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to have pleaded a thing so notorious, and which would have given the greatest countenance and authority possible to them and their doctrine; and must have been of the greatest weight and force with Pope Leo, to whom they were writing, and whose protection they were then seeking, and humbly imploring. From hence then one may reasonably infer, that this Creed was not received into the Roman Offices so early as the year 809. Let us now inquire whether we can fix upon any later time for its coming in.

Genebrard testifies, that in the oldest Roman Breviaries he could meet with or hear of, this Creed always made a part of the Service °. But this is too general, nor can we be certain how ancient those oldest Breviaries were, nor whether they belonged to the Roman Church, strictly so called, or to other western churches. And indeed I know not how we can come to any certainty in this matter, unless it be by examining into the Roman Psalters which have this Creed in them. Whenever the Creed came into the Roman Psalters, we may justly conclude, that at the same time it came into the Roman Offices. We have in our public library at Cambridge a Roman Psalter, written for the use of the church of Canterbury, (as our judicious Mr. Wanley reasonably conjectures P,) and about the time of the Conquest, or a little before, suppose 1060. The church of Canterbury more especially used the Roman Psalter, as hath been observed above, and was in all things conformable, of old time, to the Roman Offices. Now if this Creed, which had long before been introduced into the Gallican Psalters, did at this time obtain in the Roman also; it is obvious to con

• In vetustissimis Romanæ Ecclesiæ goλoyíos (hæc nunc vocamus Breviaria) sub Athanasii nomine ejus ad primam recitatio usu recepta est. Genebr. in Symb. Athanas. p. 3.

P Notandum vero in Litania extare hæc verba: Ut archiepiscopum nostrum, et omnem congregationem illi commissam, in sancta religione conser vare digneris, te rogamus: quibus pene inducor ut credam hunc cod. olim pertinuisse ad ecclesiam Christi Salvatoris Cantuariæ. Wanlei Catal. p. 152.

clude, that it at the same time made a part of the Roman Offices, even at Rome itself, as well as Canterbury, since one was conformable to the other. This argument may carry us up some years higher: for there is another, an older Roman Psalter, taken notice of above, which has this Creed in it; written about the year 930, in the time of King Athelstan. It is said to have belonged formerly to Archbishop Cranmer. Perhaps this also might have been written for the use of the church of Canterbury: I know of no church, amongst us, which at that time used the Roman Psalter, but the church of Canterbury. However, it is highly improbable that any church which complied so far with Rome, as to use the Roman Psalter, should take this Creed into that Psalter before such time as Rome itself had done the same thing. Upon the strength of this argument, though it be not demonstrative, but probable only, (such as the case will admit of, and such as may very well pass till we can fix upon something more certain,) I say upon the strength of this, I incline to date the reception of this Creed at Rome from the tenth century, and the beginning of it, about the year 930. From this time forwards, I presume, the Athanasian Creed has been honoured with a public recital, among the other sacred Hymns and Church Offices, all over the west. The way has been to recite it at the prime, or first hour, (one o'clock in the Latin account, with us seven in the morning,) every Lord's Day 9; and in some places every day. But as the custom of making it only a part of the Sunday Service is the most ancient, so has it likewise been the most general and prevailing; and is at this

-in

9 Die Dominico ad primam recitetur. Hatt. Basil. A. D. 820. Per omnes occidentis ecclesias Dominicis semper diebus psalliturcunctis ecclesiis publice cani præcepta. Manuel. Calec. Bibl. PP. tom xxvi. P. 414.

• Fidem, Quicunque vult, quotidie ad primam iterat. Honor. August. Ad primam dicunt quotidie Symbolum Athanasii. Bona de Carthusianis, p. 897. Psalmod.

Ad primam

-quotidie subditur Symbolum Athanasii. Bona de Ambrosianis, p. 900. Divin. Psalmod.

day the common and constant usage of the churches within the Roman communion. And let this suffice so far as concerns the western churches.

Of the GREEK and ORIENTAL CHURCHES.

AS to the Greek, or Oriental churches, I reserved this place for them, that I might not entirely omit them. It has been questioned, whether any of them ever received this Creed at all. Vossiuss seems to have thought that they never have: and so also Combefisiust. And Dr. Smith, in his Account of the Greek Church, is positive that" as to the Creed of Athanasius, the Greeks are "wholly strangers to it"."

Nevertheless, I find some very considerable men of a contrary persuasion, and not Romanists only, as Baronius, Spondanus, Muratorius y, Renaudot, and others, but Protestants also; as particularly Gundling, whose words I have put into the margina. We may observe however,

s Nec qui nostra ætate Patriarcha Alexandrinus, et Præses Constantinopoleos fuit, pro germano illud Symbolum habuit. Sic enim Meletius litteris suis Constantinopoli, anno 1597, ad Johannem Douzam, Nordovicem datis, et a filio Georgio Douza editis. "Athanasio falso adscriptum Symbolum, "cum appendice illa Romanorum Pontificum adulteratum, luce lucidius " contestamur." Voss. de Trib. Symb. Dissert. ii. c. 20. p. 521.

t Combef. not. ad Calec. p. 297. et notatione 48 in vitam Basilii PseudoAmphiloch.Symbolum Athanasii Græci ut ejus non recipiunt. u Smith, Account &c. p. 196.

