Images de page
[blocks in formation]

body, jumpings up and down, the snapping of one's fingers, the blowing of one's breath, and even the rolling upon one's back, are all among the many methods of primitive man's salutations and obeisances (See, e. g., Spencer's Principles of Sociology, II., 16-19). But, even where hand clasping is unknown in salutation, it is recognized as a symbol of the closest friendship. Thus, for example, among tribes of North American Indians where nose-rubbing is the mode of salutation, there is, in their widely diffused sign language, the sign of clasped, or inter-locked, hands, as indicative of friendship and union. (First An. Rep. of Bureau of Ethnol., pp. 385 f., 521, 534 f.) So again, similarly, in Australia (Ibid., citation from Smith's Aborigines of Victoria, II., 308). In the Society Islands, the clasping of hands marks the marriage union, and marks a loving union between two brothers in arms; although it has no place in ordinary greetings (Ellis's Polyn. Res., II., II., II, 492, 569).

again, in other primitive lands.

And so,

There seems, indeed, to be a gleam of this thought in Job 17: 3:

"Give now a pledge, be surety for me with thyself;

Who is there that will strike hands with me?"


The Hebrew word taq'a (VP)1 here translated "strike," has also the meaning "to pierce " (Judg. 4: 21) and "to blow through," or "to drive through" (Num. 10: 3); and Job's question might be freely rendered: Who is there that will pierce [or that will clasp pierced] hands with me, in blood-friendship? Thus, suretyship grew out of blood-covenanting.

Again, in Zechariah 13: 6, where the prophet foretells the moral reformation of Judah, there is a seeming reference to the pierced hands of blood-friendship. When one is suspected of being a professional prophet, by certain marks of cuttings between his hands, he declares that these are marks of his blood-covenant with his friends. "And one shall say unto him, What are these wounds [these cuttings] between thine hands? Then he shall answer, [They are] these [cuttings] with which

1 Is there any correspondence between this word, tag'a, and the Hindoo word tika (the blood-mark on the Rajput chief), referred to at page 137, supra?

I was wounded [or stricken, or pierced] in the house of my friends [in the covenant of friendship]." If, indeed, the translation of the Revisers, "between thine arms," were justified, the cuttings would still seem to be the cuttings of the blood-covenant (See pages 13, 45, supra).

It is a noteworthy fact, that among the Jews in Tunis, near the old Phoenician settlement of Carthage, the sign of a bleeding hand is still an honored and a sacred symbol, as if in recognition of the covenantbond of their brotherhood and friendship. "What struck me most in all the houses," says a traveler (Chevalier de Hesse-Wartegg) among these Jews, "was the impression of an open bleeding hand, on every wall of each floor. However white the walls, this repulsive [yet suggestive]

sign was to be seen everywhere."

How many times, in the New Testament epistles, does the idea show itself, of an inter-union of lives, between Christ and his disciples, and between these disciples and each other. "We, who are many, are one body in Christ, and severally members one of another" (Rom. 12: 5). "We are members of his body" (Eph. 5: 30). "We are members one of another" (Eph. 4: 25). "Know ye not that your bodies are members of Christ?" (1 Cor. 6: 15). "Ye are the body of Christ, and severally [are] members thereof" (I Cor. 12: 27).

It is in this truth of truths, concerning the possibility of an inter-union of the human life with the divine, through a common inter-bloodflow, that there is found a satisfying of the noblest heart yearnings of primitive man everywhere, and of the uttermost spiritual longings of the most advanced Christian believer, in the highest grade of intellectual and moral enlightenment. No attainment of evolution, or of development, has brought man's latest soul-cry beyond the intimations of his earliest soul-outreaching.

"Take, dearest Lord, this crushed and bleeding heart,

And lay it in thine hand, thy pierced hand;

That thine atoning blood may mix with mine,

Till I and my Beloved are all one."



ABEL, his blood-giving, 210 ff.
Abimelech, his covenant: with Abra-
ham, 265; with Isaac, 267 f.
Abraham: The friend of God, 215-221;
his blood-giving, 217-221; his faith-
testing, 224-230; his covenant with
Abimelech, 265 f.

Adoption, blood used in, 195 f.
Ahab's fate, significance of, 312.
Altar, a table of communion, 167, 292 f.
Amulet: house of the, 7, 65, 298; of the

covenant, 81 f., 83, 232-238. See
Phylactery; Token of covenant.
Anointing with blood: in Central

America, 90 f.; in Arabia, 120; in
the Arthurian romance, 120 f.;
among the Bheels, 136 f.; among
the Caribs, 137 f.; among the Cen-
tral Africans, 138; among the Chi-
nese, 154; among the North Amer-
ican Indians, 306 f.; among the
Australians, 336 f.

Antiquity of the blood-covenant, 6,
58 ff., 77 ff., 206, 320.

Ark, the, covering record of blood cove-
nant, 298. See Amulet, house of the.
Assiratum, its meaning, 63 ff.
Avenger of blood. See Goel.

BAAL-BEREETH: god-father in circum-
cision, 218; god of the covenant,
218, 317-

Banquet, connection of, with sacrifice:
in China, 148 ff.; in India, 159 ff.
in Babylonia and Assyria, 167;
among the Bed'ween, 179 f.; among
American Indians, 179 f.
Bed'ween Brotherhoods, 9 f. See also


Belt: royal, of Tahiti, 328; wampum
of American Indian, a covenant
record, 326 ff.

Blood: thicker than milk, 10; not
eaten. See Prohibition of blood.
Vivifying power of, 110 ff.; belongs
to God, 204; symbolism of, in uni-
versal speech, 309 f.; life-giving,
in: Mexican legend, 111 f.; Egyp-

tian legend, III f.; Chaldean legend,
112: Phoenician legend, 112; Greek
legend, 112; modern science, 115 f.;
sacredness of in: Egypt, 99 ff.;
America, 105 ff.; India, 109, 158 ff.;
China, 109. See Offerings of blood.
Blood-baths: in Egypt, 116 f., 324; in
medieval Europe, 117 ff.; in Scan-
dinavia, 121 f.; in India, 122 f.;
in Bechuana-land, 324.
Blood-covenant: defined, 4 f.; a primi-
tive rite, 4, 6, 8; its sacredness, 6 f.;
influence of, 15; refused, 21; recog-
nized, 26 f.; in Syria, 5 ff.; in Africa,
12-38; in Europe, 39-43; in China,
43 f.; in Burmah, 44, 313 f.; in
Madagascar, 44 f., 44-49; in Borneo,
49-52; in Timor, 53 f.; in Yucatan,
54 f.; in Brazil, 55; in Scythia,
58 f., 61 f.; in South America, 334:
in Egypt, 77-84; traces of, in
China, 153; full symbolism of, 202 f.;
Noah's, 213; at Sinai, 238-240, 298;
importance commonly undervalued,
297; a safeguard in Burmah, 315.
Blood-lickers, 11, 59. See Drinking of

Blood-money in the East, 260 ff.; re-
fused by Gibeonites, 324 f.; ac-
cepted: by Arabs, 325; by North
American Indians, 325. See Goel.
Blood-sucking, 8, 30, 43, 92, 114 f. See
Drinking of blood.

Ses Blood-cove-

nant; Transfusion of blood.
Book of the Dead, 78-83.
Bracelet, as symbol, 65-76.

Bread: of Ra, 173; covenant of, 293, 313.
Breaking the grass, 315.

Brébeuf, heart of, 127.

Brotherhoods, blood. See Blood-cove-

[blocks in formation]
« PrécédentContinuer »