichtenau, Lichtenfels and New Herrnhut. The natives, called by the oldest Icelandish and Norwegian authors, Skrellings, belong to the Esquimaux family, which is spread over all the northern part of America, to the western coast. They are remarkable for their diminutive stature; their hair is dark, long, stringy, eyes black, heads disproportionately large, legs thin, and complexion a brownish yellow, approaching to olive green. This, however, is partly owing to their filthy manner of living, and partly to their food and occupations, as they are constantly covered with blubber and train oil. The women, being employed, from early youth, in carrying heavy loads, are so broad shouldered, as to lose all feminine appearance. Their dress contributes to this effect; ; they wear the skins of seals and reindeer. The short coats, the trowsers and boots of both sexes, are all made of the same material. In extremely cold weather, they wear a shirt made of the skins of birds, particularly those of the sea-raven, the eider duck, &c. In winter, they live in houses of stone, with walls two feet in thickness, covered with brushwood and turf, and with an entrance so small, that it can be passed only on the hands and feet. Windows are seldom met with in these huts; those which they have are made of the intestines of whales and seals. The height of the house never exceeds six feet; it is 12 feet wide, and of about the same length. It consists of one room only, with a raised platform on one side, covered with seal-skin, which serves

the double purpose of a bed and a table. Lamps, supplied with train-oil, are kept constantly burning, as much for the sake of warmth as of light. The smell from so many oil lamps, together with that of the fish, raw skins and greasy inhabitants, is hardly to be endured by unaccustomed nostrils; and the filthy condition of the huts breeds immense quantities of vermin. When the snow melts, which is generally the case in May, the roof of the house generally sinks in, and the Greenlander then spreads a tent, which is covered with seal skin, and surrounded with a curtain of the intestines of whales; the interior is arranged like the winter establishment. Their utensils and tools are simple, but ingeniously contrived. They consist of bows and arrows, lances, javeis and harpoons. Their canoes are made of laths, bound by whalebone, and covered with dressed seal-skin. They show a wonderful skill in managing them, even in the most boisterous weather. They also use sledges, drawn by dogs, in which they sometimes go from 30 to 40 miles from the land on the frozen sea. The swiftness of these animals is such, that in 9 or 10 hours, they accomplish a distance of about 60 miles. The language of the Greenlanders is the same as that spoken by the Esquimaux in Labrador, and on the shores of Hudson's bay. Traces of it are also said to be found on the north-west coast of America, as far as Nootka sound. The variety in the forms of the verbs, in combination with the pronouns, is a remarkable peculiarity of this language. The superstitious Greenlanders pay great respect to their angekoks or sorcerers, who are at the same time their priests and physicians. They have but very rude notions of a Supreme Being. During the prevalence of the north-east winds, the cold is often so great, that the mercury sinks to 48° below the freezing point of Fahr. The west winds coming from Davis's straits are always damp, and accompanied by thaws. The basis of the mountains and rocks is a fine-grained granite, with gneiss, mica slate, hornblende and whitestone. Many interesting and uncommon minerals are found-magnetic iron ore, gadolinite, zircon, schorl, tourmaline, the finest garnets, sodalite, iolite, and hypersthene of a beautiful light blue. Among the animals are the polar fox, the white hare, the reindeer, the white bear, the arctic fox, the walrus, various kinds of seals, and the narval. The Greenland whale (see Whale, and Whale-Fishery) is found in great numbers

and of an enormous size. Of the birds, the principal is the cinereous eagle; the snowy owl, and others of the falcon tribe, inhabit the high rocks; the water-fowl are numerous. A species of mosquito is exceedingly troublesome in the warm weather. The exports are whalebone, oil, skins and furs, eider down, the horns of the narval, &c. The imports are provisions, gunpowder, cotton and linen goods, iron and glass wares, &c. In the inlets and bays which intersect the coast of Greenland, immense masses of ice are accumulated during a series of years, which, being loosened during the heat of summer, lose their points of support from the shore,and plunge into the ocean with athundering noise. Being afterwards set adrift by the currents, they embarrass the navigation of the Polar seas, and become the terror of the mariner. Those masses of ice are formed both of fresh and of salt water, and sometimes rise more than 500 feet above the surface of the water. The salt water ice occurs in immense fields, of many thousand fathoms in length and breadth, divided by fissures, but following close on each other. When the wind begins to blow, and the sea to rise in vast billows, the violent shocks of those masses of ice against each other, fill the mind with astonishment and terror. The coasts of Greenland are surrounded by many thousand islands of different sizes, on which the native inhabitants frequently fix their residence, on account of their good situation for sea game.

GREEN MOUNTAINS; a range of mountains, commencing in Canada, and extending south through Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut. They divide the waters which flow into the Connecticut from those which flow into lake Champlain and the Hudson. Among the highest summits in Vermont are Mansfield mountain, Camel's rump, and Killington peak. West rock, near New Haven, Conn., is the southern termination of the chain. The natural growth upon these mountains is hemlock, pine, spruce, and other evergreens, and they derive their naine from their green appearance. There are many fine farms among these mountains, and much of the land upon them is excellent for grazing.

GREENOCK; the chief seaport of Scotland, on the south bank of the river Clyde, which has in front an extensive and beautiful bay. The manufactories of the place are sugar-houses, rope-walks, soap and candle works, tan works, potteries, bottle and crystal works, hat manu

factories, extensive founderies and manufactories of steam engines and chain cables; to these may be added ship-building, which is carried on to a great extent. The herring-fishery is the oldest branch of the industry of the place. The harbors are very spacious, and are frequented by vessels from all quarters of the world. The dry docks are elegant and commodious; the one lately erected, near the custom-house, is considered the first in the kingdom. Population in 1828, over 25,000. Lon. 0° 18′ 58′′W.; lat. 55° 57′ 2′′N. GREENSTONE. (See Hornblende.)

GREENVILLE COLLEGE, pleasantly situated, 3 miles from Greenville, Tennessee, was incorporated in 1794. The college hall is a neat building, about 60 feet long, and 25 wide, of 2 stories. The college has a library of about 3500 volumes, a small philosophical apparatus, and funded property to the amount of about $6000.

GREENWICH; a market-town of England, in Kent, on the southern bank of the Thames, formerly the seat of a palace in which the kings of England occasionally resided. It was built by Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, and called Placentia. Henry VII enlarged it, and his son, Henry VIII, finished it. Queen Elizabeth and queen Mary were born within its walls, and Edward VI died here. King Charles II took the greater part down, and commenced a new palace on its site, a part of which forms one wing of the present hospital. This consists, at present, of four extensive piles of building or wings, entirely detached from each other, but so connected by the conformity of their dimensions, their figures, and the general arrangement of their decorations, as to form a complete whole. The principal front, which is nearly all of Portland stone, faces the Thames on the north. The two northern wings are separated by a square of 270 feet wide; the two southern are connected by two colonnades, 115 feet asunder, supported by 300 double columns and pilasters; while a spacious avenue through the hospital from the town, divides these squares from cach other, and thus also divides the whole of the northern half of the building from the whole of the southern. In the middle of the great square is a statue of George II, sculptured by Rysbrach. Extending 865 feet along the front, the intervening bank of the Thames is formed into a terrace, with a double flight of steps to the river in the middle. The pensioners to be received into the hospital must be aged and maimed seamen of the navy, or

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