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being known. The author of that book of Hymns must have been very ignorant, not to know Athanasius, who was undoubtedly the third man, and for whose sake (to account for the Creed's being written in Latin) the whole story seems to have been contrived. By Eusebius must have been intended Eusebius of Verceil in Piedmont, a Latin, and a great friend and intimate of Athanasius: by Dionysius undoubtedly is meant Dionysius Bishop of Milan, of the same time and of the same principles, and well acquainted with Eusebiusf. Had the contrivers of the fable laid their scene at Alexandria, where Athanasius and this Eusebius, with several other Latins, met together in the year 362, they had made it the more plausible. But let us return to our Greek copies, from which we have a little digressed.

This is observable of the Greek copies in general, that they differ very widely from each other, and therefore cannot be copies of one and the same version. Possibly, three or four of them may be thrown into one, admitting however many various lections: but still there will be as many remaining, which cannot be so dealt with, but must be looked upon as distinct and different versions. Such as desire to see all the copies together, may find them in Gundling and Montfaucon; four at large, the rest exhibited only by various lections. I do not know whether the manuscripts of the Vienna library have been collated for any of the printed editions: perhaps not; I do not remember that I have met with any mention of them, in any of the editors of the printed copies.

It may be of use to set the printed editions, after our account of the manuscripts, in chronological order, as dis

f It seems highly probable, that the whole fable about Eusebius and Dionysius was first raised out of a passage of St. Ambrose, which might be thought to hint some such thing. The words are :

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"Itaque ut Eusebius Sanctus prior levavit vexillum confessionis, ita beatus Dionysius in exilii locis, priori martyribus titulo vitam exhalavit.” Ambros. ad Vercellens. Ep. lxiii. p. 1039.



tinctly as may be, since we cannot fix the dates of the manuscript copies.

1. The first printed edition was by Nicolaus Bryling, a printer of Basil. My authors have been deficient in not setting down the date of it. I have endeavoured to fix the year, but have not yet been so happy as to come to a certainty in it. Wherefore, I hope, my reader will excuse it, if, rather than set no year at all, I choose one which I know cannot be very much over or under, because of other pieces printed by the same Bryling about that time. Fabricius mentions Michael Neander as editor of the same copy after Bryling, and before Stephens: but what year is not said. Sebastian Lepusculus'sh edition of the same was in 1559; and Stephens's in 1565.

2. The second printed copy was taken from the manuscript of Lazarus Baiffius, which he received from Dionysius *, a Greek, in the year 1533, as before hinted. This was first printed by Genebrard in the year 1569, again in 1585, and oftentimes since. This copy is sometimes called the Dionysian copy; and it is observed by Gundling to differ from the first copy but in seven places; and there

Quod olim evulgavit Basilea Nicolaus Bryling; deinde in Gallia anno 1565, Henricus Stephanus. Genebrard. in Symb. Athanas. p. 8. Quam post Nic. Brylingium, et Mich. Neandrum, H. Stephanus in lucem edidit. Fabric. Bibl. Græc. vol. v. p. 315.

h Sebastian, Lepusculi compendium Josephi Gorionidis, cum Collectaneis quibusdam, p. 49. Basil, 1559.

i Nic. Serarius, who wrote in the year 1590, speaking of that first copy printed by Bryling and Stephens, says as follows:

"Quarum prima vulgata dici potest, eo quod hactenus ea sola hic apud nos, Germania et Gallia, typis evulgata fuerit." Nicol. Serar, de Symbol. Athanas. Opusc. Theolog. tom. ii. p. 9.

* Hoc Symbolum reperi in libro Græco MS. de processione Spiritus Sancti, quem Lazaro Baiffio oratori regis Francisci I. apud Venetos, obtulit Dionysius Græcus, Episcopus Zienensis et Firmiensis anno 1533. Genebr. Comm. in Symb. Athanas. p. 8,

In manus meas pervenit liber quidam Græcus, de processione Spiritus Sancti, oblatus Lazaro Baiffio claro regis nostri Francisci I. apud Venetos oratori, anno Christi 1533. Quem manu sua elegantissime pinxerat Nicolaus Sophianus Patrum nostrorum ævo vir valde doctus, Genebr. ibid. p. 2.

fore these two have been commonly thrown into one, by the editors of both.

3. The third copy was also first printed by Genebrard, 1569. at the same time with the other. It has gone under the name of the Constantinopolitan copy, because Genebrard supposed it to have been in use at Constantinople1. It differs considerably from both the other, and is never thrown into one with them, but kept distinct by itself.

4. The fourth is the Commeline, or Felckman's copy, 1600. from the Palatine manuscripts, often reprinted with Athanasius's works. This also stands by itself as a distinct


5. The fifth was first published by Usher, in the year 1647. 1647. This differs extremely from all the rest, having, besides many variations and slight insertions, one very large interpolation. It hath been often reprinted since Usher's time.

