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menting with powerful poisons even the blood poured out after termination of the poisoning had to be thrown away, as it was found to still contain poison for some time.

Let us now pass to the interpretation and to a detailed discussion of the results obtained in these experiments.

Chloride of sodium added to the blood in small quantities causes no alterations while traversing the muscular tissues of the thigh. If, however, the blood is mixed in equal proportions with a physiological solution of chloride of sodium, the current rapidly decreases or wholly ceases. If a considerably higher

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pressure is employed a regular flow can be again obtained, as I found from several experiments instituted in this manner on rabbits and productive of satisfactory results. That the majority of such experiments, however, failed cannot be ascribed to the chloride of sodium, but merely to the dilution of the blood by the added water. This I have proven by obtaining the same result by the addition of solutions of agents which by themselves increase the blood-current.* Chlo

*Wiener Academische Sitzungsber., vol. lxxxvii., part 3, April, 1883.

CHART I.

Agents having no Distinct Action on the Blood-vessels.

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174 Hog.

Kidney.

Free oxalic acid.

0.26

175 Dog.

176 Dog.

177 Dog.

188

181

Hind extremity. Neutral oxalate of sodium. Hind extremity. Neutral oxalate of sodium. Hind extremity. Hydrochlorate of pilocarpine. 178 Dog. Kidney. Hydrochlorate of pilocarpine. 179 Dog. Hind part. Sulphate of muscarine. 180 Dog. Hind part. Sulphate of muscarine. Sheep. Horn of uterus. Sulphate of muscarine. 182 Sheep. Horn of uterus. Sulphate of muscarine. 183 Rabbit. Horn of uterus. Sulphate of muscarine. 184 Rabbit. Horn of uterus. Sulphate of muscarine. 185 Sheep. Horn of uterus. Sulphate of muscarine. 186 Hog. Kidney. Formamidate of mercury. 187 Dog. Kidney. Dog. Kidney.

Cuprum oxyd. sodio-tartaric. Cuprum oxyd sodio tartaric.

0.63

46 4366

39

21

50

67

75

After-effect 3 minutes. ( On two kidneys of

15

After-effect 33 minutes. different animals.

5

Calculated on free oxalic acid.

0.10 0.20

10

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ride of sodium is consequently by itself an indifferent agent in regard to muscular organs. This, however, does not hold true in reference to the kidney, where chloride of sodium, being a diuretic salt, increases the velocity of the blood-current. Urea was found to have a similar action, and in transfusions of the thigh appeared rather indifferent, while it increased the current considerably while passing through the kidney, as was previously ascertained by Abeles. I shall publish my observations with this and other diuretic agents in a subsequent paper. Caffeine probably belongs also to this category, as appears from the recent researches

The flow disappears nearly wholly for 3 minutes; after-effect 65 minutes.

of W. von Schroeder* on the diuretic virtues of this drug. Likewise indifferent were found to be glycogen, grape-sugar, kreatin, neutral phosphate of sodium, chlorate of potassium, iodate of sodium, bromate of sodium, bromide of sodium, and fluoride of sodium.

The antipyretics behaved very differently. Quinine, cinchona, chinoline, leucoline, salicylate of sodium, and oil of mustard caused a very considerable acceleration of the cur-, rent. Resorcin appeared to increase the velocity only when given in large doses, while

* Centralblatt f. die Med. Wiss., 1886, No. 26.

hydrochinon and antipyrin were wholly indifferent. Carbolic acid* even appeared to reduce the volume of the current.

There are numerous authors, particularly Maragliano, who claim that antipyrin dilates the blood-vessels even in non-febrile persons. I have never been able to confirm this statement either in experiments with blood-pressure or in those with blood-transfusion, and I am consequently entitled to regard this claim as unproven, at least as far as the nonfebrile organism is concerned. Kairin, as stated above, behaves entirely differently. Besides, this drug caused, as pointed out first by E. Girat in 1883, and by Morochowez§ in 1884, the formation of considerable methæmoglobin. The other agents which can form methæmoglobin, such as ferrocyanide of potassium, nitrite of potassium, nitrite of amyl, and isonitrite of propyl, cause, like kairin, acceleration of the current. Agents which exercise an alterative influence on hæmoglobin, such as oxide of carbon in larger doses, sulphide of hydrogen (examined by Smirnoff),|| and prussic acid (examined by Mosso), increase likewise the volume of the current.

