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be well. But it is of greater weight to observe, that there is not, at this day, in the Cotton library any such manuscript copy of the Athanasian Creed; nor indeed any Latin Psalter that can come up to the age of Gregory, or near it. There is an ancient Psalter (marked Vespasian A) written in capitals, and illuminated; and which might perhaps by the character be as old as the time of Gregory the Great; were it not reasonable to think, from a charter of King Ethelbald, written in the same hand, and at the same time, and formerly belonging to it, that it cannot be set higher than the date of that charter, A. D. 736. But I should here observe, that that charter is not in the larger capitals, as the Psalter itself is, but in the smaller capitals, the same hand that the several pieces in that manuscript, previous to the Psalter, are written in and how far this may affect our present argugument, I cannot say. Possibly the Psalter itself being in a different hand may be older than those previous pieces; as it is certainly much older than the additional pieces at the end, which are not in capitals great or small.

This Psalter has the Te Deum annexed to it, with the title of Hymnus ad Matutinum, as Usher's had; and also the Athanasian Creed, with the title of Fides Catholica; but both in a very different and much later hand than that of the Psalter itself; later by several centuries, as the very learned Mr. Wanley judges, who sets the age of the Psalter about 1000 years, but of the Athanasian Creed, &c. at the time of the Norman Conquest. A sus

" Constat vero ex Historia et Synopsi Biblioth. Cottonianæ, quam in ingens reipublicæ literariæ beneficium edidit, amplificandis bonis literis natus, doctissimus Thomas Smithus noster, et indiculo Psalterii Latini in majuscu -, lis scripti cum versione Saxonica interlineari, quod notatur Vespasian. A. I. Chartam hanc (Æthelbaldi R. Australium Saxonum) ex isto MS. exscissam. esse. Quod etiam illius quum mensura quæ cum foliis illius MS. quadrat, tum etiam manus in utroque prorsus eadem, tum denique locus MSS. unde scissa est, inter folia x et xi. codicem vertentibus ostendit. Hickes, Dissert. Epist. in Lingu. Septentr. Thesaur. p. 67.

• Vid. Wanleii Catal. MSS. Septentrion. p. 222.

picion, however, may from hence arise, that this very Psalter, with what belongs to it, might be the Psalter, &c. which Usher spake of; especially since there is none other in the Cotton library at all like it. But, on the contrary, it is to be considered, that this manuscript has no Apostolical Creed at all in it, which Usher affirms his to have had: nor has it the Hymnus Matutinus, beginning with Gloria in excelsis Deo, which Usher's also had P: nor is the Creed in capitals, as one would imagine Usher's to have been by what he says of it. Neither is it at all probable, that, if Usher had intended the Psalter now extant in the Cotton, he should give no hint of the Saxon version going along with it; especially considering that it might be made an objection to its antiquity. Nor do I think that so inquisitive a man as Usher could either have been ignorant of the age of Ethelbald, or of his charter having been once a part of that manuscript. In his Historia Dogmatica 9, he takes notice of this very Psalter, (now marked Vespasian A,) and of the Saxon version in it, and likewise of its being in the same hand with Ethelbald's charter: and there he sets the age of it no higher than the year 736, (that is, above 130 years later than Gregory I.) without the least hint that he had ever mistaken the age of it before, or had thought otherwise of it than he did at the time of his writing this later treatise. These considerations persuade me that Bishop Usher had seen some other manuscript, which has since that time, like many more, been lost, or stolen from the Cotton library. He that was so accurate in every tittle of what he says of King Athelstan's Psalter,

P Ad finem veterum Psalteriorum Latinorum, cum Apostolico et Athanasiano Symbolo, etiam Hymnus iste (sc. Gloria &c.) habetur adjectus. In antiquissimo Cottoniano ¿vertygaços est; in Æthelstaniano proximo, Hymnus in die Dominico ad Matutinas, inscribitur. Usser. de Symbol. p. 33.

4 In Bibliotheca D. Roberti Cotton extat Psalterium Romanum vetustissimum, cum versione interlineari Saxonica: character idem cum charta Æthilbaldi Anglorum Regis, anno 736 data. Usser. Histo. Dogmat. p. 104.

Vid. Tho. Smithi Præfationem ad Catalog. MSS. Bibl. Cotton.

(mentioned at the same time,) could never have been so negligent, or rather plainly careless, in respect of the other. I conclude therefore, that there really was such a Psalter as Usher describes, with the Athanasian Creed in it; such as he judged to be of the age of Gregory I. from more marks than one: and how good a judge he was in those matters is well known to as many as know any thing of that great man. But how far his judgment ought to sway, now the manuscript itself is lost, I must leave with the reader.