6. The sixth and last was first published by Labbe and 1671. Cossart in the second tome of Councils. This copy comes the nearest to the two first, and therefore is sometimes thrown into one with them: but it differs from both in about forty places, according to Gundling's computation.

These are all the printed copies; which are sometimes called four, and sometimes six: four, because the first, second, and sixth may be tolerably thrown into one; six, because they may also be kept distinct, and may be reckoned as so many copies at least, if not so many several versions. So much for the Greek versions of our Creed.


To the versions already mentioned may be added the Sclavonian, of several dialects, and, as I conceive, pretty ancient but we have little or no account of them; only, as I shall show in the sequel, we may be certain that there have been such. There are Italian, Spanish, Irish, and Welsh versions; but whether any that can justly be

1 Superius Symbolum, Athanasii verbis aliquantulum immutatis, Constantinopolitani sic Græce legunt, et recitant. Genebr. ibid. p. 14.

called ancient, I know not. Future searches into libraries may perhaps produce farther discoveries. Fabricius makes mention of an Hebrew version of late date, and of an Arabic one still laterm: but these or the like modern versions will be of no use to us in our present inquiries.

A. D.


Of the Reception of the Athanasian Creed in the Christian

FROM the materials here laid down, we may now be able to determine something about the reception of the Creed, especially in the western Churches; among which the Churches of France, or Gaul, ought undoubtedly to be named first.


This Creed obtained in France in the time of Hincmar, 550. or about 850, without all dispute. We may advance higher up to 772: for it was then in Charles the Great's Psalter, among the Hymns of the Church. The Cotton manuscript Psalter, with this Creed in it, will carry us up to 703 and the Canon of the Council of Autun to 670; at which time the Gallican clergy, at least of the diocese of Autun, in the province of Lyons, were obliged to recite this Creed together with the Apostles', under pain of episcopal censure. Which shows of how great value and esteem the Creed was at that time, and affords a strong presumption (as Quesnel and Pagia well argue in the

m Hebraice versum a Julio Marcello Romano MS. in bibliotheca Vaticana memorat Imbonatus in bibl. Latino Hebraica, p. 149. Sed omitto recentiores versiones, ut Arabicam a Nisselio editam Lugd. Bat. 1656. 4to, una cum Cantico Canticor. Fabric. Bibl. Græc. v. 5. p. 315.

Georgius Nisselius Symbolum Athanasii Arabico idiomate cum Cantico
Canticorum Æthiopice et Arabice edito Lugd. Bat. anno 1656, conjunxit
id tamen non hausit ex codice MS. sed ipse in Arabicum sermonem transtulit.
Tentzel. p. 125.

" Dubium non est quin multis ante Synodum illam Augustodunensem annis compositum esset, et jam olim per totam Ecclesiam celebre evasisset :

case) that it had been in use there long before. There will be some doubt, as I intimated above, about the supposed Canon of the Council of Autun; which will in some measure abate the force of our evidence, and of the argumént built upon it. But as it is certain from other evidence, that this Creed was received in the Gallican churches as high as 772 or 703; so it must be owned that this very much confirms the supposition of the Council of Autun: and the concurring circumstances give very great light and strength to each other. But what most of all confirms the foregoing evidence, and the reasoning upon it, is, that Venantius Fortunatus, a full hundred years before the Council of Autun, had met with this Creed in the Gallican parts, and found it then to be in such esteem as to deserve to be commented upon, like the Lord's Prayer, and Apostles' Creed: accordingly he wrote comments upon it, as well as upon the other. This won derfully confirms the reasoning of Quesnel and Pagi, that this Creed must have been in use there near a hundred years before the Council of Autun, that is, as high, as 570, about which time Fortunatus flourished and wrote. And considering that this Creed must have been for some time growing into repute, before it could be thought worthy to have such honour paid it, along with the Lord's Prayer and Apostles' Creed; I may perhaps be allowed to set the time of its reception, in the Gallican churches, some years higher reception of it, I mean, as an excellent formulary, or an acknowledged rule of faith, though not perhaps admitted into their sacred Offices. Upon the whole, and upon the strength of the foregoing evidences, we may

nunquam enim sapientissimi præsules id commisissent, ut istam fidei formulam omnium ordinum clericis amplectendam, et irreprehensibiliter, ut aiunt, recensendam, Synodali edicto sub condemnationis pæna præciperent; imo et illam e regione cum Symbolo Apostolico poherent, nisi jam longo usu recepta, approbata, et inter germanas Magni Athanasii lucubrationes numerata fuisset; quòd nisi post plurium annorum seriem fieri vix potuit. Quesnel, Dis. xiv. p. 731.

Quare jam ante centum fere annis opus illud Athanasio attributum fuerat. Pagi, Critic. in Baron. vol. i. p. 441.

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