Images de page

da, was regarded as the first modern Greek scholar; and the academy founded by the French on the Ionian Islands, were points of union for the Greek youth, not without influence on the Greek people. Under the protection of England, and lord Guilford's wise cáre, the Greek spirit was gradually developed. An Ionic Greek university was opened at Cor fu, by the direction of Canning, May 19, 1824. It consists of four faculties, for theology, law, medicine and philosophy. Its chancellor was lord Guilford. The lectures are in the modern Greek language. The most distinguished professors are, Bambas of Scio, Asopios, and Piccolo (who delivers lectures on modern philosophy). In Paris, a distinct professorship of the modern Greek has existed for several years, and M. Clonaris delivers a course of very popular lectures on it. Those delivered by Jacobakis Rhizos Nerulos, at Geneva, were printed in a French translation (Geneva, 1827). In Munich, a professorship was afterwards established. In Vienna, Petersburg, Trieste, wealthy Greeks afforded important aid to the literature of their countrymen. In Odessa, a Greek theatre has existed for several years, where ancient Greek tragedies, translated into the modern language, delight the spectators. Such experiments were followed by original productions of Jacobakis Rhizos (Aspasia and Polyxena), of Piculos, and by translations of modern dramatic works by Oiconomos, Coccinakis, &c. The inspiring strains of Rhigas (q. v.) and Polyzois roused the military spirit of their countrymen. Christopylus, in the style of the Teian bard, pours out his cheerful strains; nor must Kalbo and Salomo of Zante be forgotten; the tone of the productions of Jannacateky Tia nites, of Constantinople, is more melancholy. Sakellario's muse is grave (Vienna, 1817), and Perdicari's, satirical. As an improvisatore, Nicolopylus met with applause at Paris. Andreas Mustoxidi (q. v.), historian of the island of Corfu, is an ornament of modern Greek literature, equally distinguished as an Italian author, by his Life of Anacreon. Among the multitude of translators engaged on political works, Iskenteri, who translated Voltaire's Zadig into modern Greek, is highly esteemed. Bambas, Cumas (the translator of Krug's System of Philosophy), Alexandridis, Anthimos Gazis, Ducas, Gubdelas, Codricas, Condos, Mich. Schinas, Spyridon Tricoupi, Solyzoides, were names distinguished before the beginning of the late desolating troubles. The Melissa

(the Bee), a modern Greek journal, published by Spyridon Condos and Agathophron, in Paris, in 1821, was discontinued when the contributors engaged in the war of liberty. On the whole, about 3000 works in the modern Greek language have appeared within 50 years. Fauriel, a Frenchman, collected all the popular modern Greek songs (Paris, 1824-25, 2 vols.), and in them has given the public a commentary on the events of the day. For more minute information, we refer to Iken's Hellenion and Leucothea, and to the periodicals. Consult Jul. David's Comparison of the Ancient and Modern Greek Languages (translated from the modern Greek by Struve, Berlin, 1827); Minoides Minas, Traité sur la véritable Prononciation de la Langue Grecque (Paris, 1827). Coray's system is at present generally adopted, to enrich and ennoble the modern Greek language from the treasures of the ancient Greek, avoiding the too difficult inflections, and removing the Germanisms and Gallicisms introduced by translations.

Greek Church; that portion of Christians who conform, in their creed, usages and church government, to the views of Christianity introduced into the former Greek empire, and perfected, since the 5th century, under the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, Christendom, which, with difficulty, had been brought to a state of concord in the 4th and 5th centuries, already contained the germ of a future schism, by reason both of its extent, as it embraced the whole east and west of the Roman empire, and of the diversity of language, modes of thinking and manners, among the nations professing it. The foundation of a new Rome in Constantinople; the political partition of the Roman empire into the Oriental, or Greek, and the Occidental, or Latin; the elevation of the bishop of Constantinople to the place of second patriarch of Christendom, inferior only to the patriarch of Rome, effected in the councils of Constantinople, A. D. 381, and of Chalcedon, A. D. 451; the jealousy of the latter patriarch towards the growing power of the former,—were circumstances, which, together with the ambiguity of the edict known under the name of the Henoticon, granted by the Greek emperor Zeno, A. D. 482, and obnoxious to the Latins on account of the appearance of a deviation from the decrees of the council of Chalcedon, produced a formal schism in the Christian church. Felix II, patriarch of Rome, pronounced sentence