Next to this of Bishop Usher we may place the famous 660. manuscript of Treves, from which the Colbert manuscript (to be mentioned hereafter in its place) was copied. Mr. Antelmi sets it as high as the year 450, upon a presumption that the Colbert manuscript is as old as the year 600, and that 150 years may reasonably be allowed between the Colbertine copy and that from which it was copied, Tillemont, supposing, or admitting the Colbertine to be near the age that Antelmi mentions, yet thinks fifty years' difference might be sufficient; and that therefore the age of the Treves manuscript might be fixed at 550, or thereabouts. But since the Colbert manuscript cannot reasonably be set much higher than 760, as we shall see in its proper place; I shall not pretend to set the Treves manuscript above 660; and that only under the favourable allowance of a probable conjecture. The authority of this manuscript of Treves stands upon the credit of a passage prefixed to the Colbertine copyt, which declares that the latter, was copied from a manuscript found at Treves. It was not a copy of the entire Creed, but began at the second part which relates to the incarnation. For after the words, "believe rightly the incarnation of our Lord "Jesus Christ," (being only part of the foregoing sentence,) follows; " For, the right faith is, that we believe,"

$ Tillemont, Mémoires, tom. viii. p. 670.

'Hæc inveni Treviris in uno libro scriptum, sic incipiente, "Domini no"stri Jesu Christf et reliqua. Domini nostri Jesu Christi fideliter credat." Apud Montf. Diatrib. p. 728.

700.

and so on to the end of the Creed. This remaining part of the Creed is very different from the common copies, and seems to have been so contrived with design, as I shall have occasion to observe more at large in the sequel. And it is to me an argument that the manuscript was written while the Eutychian controversy was at the height, about the end of the fifth century, or beginning of the sixth; though I here set it a great deal lower, because this is not the place to explain that matter fully, nor would I too far indulge a bare conjecture. It is sufficient to suppose it written in the seventh century, as it was undoubtedly copied from, as early, if not earlier, than the eighth.

After the manuscript of Treves, may justly follow the Ambrosian manuscript, which is in the Ambrosian library at Milan; a copy of which has been published by Muratorius, in his second tome of Anecdota. It was brought thither from the famous monastery of Bobbio, (of High Lombardy, in the Milanese,) founded by Columbanus, A. D. 613. The character of the manuscript is Langobardick; and it is judged by Muratorius (who has more particularly examined it) to be above 1000 years oldu. By his account then, who wrote in the year 1698, we ought to set the age of this manuscript higher than 698. Yet, because Montfaucon, who in his travels through Italy had also seen it, puts it no higher than the eighth century, we shall be content to place it between the seventh and eighth, or in the year 700, to make it a round number. There are in this manuscript some readings different

u In alio etiam vetustissimo Ambrosianæ bibliothecæ codice ante mille et plures annos scripto, Symbolum idem sum nactus. Murator. tom. i. p. 16. Cæterum opusculum hoc (Bachiarii Fides) mihi depromptum est ex antiquissimo Ambrosianæ bibliothecæ codice, quem ante annos minimum mille conscriptum, characterum forma non dubitanter testatur. Fuit autem olim celebris monasterii Bobiensis, et ex illo in Ambrosianam translatus a magno Card. Frederico Borromeo, &c. Murator. tom. ii. p. 8. item p. 224.

* Codex VIII. Sæculi, charactere Langobardico, in quo Gennadii liber de Ecclesiasticis Dogmatibus, Bachiarii Fides, Symbolum Athanasii, omnia eadem manu. Montfauc. Diatr. Ital. p. 18.

from the common copies; which shall be carefully noted hereafter. It is without any title.

We may next set down K. Athelstan's Psalter, of which 703. Bishop Usher had taken notice, making it next in age to the other most ancient one of the age of Gregory I. He and Dr. Grabe both fix the date of it to the year 703, from the rule of the calendar found in ity. Dr. Smith, in his Catalogue of the Cotton manuscripts, inclines to think that the manuscript is later than that time, but taken from one that was really as early as the year 703; the later copyist transcribing (as sometimes has been) the book and the rule word for word, as he found them2. Allowing this to have been the case here, (though it be only conjecture,) it may still be true that there was a manuscript of the age of 703, with this Creed in it; from whence the later one, now extant, was copied : which serves our purpose as well, and the rest is not material. But it should not be concealed, that the Psalter (in this manuscript) is in small Italian, and the above mentioned rule in a small Saxon hand; which may in some measure weaken the argument drawn from the age of one to the age of the other: so that at length our evidence from this manuscript will be short of certainty, and will rise no higher than a fair, probable presumption. I have nothing farther to observe, but that the Psalter, wherein this Creed is, is the Gallican Psalter, not the Roman; and the title

▾ Psalterium illud anno æræ nostræ Christianæ 703, longe ante Æthelstani regnantis tempora, ex Regulis Kalendario in libri initio subjunctis scriptum fuisse deprehendi. Usser. de Symb. p. 6.

Quod regis Æthelstani fuisse dicitur, atque anno 703 scriptum est. Grabi Prolegom. in Psalt. Alexandr. cap. 3.

z Hic vero venerandæ antiquitatis liber fere ante mille annos descriptus ; ut quibusdam ex Calendario, quod annum Christi 703, certo designat, illic præfixo videtur. Sed cum librarios eandem temporis adnotationem, quæ ad vetustissimos codices proprie et peculiariter spectat, suis exemplaribus apposuisse sæpissime observaverim-an sit ille ipse codex autographus qui tantam præ se ferat ætatem, vel annon potius sæculo, aut circiter, ante tempora Æthelstani descriptus, vix pro certo præstarem; ad posteriorem sententiam faventiori animo inclinaturus. Smith. Bibl. Cotton. Histor. p. 44.

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