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to Pope Adrian I. above twenty years before; as we shall see in another chapter.

Theodulphus, Bishop of Orleans in France, has a Treatise of the Holy Ghost, with a preface to Charles the Great, written at a time when the dispute about the procession began to make disturbance. He brings several testimonies in favour of the procession from the Son, out of Athanasius; and, among others, a pretty large part of the Athanasian Creed, from the words, "The Father is "made of none, &c." to "He therefore that will be "saved must thus think of the Trinity h," inclusive.

An anonymous writer of the same time, and in the same cause, and directing himself to the same Prince, makes the like use of the Athanasian Creed, in the following words; "St. Athanasius, in the Exposition of the "Catholic Faith, which that great master wrote himself, " and which the universal Church professes, declares the "procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and Son, "thus saying; The Father is made of none1, &c." This I cite upon the credit of Sirmondus in his notes to Theodulphus.

It was in the same year that the Latin monks of Mount Olivet wrote their Apologetical Letter to Pope Leo III. justifying their doctrine of the procession from the Son, against one John of Jerusalem, a monk too, of another monastery, and of an opposite persuasion. Among other authorities, they appeal to the Faith of Athanasius, that is, to the Creed, as we now call it. This I have from Le Quien, the learned editor of Damascen, who had the copy of that letter from Baluzius, as he there signifies *.

h Item idem-Pater a nullo est factus, &c. usque ad Qui vult ergo salvus esse, &c. Theodulph. apud Sirmondum Oper. tom. ii. p. 978.

i Incertus autor quem diximus, hoc ipso utens testimonio, Beatus, inquit, Athanasius, in Expositione Catholicæ Fidei, quam ipse egregius Doctor conscripsit, et quam universalis confitetur Ecclesia, processionem Spiritus Sancti a Patre et Filio declarat, ita dicens: Pater a nullo est factus, &c. Sirmond. Op. tom. ii. p. 978. Conf. p. 967.

k In Regula Sancti Benedicti quam nobis dedit Filius vester Dominus Karolus, quæ habet fidem scriptam de sancta et inseparabili Trinitate; Credo

Not long after, Hatto, otherwise called Hetto and 820. Ahyto, Bishop of Basil in France, composed his Capitular, or Book of Constitutions, for the regulation of the clergy of his diocese. Amongst other good rules, this makes the fourth; "That they should have the Faith of "Athanasius by heart, and recite it at the prime (that is, "at seven o'clock in the morning) every Lord's Day."

Agobardus of the same time, Archbishop of Lyons, 820. wrote against Felix Orgelitanus; where he occasionally cites part of the Athanasian Creed. His words are: "St. "Athanasius says, that except a man doth keep the Ca"tholic faith whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall "perish everlastinglym."

In the same age flourished the famous Hincmar, Arch- 852. bishop of Rheims; who so often cites or refers to the Creed we are speaking of, as a standing rule of faith, that it may be needless to produce the particular passages. I shall content myself with one only, more considerable than the rest for the use that is to be made of it hereafter. He directs his Presbyters" to learn Athanasius's Treatise "of Faith, (beginning with Whosoever will be saved,) to "commit it to memory, to understand its meaning, and "to be able to give it in common words ";" that is, I sup

Spiritum Sanctum Deum verum ex Patre procedentem et Filio: et in Dia-
logo quem nobis vestra sanctitas dare dignata est similiter dicit. Et in Fide
S. Athanasii eodem modo dicit. Monachi de Monte Oliv. apud Le Quien,
Dissert. Damasc. p. 7.

1 IVto. Ut Fides Sancti Athanasii a sacerdotibus discatur, et ex corde, die Dominico ad primam recitetur. Basil. Capitul. apud Harduin. tom. iv. p. 1241.

m Beatus Athanasius ait; Fidem Catholicam nisi quis integram, inviolatamque servaverit, absque dubio in æternum peribit. Agobard. adv. Felic. cap. 3. ed. Baluz.


Unusquisque presbyterorum Expositionem Symboli atque Orationis Dominicæ, juxta traditionem orthodoxorum patrum plenius discat-Psalmorum etiam verba, et distinctiones regulariter, et ex corde, cum canticis consuetudinariis pronuntiare sciat. Necnon et Sermonem Athanasii de Fide, cujus initium est, Quicunque vult salvus esse, memoriæ quisque commendet, sensum illius intelligat, et verbis communibus enuntiare queat. Hincm. Capit. i. tom. i. p. 710, ed. Sirmond.



pose, in the vulgar tongue. He at the same time recommends the Lord's Prayer and (Apostles') Creed, as I take it, without mentioning the Nicene: which I particularly remark, for a reason to be seen above. It is farther observable, that though Hincmar here gives the Athanasian formulary the name of a Treatise of Faith; yet he elsewhere P scruples not to call it (Symbolum) a Creed: and he is, probably, as Sirmondus observes 9, the first writer who gave it the name it bears at this day. Which, I suppose, may have led Oudin into his mistake, that no writer before Hincmar ever made mention of this Creed'; a mistake, which, though taken notice of by Tentzeliuss in the year 1687, he has nevertheless again and again repeated in his last edition.

In the same age lived Anscharius, monk also of Corbey, and afterwards Archbishop of Hamburgh and Bremen in Germany. Among his dying instructions to his clergy, he left this for one; that they should be careful to recite the Catholic Faith composed by Athanasiust. This is reported by Rembertus, the writer of his Life, and successor to him in the same see; who had been likewise monk of Corbey so that we have here two considerable testimonies in one.