of excommunication against the patriarchs of Constantinople and Alexandria, who had been the leading agents of the Henoticon, A. D. 484, and thus severed all ecclesiastical fellowship with the congregations of the East, attached to these patriarchs. The sentiments of the imperial court being changed, the Roman patriarch Hormidas was able, indeed, to compel a reunion of the Greek church with the Latin, in 519; but this union, never seriously intended, and loosely compacted, was again dissolved by the obstinacy of both parties, and the Roman sentence of excommunication against the Iconoclasts among the Greeks, A. D. 733, and against Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, A. D. 862. The augmentation of the Greek church, by the addition of newly converted nations, as the Bulgarians, excited anew, about this time, the jealousy of the Roman pontiff; and his bearing towards the Greeks was the more haughty since he had renounced his allegiance to the Greek emperor, and had a sure protection against him in the new Frankish-Roman empire. Photius, on the other hand, charged the Latins with arbitrary conduct in inserting an unscriptural addition into the creed respecting the origin of the Holy Ghost, and in altering many of the usages of the ancient orthodox church; for example, in forbidding their priests to marry, repeating the chrism, and fasting on Saturday, as the Jewish sabbath. But he complained, with justice, in particular, of the assumptions of the pope, who pretended to be the sovereign of all Christendom, and treated the Greek patriarchs as his inferiors. The deposition of this patriarch, twice effected by the pope, did not terminate the dispute between the Greeks and Latins; and when the patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius, added to the charges of Photius, against the Latins, an accusation of heresy, in 1054, on account of their use of unleavened bread at the communion, and of the blood of animals that had died by strangulation, as well as on account of the immorality of the Latin clergy in general, Pope Leo IX, having, in retaliation, excommunicated him, in the most insulting manner, a total separation ensued of the Greek church from the Latin. From this time, pride, obstinacy and selfishness frustrated all the attempts which were made to reunite the severed churches, partly by the popes, in order to annex the East to their see, partly by the Greek emperors (equally oppressed by the crusaders and Mohammedans), in order to secure the

assistance of the princes of the West. Neither would yield to the other in respect to the contested points, on which we have touched above. While the Catholic religion acquired a more complete and peculiar character under Gregory VII, and through the scholastic philosophy, the Greek church retained its creed, as arranged by John of Damascus, in 730, and its ancient constitution. The conquest of Constantinople by the French crusaders and the Venetians, A. D. 1204, and the cruel oppressions which the Greeks had to endure from the Latins and the papal legates, only increased their exasperation; and although the Greek emperor Michael II (Palæologus, who had reconquered Constantinople in 1261) consented to recognise the supremacy of the pope, and by his envoys and some of the clergy, who were devoted to him, abjured the points of separation, at the assembly, at Lyons, A. D. 1274; and though a joint synod was held at Constantinople, in 1277, for the purpose of strengthening the union with the Latin church, the mass of the Greek church was nevertheless opposed to this step; and pope Martin IV, having excommunicated the emperor Michael, in 1281, from political motives, the councils held at Constantinople, in 1283 and 1285, by the Greek bishop, restored their old doctrines and the separation from the Latins. The last attempt was made by the Greek emperor John VII (Palæologus, who was very hard pressed by the Turks), together with the patriarch Joseph, in the councils held, first at Ferrara, in 1438, and the next year at Florence, pope Eugene IV presiding; but the union concluded there had the appearance of a submission of the Greeks to the Roman see, and was altogether rejected by the Greek clergy and nation, so that, in fact, the schism of the two churches continued. The efforts of the Greek emperors, on this point, who had always had most interest in these attempts at union, ceased with the overthrow of their empire and the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks, A. D. 1453; and the exertions of the Roman Catholics to subject the Greek church, effected nothing but the acknowledgment of the supremacy of the pope by some congregations in Italy (whither many Greeks had fled before the Turks), in Hungary, Galicia, Poland and Lithuania, which congregations are now known under the name of United Greeks. In the 7th century, the territory of the Greek church embraced, besides East Illyria,