* Spondanus epitomizing the words of Baronius, as I find quoted by Tentzelius, p. 152.

Cum autem e Romanæ Ecclesiæ antiquis monumentis, veluti eruderatum emersit in lucem, tum a Latinis omnibus, tum a Græcis æque susceptum est: non ab Ecclesia Constantinopolitana tantum, sed Serviana, Bulgarica, Russica, Moscovitica, et aliis; licet ab eis dempta inde pars illa fuerit, qua Spiritum Sanctum a Patre Filioque procedere expressum habetur.

✓ Re vera, non Ecclesia tantum Constantinopolitana, sed Serviana, Bulgarica, Russica, Moscovitica, aliæque ritui Græco addictæ, etsi Athanasiano Symbolo in sacris Liturgiis utantur, hanc tamen particulam, et Filio, inde exclusere. Murator. tom. ii. p. 227.

z Quod dicitur Domini Filius assumpsisse hominem &c. rectum est, Symbolo quod Athanasii dicitur, et a Græcis Latinisque recipitur, conforme. Renaud. Orient. Liturg. vol. ii. p. 643.

• Mirari quis possit cur Græci processionem Spiritus Sancti a Filio ne

that thus far is agreed on all hands, that this Creed is not received in all the Greek churches; and if it is in any, yet it is there differently read in the article of procession. It is not pretended that any of the African churches, Alexandrian, Nubian, or Ethiopian, (which are, most of them, of the Jacobite or Eutychian sect,) have received it. So far from it, that they have not (at least the Ethiopian or Abassine churches have not) so much as the Apostles' Creed amongst them, if we may believe Ludolphusb: so little are they acquainted with the Latin forms or confessions. Nor is it pretended that the more eastern Christians, belonging to the Patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem, have any acquaintance with the Athanasian Creed: no not the Maronites, though they formerly submitted to the see of Rome, and are still supposed to hold communion therewith, and to acknowledge the Pope for their head. All that is pretended, with respect to this Creed, is, that the churches of Constantinople, Servia, Bulgaria, Russia, and Muscovy, acknowledge it as Athanasius's, or make use of it in their common and sacred Offices. And for proof of this, it has been usual to appeal to a passage of Cazanovius, a Polish knight, in a letter of his to Calvin: which letter I have not seen, but find quoted both by Genebrard and Vossius d, men of opposite principles, and therefore the more safely to be relied on where they agree. But what does Cazanovius confess? That the Greek, Servian, Russian, and Muscovite

gent, additionem ad Symbolum Nicænum tam ægre ferant, cum tamen Symbolum Athanasii recipiant. Gundling. Not. ad Eustrat. &c. p. 68.

b Ludolph. Histor. Æthiop. lib. iii. c. 5. Symbolo Fidei Catholicæ Nicæno communiter utuntur- -illo quo nos utimur, uti cæteri orientales, carent: haud levi indicio Apostolos illius autores non esse.

c Si Athanasii est, cujusnam illud erit quod nunc Græcorum, Serviorum, Russorum, et Moscorum ecclesiæ sub ejusdem Athanasii titulo retinent, ac pro genuino agnoscunt? Cazanov. ad Calvin. Epist. apud Genebr. de Symbol. Athanas. p. 7.

d Cazanovius sarmata- -etsi multum ei hoc Symbolum displiceat, agnoscit tamen Athanasianum vocari, non in Latina solum Ecclesia, sed etiam in Constantinopolitana, Serviana, Bulgarica, Moscovitica. Voss. de Symb. Diss. ii. c. 1. p. 516.

churches acknowledge the Athanasian Creed as Athanasius's; only curtailed (or, as they would say, corrected) as to the point of the procession. A confession from a Socinian adversary, in this case, is of some weight; and especially if it can be enforced by any corroborating evidence. Let us see then what may be further learned concerning the several churches here named, and the reception of this Creed in them. I may take them one by

one.

1. To begin with Muscovy, where the matter of fact seems to be most fully attested of any. In the account given of the Lord Carlisle's embassy from King Charles II. to the Great Duke of Muscovy, in the year 1663 °, I meet with this passage, relating to the Muscovites, and their divine Service: "The whole Service is performed by "reading of certain Psalms, or chapters in the Bible: "sometimes the priest adds Athanasius's Creed, or sings "certain hymns, and St. Chrysostom's Homily." In another treatise entitled, Of the Ancient and Modern Religion of the Muscovites, written in French, and printed at Cologne 1698, and since translated into English, there is this account of the Muscovites; that "they receive the "Creed of the Apostles, and that of Nice and Athana"sius f." These two testimonies are undoubtedly sufficient, so far as concerns Muscovy. Now the Muscovites received their religion and their orders from the Patriarch of Constantinople, about the tenth century, or beginning of the eleventh and their receiving of this Creed will be a presumptive argument in favour of its reception at Constantinople also, if there be no evident reason against it. That the Muscovites did not receive the Creed from the Latins, but from the Greeks, is very plain, because their copies of the Creed are without the article of the procession from the Sons. For they pretend that the Latins

• Harris's Complete Collection, &c. vol. ii. p. 181. See also the Duke of Holstein's Travels, ibid. p. 36.

f Harris's Collect. of Travels, vol. ii. p. 238. See also p. 240, 241. 8 Vid. Tentzel. Judic. Erudit. p. 151.

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