Contemporary with these was Æneas Bishop of Paris, who, in his treatise against the Greeks, quotes the Athanasian Creed under the name of Fides Catholica", Catholic Faith, producing the same paragraph of it which Theodulphus had done sixty years before.

• Vid. Hincm. Opusc. ad Hincmar. Laudunensem, tom. ii. p. 473.
Athanasius in Symbolo dicens &c. de Prædestin. tom. i. p. 309.
Sirmond. Not. in Theodulph. p. 978.

▾ Oudin, Commentar. vol. i. p. 345, 1322.

Tentzel. Judic. Eruditor. p. 144.

* Cum instaret obitus, præcepit ut fratres canerent Fidem Catholicam a beato Athanasio compositam. Anschar. Vit. apud Petr. Lambec. in Append. lib. i. Rerum Hamburg. p. 237.

" Sanctus Athanasius, sedis Alexandrinæ Episcopus, &c.—Item, idem in Fide Catholica, quod Spiritus Sanctus a Patre procedat et Filio, Pater a nullo est factus, &c. Eneas Paris, adv. Græc. cap. 19.

About the same time, and in the same cause, Ratram, 868. or Bertram, monk of Corbey in France, made the like use of this Creed, calling it, a Treatise of the Faith*.

Adalbertus of this time, upon his nomination to a 871. bishopric in the province of Rheims, was obliged to give in a profession of his faith to Archbishop Hincmar. Among other things, he professes his great regard to the Athanasian Creed, (Sermo Athanasii,) as a Creed received with great veneration by the Catholic Church, or being of customary and venerable use in ity. This testimony is considerable in regard to the reception of this Creed; and not before taken notice of, so far as I know, by those that have treated of this argument.

This Creed is again mentioned in the same age by 889. Riculphus Bishop of Soissons in France, in his pastoral charge to the clergy of his diocese. (or Discourse) of Catholic Faith 2. ther Harduin's Councils, as also the of both.

He calls it a Treatise This I take from Faformer, with the dates

Ratherius, Bishop of Verona in Italy in the year 928, 960. and afterwards of Liege in Germany in the year 953, and restored to his see of Verona in the year 955, did after this time write instructions to his clergy of Verona; in which he makes mention of all the three Creeds, Apostolical, Nicene, and Athanasian; obliging his clergy to have them all by heart: which shows that they were all of standing use in his time, in his diocese at leasta.

* Beatus Athanasius, Alexandrinus Episcopus, in libello de Fide quem edidit, et omnibus Catholicis proposuit tenendum, inter cætera sic ait; Pater a nullo est factus, nec creatus, nec genitus, &c. Ratr. contra Græcor oppos. lib. ii. cap. 3.

y In Sermone beati Athanasii, quem Ecclesia Catholica venerando usu frequentare consuevit, qui ita incipit; Quicunque vult salvus esse, ante omnia opus est ut teneat Catholicam fidem. Professio Adalberti Episcopi Morinensis futuri. Harduin. Concil. tom. v. p. 1445.

1 Item monemus, ut unusquisque vestrum Psalmos, et Sermonem Fidei Catholicæ, cujus initium, Quicunque vult salvus esse, et Canonem Missæ, et cantum, vel compotum, memoriter, et veraciter et correcte tenere studeat. Riculf. Const. 5. Harduin. Concil. tom. vi. p. 415.

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Ipsam Fidem, id est Credulitatem, Dei, trifarie parare memoriter festi


Near the close of this century lived Abbo, or Albo, Abbot of Fleury, or St. Benedict upon the Loire in France. Upon some difference he had with Arnulphus Bishop of Orleans, he wrote an Apology, which he addressed to the two kings of France, Hugh and Robert. In that Apology he has a passage relating to our purpose, running thus. "I thought proper, in the first place, to speak concerning "the Faith: which I have heard variously sung in alter"nate choirs, both in France and in the Church of "England. For some, I think, say, in the Athanasian "form, the Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son, "neither made, nor created, but proceeding: who while


they leave out, nor begotten, are persuaded that they are "the more conformable to Gregory's Synodical Epistle, "wherein it is written, that the Holy Ghost is neither un"begotten, nor begotten, but proceeding b." I have taken the liberty of throwing in a word or two to make the sentence run the clearer. What the author intends is, that some scrupulous persons, both in France and England, recited the Athanasian Creed with some alteration, leaving out two words, to make it agree the better, as they ima gined, with Gregory's Synodical Instructions. As to their scruple herein, and the ground of it, I shall say more of it in a proper place. All I am to observe at present is, that this testimony is full for the custom of alternate singing the Athanasian Creed, at this time, in the French and English Churches. And indeed we shall meet with other

netis: hoc est, secundum Symbolum id est Collationem Apostolorum, sicut in Psalteriis correctis invenitur; et illam quæ ad Missam canitur; et illam Sancti Athanasii quæ ita incipit; Quicunque vult salvus esse——————— -Sermonem, ut superius dixi, Athanasii Episcopi de Fide Trinitatis, cujus initium est, Quicunque vult, memoriter teneat. Ratherii Synod. Epist. Harduin. Con. tom. vi. p. 787.

b Primitus de Fide dicendum credidi; quam alternantibus choris et in Francia, et apud Anglorum Ecclesiam variari audivi. Alii enim dicunt, ut arbitror, secundum Athanasium, Spiritus Sanctus a Patre et Filio non factus, non creatus, sed procedens : qui dum id quod est non genitus subtrahunt, Synodicum Domini Gregorii se sequi credunt, ubi ita est scriptum; Spiritus Sanctus nec ingenitus est, nec genitus, sed procedens. Abbo Floriacens. Apol. ad Francor. Reges.

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