Greece Proper, with the Morea and the Archipelago, Asia Minor, Syria, with Palestine, Arabia, Egypt, and numerous congregations in Mesopotamia and Persia; but the conquests of Mohammed and his successors have deprived it, since 630, of almost all its provinces in Asia and Africa; and even in Europe the number of its adherents was considerably diminished by the Turks in the 15th century. On the other hand, it was increased by the accession of several Sclavonian nations, and especially of the Russians, who were compelled by the great prince Wladimir, in the year 988, to adopt the creed of the Greek Christians. To this nation the Greek church is indebted for the symbolical book, which, with the canons of the first and second Nicene, of the first, second and third Constantinopolitan, of the Ephesian and Chalcedonian general councils, and of the Trullan council, holden at Constantinople in 692, is the sole authority of the Greek Christian in doctrinal matters. After the learned Cyrillus Lascaris, patriarch of Constantinople, had atoned, with his life, for the approach to Protestantism perceptible in his creed, A. D. 1629, an exposition of the doctrine of the Russians was drawn up, in the Greek language, by Pet. Mogislaus, bishop of Kiev, 1642, under the title the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Church of Christ, signed and ratified, 1643, by all the patriarchs of the Greek church, to whom had been added, in 1589, the fifth patriarch of Moscow. It was printed in Holland, in Greek and Latin, 1662, with a preface by the patriarch Nectarius of Jerusalem. In 1696, it was published by the last Russian patriarch, Adrianus of Moscow; and, in 1722, at the command of Peter the Great, by the holy synod; it having been previously declared to be in all cases valid, as the ritual of the Greek church, by a council at Jerusalem, in 1672, and by the ecclesiastical rule of Peter the Great, drawn up, in 1721, by Theophanes Procowicz. Like the Catholic, this church recognises two sources of doctrine, the Bible and tradition, under which last it comprehends not only those doctrines which were orally delivered by the apostles, but also those which have been approved of by the fathers of the Greek church, especially John of Damascus, as well as by the seven above-named general councils. The other councils, whose authority is valid in the Roman Catholic church, this church does not recognise; nor does it allow the patriarchs or synods

to introduce new doctrines. It treats its tenets as so entirely obligatory and necessary, that they cannot be denied without the loss of salvation. It is the only church which holds that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father only, thus differing from the Catholic and Protestant churches, which agree in deriving the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son. Like the Catholic church, it has seven sacraments-baptism, chrisin, the eucharist preceded by confession, penance, ordination, marriage and supreme unction; but it is peculiar, 1. in holding that full purification from original sin in baptism requires an immersion three times of the whole body in water, whether infants or adults are to be baptized, and in joining chrism (confirmation) with it as the completion of baptism; 2. in adopting, as to the eucharist, the doctrine of transubstantiation, as well as the Catholic views of the host; but it orders the bread to be leavened, the wine to be mixed with water, and both elements are distributed to every one, even to children, before they have a true idea of what sin is, the communicant receiving the bread broken in a spoon filled with the consecrated wine; 3. all the clergy, with the exception of the monks, and of the higher clergy chosen from among them, down to the bishops inclusive, are allowed to marry a virgin, but not a widow; nor are they allowed to marry a second time; and therefore the widowed clergy are not permitted to retain their livings, but go into a cloister, where they are called hieromonachi. Rarely is a widowed clergyman allowed to preserve his diocese; and from the maxim, that marriage is not suitable for the higher clergy in general, and second marriage at least is improper for the lower, there is no departure. The Greek church does not regard the marriage of the laity as indissoluble, and frequently grants divorces; but is as strict as the Catholic church with respect to the forbidden degrees of relationship, especially of the ecclesiastical relationship of godparents; nor does it allow the laity a fourth marriage. It differs from the Catholic church in anointing with the holy oil, not only the dying, but the sick, for the restoration of their health, the forgiveness of their sins, and the sanctification of their souls. It rejects the doctrine of purgatory, has nothing to do with predestination, works of supererogation, indulgences and dispensations (to the living; but a printed form for the forgiveness of sin is sometimes given to the de

