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Nicolaus Hydruntinus, cited above, who flourished under Alexius IV. emperor of the east, and Pope Innocent the Third, that is, in round numbers about 1200, he gives us the first notice of this Creed being extant in Greek in his time. He observes, that the article of the procession from the Son was not in the Greek copy of this Creed, as neither in the Nicene, blaming the Latins, as I apprehend, for interpolating both. The censure was just with respect to the Nicene Creed, but not with respect to the Athanasian, which certainly never wanted that article; as is plain from the agreement of the Latin copies, and the earliest of them, those of a thousand years date: which I remark by the way. As to our present purpose, this is certain, that some time before Nicolaus of Otranto wrote, the Creed had been translated into Greek, by a Greek, or at least by one that took part with the Greeks in the question about the procession. It can hardly be imagined that Nicolaus had translated it himself, and that he appealed to his own version. There must have been a version before undoubtedly: and one can scarce suppose less than 50 or 100 years before, since both the time and author of it were forgotten, and this Greek version passed with Nicolaus for Athanasius's original. Manuel Caleca, who wrote about the year 1360, intimates that there had been Greek copies long before his time, and that the most ancient of all had the article of the procession from the Son; and that the older Greeks who wrote against the Latins did not pretend to strike out that article, as those did that came after. Could we depend upon this report, we might then be certain that the Greek copies of the time of Nicolaus Hydruntinus were late in comparison, and

• Testantur autem hanc ipsam Fidei Confessionem sancti viri (Athanasii) esse, atque id dictum ita se habere, qui contra Latinos multo ante scripserunt; quam sibi ut adversam frustra labefactare nituntur. Atque, ut intelligi datur, tunc quidem adhuc servabatur; postmodum vero pertinaciores ad contradicendum facti, omnino auferre voluerunt: etsi modo nihilominus curiose inquirentibus raro, licet in vetustissimis codicibus, ita habere invenitur. Man. Calec. contr. Græc. lib, ii. B. PP. tom. xxvi. p. 414.

that there had been other Greek copies much more ancient. But this I leave to the consideration of the learned. However this fact be, one thing is certain, that the oldest Greek copy could be only a version, whether sooner or later.

As to Greek copies now extant in manuscript, they are but few, and modern: I may here give a short account of them, of as many as I have hitherto found mentioned in books, or catalogues of manuscripts.

1. There is one in the Emperor's library at Vienna, said to be in paper, ancient, and of good value. These words are too general to fix any certain date upon: one may guess from the paper, that the manuscript is not very ancient; since paper came not into frequent or common use before the thirteenth century. But not to insist upon a disputable argument, (since cotton paper, though not common, was however sometimes used as early as the tenth century,) one may judge more certainly from what is written in the same volume, and, I suppose, in the same hand, (for Nesselius makes no distinction,) that the copy of the Creed is not earlier than the middle of the fourteenth century. Maximus Planudes makes a part of the manuscript: he flourished about the year 1340.

2. There is another Greek manuscript of this Creed in the same library, a paper one too, and said to be pretty ancient, by Nesselius, who gives account of its. From the

CCXIV. codex MS. theologicus Græcus est chartaceus, untiquus, et bonæ notæ, in 4to. constatque foliis 341.

Continentur eo hæc.

Imo, &c.

2do et quidem a fol. 77. ad fol. 79. S. Athanasii Archiepiscopi Alexandrini Symbolum Fidei, cujus titulus et principium, Τοῦ ἁγίου Αθανασίου τοῦ μεγά λου. Ὅσις δ ̓ ἂν βούληται σωθῆναι, πρὸ πάντων χρὴ κρατεῖν πίστιν, &c. Wessel. Catal. vol. i. p. 344.

• CXCmus codex MS.•-est chartaceus, mediocriter antiquus, et bonæ note, in 4to. constatque nunc foliis 332, et ad Johannem Sambucum olim pertinuit. Continentur eo hæc. I. primo, &c.

