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principal protecting genii of the human race among the Chaldeans,1 whose names were: Sed-Alap or Kirub, who was represented as a bull with a human face; Lamas or Nirgal, as a lion with a man's head; Ustur, after the human likeness; and Nattig, with the head of an eagle?

These last were said by Ezekiel to be the four symbolical creatures which supported the throne of Jehovah in his visions by the river Chebar.2

In this connection also may be mentioned the four genii of Amenti, Amset, Hapi, Tesautmutf, and Qabhsenuf, said by the Egyptians to be present before Osiris while presiding in judgment; protecting, by their influence, every soul that entered the realms of the West. It was to these genii that a portion of the intestines, taken from the body of the deceased, was dedicated, and placed in the vase, or canop, which bore their respective heads, as we have already seen. If the name given to these vases by the Egyptians is not of Maya origin, it must be admitted that it is a most remarkable coincidence.


In Mayach, the brains, the charred viscera, and other noble parts, preserved in red oxide of mercury,3 were deposited in stone urns, which were placed with the statues of the deceased, in superb mausolei, where they are found in our day. Landa and several other chroniclers tell us that the Mayas made statues of stone, wood, or clay, according to the wealth of the individual, in the likeness of the deceased, and, after cremating the remains, put the ashes in the head of said statues, which, for the purpose, had been made hollow.


1 F. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic and Sorcery, p. 121.

2 Ezekiel, chap. i., verse 10; chap. x., verse 14.

'See Appendix, note ix.

See farther on Prince Coh's Mausoleum (Plate lvii.)

Landa, Las Cosas de Yucatan, ? xxxiii., p. 193.

In Egypt, likewise, they sculptured on the lid of the coffin, or fastened on it, a cast of the features of the person whose remains it contained.

After clearing from the altar the débris of the roof of the portico, that in falling had not only injured, but so completely buried it that it had escaped the notice of John L. Stephens and others who had visited the spot before us, we found that the atlantes and the bas-reliefs that adorned the upper side and the edges of the table had been brilliantly colored. The pigments used by the Maya artists were of such lasting nature that the colors were actually as bright as when they were laid on; and the vehicle or menstruum in which they were dissolved had deeply penetrated the stone without injuring the surface. Here was the confirmation of a very interesting fact that we had already discovered that the Mayas, like the Hindoos,' the Chaldees, the Egyptians, and the Greeks, colored their sculptures and statues, and provided them with eyes and nails made of shell. Shall it be said that this is a mere coincidence, or shall we regard it as a custom transmitted from one nation to another; or, again, taught to the rest by the people who introduced among them the sculptor's art?


Bishop Heber in his Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, vol. i., p. 386; vol. ii., pp. 430, 525, 530; vol. iii.,


pp. 48-49.

Henry Layard, Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii., part ii., chap. iii. 'Eusebius, Præp. et Demons. Evang., lib. iii., chap. xi. See Appendix,

note x.


THE state of perfect preservation of the colors again reveals to us several most interesting facts, that come to add the weight of their evidence to the many other proofs we have already adduced, to show that, in remote ages, the Mayas entertained intimate relations with the other civilized nations of Asia, Africa, and Europe. From these we learn that, for instance, yellow was the distinctive color of the royal family, as red was that of nobility; and that blue was used in Mayach, as in Egypt and Chaldea,2 at funerals, in token of mourning, as it still is in Bokhara and other Asiatic countries.

"But in that deep blue, melancholy dress
Bokhara's maidens wear in mindfulness

Of friends and kindred, dead or far away."3

Had the Maya sages, and the ancient philosophers in Chaldea and Egypt, found out what is well known to those who,

Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Manners and Customs, vol. iii., chap. xvi., p. 442, et passim.

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Henry Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, pp. 375–557.

Thomas Moore, Lalla Rookh, p. 74.

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in our day, have made a study of the effect produced by colors on the nervous system of man and animals-that blue induces sadness and melancholy? Blue, from the color of the vault of heaven, was typical of holiness, sanctity, chastity, hence of happiness; it was then worn in Mayach, Egypt, and Chaldea during the period of mourning, in token of the felicity the soul, free from the trammels of matter and the probations of earthly life, was enjoying in realms beyond the grave. They believed that all things existed forever; that to cease to be on the earth was only to assume another form somewhere else in the universe, where dwelt the spirits of the justified—the maxeru of the Egyptians, that, translated in Maya, xma-xelel, means without tears," "whole." Landa tells us that, to the time of the Spanish conquest, the bodies of the individuals who offered themselves, or were offered, as propitiatory victims to Divinity, as well as the altars on which they were immolated, were painted blue, and held holy.1 We have seen these victims, painted blue, represented in the ancient fresco paintings. The image of Mehen, the engendered, that ancestor of all beings, seated in the cosmic egg, was painted blue; so was the effigy of the god Kneph, the Creator, in Egypt; and the gods, the boats, the shrines, carried in the funeral processions, were likewise painted blue. In Hindostan, the god Vishnu, seated on the mighty seven-headed serpent Caisha, the Ah-acchapat of the Mayas, is painted blue, to signify his exalted and heavenly nature. The plumes worn on the heads of the



Landa, Las Cosas de Yucatan, chap. xxviii., p. 166.

"Y llegado el dia, juntavanse en el patio del templo, y si avia de ser sacrificado a saetadas, desnudavanle en cueros y untavan el cuerpo de azul," etc.


2 Eusebius, Præp. et Demons. Evang., lib. iii., chap. xi., p. 215.

* Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Manners and Customs, vol. ii., c. xiii., p. 400.

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