[ocr errors]

ceased, at the request and for the comfort of the survivors); and it recognises neither the pope nor any one else as the visible vicar of Christ on earth. It moreover allows no carved, sculptured or molten image of holy persons or subjects; but the representations of Christ, of the virgin Mary and the saints, which are objects of religious veneration in churches and private houses, must be merely painted, and, at most, inlaid with precious stones. In the Russian churches, however, works of sculpture are found on the altars. In the invocation of the saints, and especially of the virgin, the Greeks are as zealous as the Catholics. They also hold relics, graves and crosses sacred; and crossing in the name of Jesus, they consider as having a wonderful and blessed influence. Among the means of penance, fasts are particularly numerous with them, at which it is not lawful to eat any thing but fruits, vegetables, bread and fish. They fast Wednesday and Friday of every week; and, besides, observe four great annual fasts, viz., 40 days before Easter, from Whitsuntide to the days of St. Peter and Paul; the fast of the virgin Mary, from the 1st to the 15th of August; and the apostle Philip's fast, from the 15th to the 26th of November; besides the day of the beheading of John, and of the elevation of the cross. The services of the Greek church consist almost entirely in outward forms. Preaching and catechising constitute the least part of it; and, in the 17th century, preaching was strictly forbidden in Russia, under the czar Alexis, in order to prevent the diffusion of new doctrines. In Turkey, preaching was confined almost exclusively to the higher clergy, because they alone possess ed some degree of knowledge. Each congregation has its appointed choir of singers, who sing psalms and hymns. The congregations themselves do not, like us, sing from books; and instrumental music is excluded altogether from the Greek worship. Besides the mass, which is regarded as the chief thing, the liturgy consists of passages of Scripture, prayers and legends of the saints, and in the recitation of the creed, or of sentences which the officiating priest begins, and the people in a body continue and finish. The convents conform, for the most part, to the strict rule of St. Basil. The Greek abbot is termed higumenos, the abbess higumene. The abbot of a Greek convent, which has several others under its inspection, is termed archimandrite, and has a rank next below that of bishop. The lower

clergy, in the Greek church consists of readers, singers, deacons, &c., and of priests, such as the popes and protopopes or arch priests, who are the first clergy in the cathedrals and metropolitan churches. The members of the lower clergy can rise no higher than protopopes; for the bishops are chosen from among the monks, and from the bishops, archbishops, metropolitans and patriarchs. In Russia, there are 31 dioceses. With which of them the arch-episcopal dignity shall be united, depends on the will of the emperor. The seats of the four metropolitans of the Russian empire are Petersburg, with the jurisdiction of Novgorod; Kiev, with that of Galicia; Kasan, with that of Svijaschk; and Tobolsk, with that of all Siberia. The patriarchal dignity of Moscow, which the patriarch Nikon (died in 1681) was said to have abused, Peter the Great abolished, by presenting himself before the bishops, assembled, after the death of Adria, 1702, to choose a new patriarch, with the words, "I am your patriarch;" and, in 1721, the whole church government of his empire was intrusted to a college of bishops and secular clergy, called the holy synod, first at Moscow, now at Petersburg. Under this synod now stand, beside the metropolitans, 11 archbishops, 19 bishops, 12,500 parish churches, and 425 convents, 58 of which are connected with monastic schools for the education of the clergy, and, for the better effecting of this object, are aided by an annual pension of 300,000 rubles from the state. The Greek church, under the Turkish dominion, remained, as far as was possible under such circumstances, faithful to the original constitution. The dignities of patriarch of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem still subsist. The former, however, possesses the ancient authority of the former archbishop of Constantinople; takes the lead as oecumenical patriarch, in the holy synod at Constantinople, composed of the four patriarchs, a number of metropolitans and bishops, and 12 principal secular Greeks; exercises the highest ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Greeks in the whole Turkish empire, and is recognised as head of the Greek churcn, by the (not united) Greeks in Galicia, in the Bukowina, in Sclavonia and the Seven Islands. The other three patriarchs, since almost all the people in their dioceses are Mohammedans, have but a small sphere of action (the patriarch of Alexandria has but two churches at Cairo), and live, for the most part, on the aid afforded them