18o Et quidem a fol. 303. ad fol. 304. S. Athanasii magni, Archiepiscopi Alexandrini, Confessio Catholica Fidei, ad S. Julium Pontificem Romanum; cujus et titulus et principium, Τοῦ ἐν ἁγίοις πατρὸς ἡμῶν ̓Αθανασίου τοῦ μεγά

mention therein made of the Creed's being presented to Pope Julius, I should be apt to conclude that the manuscript is not earlier, nor copied from any earlier than Manuel Caleca's time, or the fourteenth century: but there are other marks, particularly some pieces of Julianus Cardinalis, which demonstrate that the manuscript cannot be much older than the middle of the fifteenth century.

3. Felckman had a manuscript copy of this Creed in Greek, without any title to it, or any author named, I can say nothing to the age of it, for want of further particulars.

4. Felckman had another manuscript out of the Palatine library, (which library is since transferred partly to the Vatican, the rest to Munich, &c.) with a title to it, cupBoxov Tou άylou 'Alavaciou, St. Athanasius's Creed". The title alone is a sufficient argument of its being modern, to any that consider what were the more usual and ancient titles, represented above. It is to be noted that those two manuscript copies are so nearly the same, that they make but one copy in print, which has been inserted in all the editions of Athanasius's works after Felckman's, as well as in his, and makes the fifth in Gundlingius, who gives us six Greek copies of this Creed. It is observable, that this copy owns not the procession from the Son: from whence we may infer that it was not made by the Latins,

λου Ὁμολογία τῆς καθολικῆς πίστεως ἣν ἔδωκε πρὸς Ιούλιον Πάπαν Ῥώμης. Τῷ DiXorTi oduvas &c. Nessel. Catal. vol. i. p. 281.

+ Extat hoc Symbolum in nostro codice 2 anonymo, sed absque titulo et nomine autoris; unde et sic editum. Felckman. ed. Athanas. Commelin. p. 83.

Incipit; Εἴ τις θέλει σωθῆναι, πρὸ πάντων χρὴ αὐτῷ τὴν καθολικὴν κρατήσαι πίστιν, &c.

u Invenimus id ipsum etiam post in codice quodam Palatinæ bibliothecæ, expresse Athanasio inscriptum (licet id recentiores Græci nolint, ut videre est ex epistola Meletii Constantinopolitani Patriarchæ ad Douzam) ex quo etiam discrepantias quasdam notabimus.

Incipit; Εἴ τις θέλει σωθῆναι, πρὸ πάντων χρεία ἐστὶν ἵνα τὴν καθολικὴν κρατήσε rior, &c. Felckman. ibid.

* Gundlingii not. ad Eustrat. et p. 76.

or however not by any who were not friends to the Greeks.

5. Lazarus Baifius's copy', which he had from Venice, in the time of Francis I. in the year 1533, was published by Genebrard, anno 1569. This copy probably was contrived by a Latin, (having the procession from the Son in it,) or at least by some honest Greek, who would not vary from the original. I conclude this Greek copy to be modern, from the title; for a reason before hinted.

6. There was another manuscript copy of this Creed, which Nicolaus Bryling first printed at Basil, and afterwards H. Stephens in France, in the year 1565. This also must, in all probability, be very modern, because of ouμBoxov in the title. It acknowledges the procession from the Son, conformable to the original.

7. In the Royal library at Paris, (Numb. 2502,) there is another manuscript Greek copy of this Creeda, written in the year 1562, published by Genebrard 1569, and said by him to belong to the Church of Constantinople. This was taken from an older manuscript, but how much older cannot certainly be knownb. One may imagine from the

* Titulus ; "Εκθεσις ὁμολογίας τῆς καθολικῆς πίστεως τοῦ μεγάλου Αθανασίου πατριάρχου Αλεξανδρείας πρὸς Ιούλιον Πάπαν.