That oxide of carbon (after a preceding temporary contraction) causes a pronounced and lasting dilatation of blood-vessels has been proclaimed even before Mosso by Traube,¶ but has only been referred to central causes. Klebs,** moreover, regarded the vascular dilatation as the principal action of carbonic oxide, and recommended ergot as an antidote for it. A. Mayerft evidently held the same view, for he obtained in hemicrania with carbonic oxide similar results as with nitrite of amyl.

The acceleration of the current caused by free hydrochloric acid probably refers also to its decomposing influence upon hæmoglobin, at least the blood becomes at once colored after its addition.

*Not included in the charts.

Italia Medica, Giugno, 1884; Bullet. delle Scienze Med. Giugno, 1884, p. 329; Arch. Clin. Ital., 1884, No. 26; compare Kobert's Jahresbericht der Pharmacotherapie, p. 313.

Dilatation of peripheral vessels by kairin has been observed by G. B. Queivolo and E. Maragliano; compare Kobert's Jahresbericht der Pharmacotherapie, p. 326.

Kobert's Jahr. d. Pharm., p. 326.

|| Teshenedelnaja Klinitscheskaja Gaseta, 1884, No. 28. Traube, Ges. Beitr. z. Pathol. und Phys., Berlin, 1871, vol. i. p. 329; cf. Pokrowski, Du Bois-Reymond's Arch., 1866, p. 59.

** Virch. Arch., vol. xxii., 1865, p. 497.

tt Wein. Med. Presse, 1865, No. 46.

It is a very notable fact that alcohol and chloroform scarcely affect the velocity of the blood-current in isolated organs. The reduction of pressure obtained in experiments with blood-pressure sets in only after large doses, and is caused very clearly by a central vasomotoric paralysis. Of all other narcotic agents, urethan is the most indifferent one, as could be readily inferred from Schmiedeberg's investigations. I have only examined. urethan on kidneys where the diuretic action of the drug probably interfered with the determination of its action on the blood-vessels. I believe that on muscular organs the effects on the blood-current would have been equally negative.

Paraldehyde, acetal, hydrate of chloral, morphine, and extract of opium, on the other hand, cause a distinct acceleration of the current. The custom originating from Von Mering, of employing hydrate of chloral in pharmacological analysis in order to cut off the vaso-motoric centre, is consequently not wholly correct, as an increased dose will cause also peripheral vaso-motoric paralysis. together with the central paralysis. The same holds true of nitrite of amyl, the action of which is by Bernheim§§ and Filehne,|||| however, regarded as central, while Brunton,¶¶ Wood,*** Richardson,††† Pick,‡‡‡ and others believe more in a peripheral causation.

Basing upon erroneous investigations of the pulse, Leyden and Eichhorst§§§ believe that pilocarpine and nitrite of amyl reduce the tension of the vascular walls. In my researches both drugs acted just the contrary, and even in experiments made with bloodpressure I was unable to determine any resemblance between them.

Regarding cocaine, I find in nearly all nonpharmacological books the statement that it contracts the vessels, and thus causes an augmentation of the pressure.

In my investigations I found cocaine with

Schmiedeberg's Arch., vol. iii., 1875, p. 185.
Pflüger's Arch., vol. viii., 1874, p. 253.

|||| Ibid., vol. ix., 1875, p. 470, and Du Bois-Reymond's Arch., 1879, p. 386.

¶¶ Ber. d. Königl. Sächs. Gesel. d. Wiss. zu Leipzig, 1869, p. 285.

*** Amer. Journ. of Med. Sciences, 1871, pp. 39 and 359.

ttt Med. Times and Gazette, 1870, vol. ii. p. 469. ‡‡‡ Pick, "Nitrite of Amyl and its Therapeutic Application," Second Edition. Berlin, 1877.

822 H. Eichhorst, "Lehrbuch der Physicalischen Untersuchungs Methoden."

Cf. Adolph Witzel, "On Cocaine Anaesthesia," Hagen, 1886, p. 3.

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