by the patriarch of Constantinople. This patriarch has a considerable income, but is obliged to pay nearly half of it as a tribute to the sultan. The Greeks, under the Turkish government, are allowed to build no new churches, have to pay dearly for the permission to repair the old ones, are not allowed to have steeples or bells to their churches, nor even to wear the Turkish dress, generally perform religious service by night, and are moreover obliged, not only to pay tolls, from which the Turks are free, but the males also pay to the sultan, after their 15th year, a heavy poll tax, under the name of exemption from beheading. For a long time, the attachment of this church to old institutions has stood in the way of all attempts at improvement. Such attempts have given rise to a number of sects, which the Russian government leaves unmolested. As early as the 14th century, the party of the Strigolnicians seceded from hatred of the clergy, but, as they had no other peculiarity, soon perished. The same was done, with more success, by the Roskolnicians (i. e., the apostates), about 1666. (See Roskolnicians.) This sect, which, by degrees, was divided into 20 different parties, by no means forms a regular ecclesiastical society, with symbols and usages of its own, but consists of single congregations, independent of each other, which are distinguished from the Greek church by preserving, unaltered, the ancient Sclavonian liturgy, &c.; have a consecrated clergy; and, having retired from early persecution, have become numerous in the eastern provinces of the Russian empire. The different parties conform, more or less, to the peculiarities attributed to the Roskolnicians in general, such as declaring the use of tobacco and of strong drinks sinful, fasting yet more strictly than the orthodox church, refusing to take oaths; and are, from a fanatical spirit similar to that of the former Anabaptists, inclined to rebellion against their rulers. Pugatschew, himself a Roskolnician, found most of his adherents among them in his rebellion. At present, they have relaxed much of their strictness on these points, as well as their fantastic notions with respect to marriage, dress, the priesthood and martyrdom, and seem to be gradually merging among the orthodox, The Philippones (q. v.) were exiled Roskolnicians, who settled in Lithuania and East Prussia, under Philip Pustoswiat. Farther removed from the belief of the Greek church are the Duchoborzy, a sect settled on the steppes (q. v.), beyond the

Don, which rejects the doctrine of the Trinity, and receives the Gospels only, has no churches nor priests, and regards oaths, as well as warfare, unlawful. Antitrinitarians, of a similar kind, are the Russian Jews, as they are called in the government of Archangel and Katharinoslav, of whom it is only known that they worship neither Christ nor the saints, reject baptism, and have no priests nor churches. (Respecting the ancient schismatie and heretical religious parties in Asia and Africa, that have proceeded from the Greek church, see Copts, Abyssinia, Jacobites, Nestorians, Maronites, Armenians.) GREEK FIRE. (See Fire, Greek.)

GREEN, a river of Kentucky, which rises in Lincoln county, and flows into the Ohio, 61 miles above the Wabash, 173 below Louisville. Its course for about 150 miles is westerly; it afterwards has a course N. by W. Its whole length is upwards of 200 miles, and it is navigable for boats, at some seasons, nearly 150. The tract through which it flows, called the Green river country, is remarkable for its fertility, beautiful scenery and stupendous caves, in which are found great quantities of nitre.

GREEN BANK; one of the banks near the island of Newfoundland, 129 miles long and 48 wide. Lon. 53° 30 to 55° 50′ W.; lat. 45° 30′ to 46° 50′ N.

GREEN BAY, or PUAN BAY; bay on W. side of lake Michigan, about 100 miles long, but in some places only 15 miles, in others from 20 to 30, broad. It lies nearly from N. E. to S. W. At the entrance of it from the lake is a string of islands extending N. to S., called the Grand Trav erse. These are about 30 miles in length, and serve to facilitate the passage of canoes, as they shelter them from the winds, which sometimes come with violence across the lake. Green Bay is termed by the inhabitants of its coasts, the Menominy bay. The country around is occupied chiefly by the Menominy Indians.

GREEN BAY; a post-town, military post, and seat of justice for Brown county, Michigan, at S. end of Green Bay, near the entrance of Fox river; 180 S.W.Michilimackinac, 220 N. by W. Chicago, 366 E. Prairie du Chien, by the Fox and Ouisconsin rivers, W. 972. Lon. 87° 58′ W.; lat. 45° N. Here is a settlement, extending about four miles.

GREEN CLOTH; a board or court of justice, held in the counting-house of the king's household, composed of the lord steward and officers under him, who sit daily. To this court is committed the

« PrécédentContinuer »