Incipit; Ὅστις ἂν βούληται σωθῆναι, πρὸ πάντων χρὴ κρατεῖν τὴν καθολικὴν


• Titulus ; Σύμβολον τοῦ ἁγίου Αθανασίου.

Incipit; Ὅστις βούλεται σωθῆναι, &c.

• De Græcis autem codicibus pauca suppetunt dicenda, cum unum tantum nobis inspicere licuerit, scil. Reg. 2502. In quo extat Symbolum superiore sæculo exaratum. Montf. Diatrib. P. 722.

Secund, quam edimus formula, jam olim publici juris facta per Genebrardum anno 1569, quam ait ille esse Ecclesiæ Constantinopolitanæ, extat in regio codice num. 2502. olim ex bibliotheca Johannis Huralti Boistallerii a Carolo IX. Venetias legati, in quo codice hæc leguntur, ante Dialogum S. Athanasii cum Ario-" transcriptus et recognitus liber hic est, ex vetus"tissimo exemplari cretico; Venetiis anno 1562, impensa facta aureorum "X. Zacharias Sacerdos transcripsit et habuit." Montf. Diatrib. p. 727.

⚫ Incertum autem utrum ex illo quod memorat vetustissimo exemplari, Symbolum etiam sit mutuatus; codex quippe ampla molis multa et varia complectitur, quæ dubitare licet ex unone codice exscripta fuerint, an ex compluribus. Montf. ibid.

title and beginning of it, that the form is the same with one of those in the Emperor's library, and that they were copied one from the other, or both from a third copy. This manuscript acknowledges the procession from the Son. I had understood, from Montfaucon's general way of expression, that Genebrard had published his copy from this very manuscript of the Royal library, Num. 2502. But observing that Genebrard's wants some words (áíôi ὁ πατὴρ, ἀΐδιος ὁ υἱὸς, ἀΐδιον τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον) which Montfaucon's copy has, I conclude that he meant only the same form, as to matter and words, for the most part, not the same manuscript.

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8. There is another manuscript Greek version, or rather paraphrase of this Creed, having several interpolations, published by Bishop Usher anno 1647, from a copy sent him by Patrick Young. It has been often since printed: in the Councils, in Gundling, and in Montfaucon.

It leaves out the article of procession from the Son; from whence we may judge that it was composed by a Greek, or Grecizing Latin. The title insinuates that the Creed was drawn up in the Nicene Council: an opinion entertained by Johan. Cyparissiota, about the year 1360, as observed above. When this story or fiction first came in, I cannot pretend to determine. Bishop Usher speaks of a very ancient manuscript, partly in Irish and partly in Latin, which hints at the same thing: but he fixes no date to the manuscript; the words, very ancient, are too general to give satisfaction in it. The Creed is there said to have been composed in the Nicene Council, by Eusebius and Dionysius, and a third left nameless, as not

• Titulus; Τοῦ ἐν ἁγίοις Πατρὸς ἡμῶν ̓Αθανασίου τοῦ μεγάλου ὁμολογία τῆς καθολικῆς πίστεως ἣν ἔδωκε πρὸς Ιούλιον Πάπαν Ῥώμης.

Incipit; Ta dixovti owdūrai, &c.

ὁ Ἐκ τῆς ἁγίας καὶ οἰκουμενικῆς τῆς ἐν Νικαίᾳ, περὶ πίστεως κατὰ συντομίαν, κ πῶς δεῖ πιστεύειν τὸν ἀληθῆ χριστιανόν. Usser. de Symb. p. 26.

• In hymnórum, partim Latino partim Hibernico sermone scriptorum, codice vetustissimo notatum reperi, trium Episcoporum opera, in eadem Nicæna Synodo illud fuisse compositum, Eusebii, et Dionysii, et nomen terti (sic enim ibi legitur) nescimus. Usser. de Symb, præf.

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