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been communicated to more than one of the apostles, than that Daniel's visions of the same kind, should have been vouchsafed also to another prophet under the Old. I am not inclined to believe, that any miraculous interpositions ever occur in the course of the Divine Providence, except such as are absolutely necessary to answer some great and beneficial purpose. Therefore, I can hardly think you mean seriously to advance such a supposition, which not only seems highly improbable in itself, but is entirely unwarranted by any thing that St. Paul has said himself, or by any other document whatsoever.

No one can have a higher opinion of the learning, candour and diligence of Dr. Lardner in the investigation of scriptural truths than I have; and so much light do the events which have occurred, since the time of his writing, throw upon the prophecies of Daniel and John, that I persuade myself were he now alive he would not find them so unintelligible as he seems to have done; and from the important information they afford, would have learnt better to appreciate the worth of that evidence which he so laboriously studied to deduce from the writings of those first corrupters of the genuine doctrines of Christ's gospel, the fathers of that apostate church which was afterwards established by Constantine. But, however that might have been, surely, my dear Sir, "jurare in verba magistri," is much more unbecoming a Christian, than the Roman poet thought it of a Pagan philosopher, unless that master be Christ, whose dictates the Apocalypse claims to be. If the passages I have quoted from St. Paul's Epistles, can have any rational meaning, without supposing them to refer to the visions of the Apocalypse, it would give me inexpressible satisfaction to see that meaning explained, for it is not in my power to find it out. If they do really refer to these prophetic visions, of which I have no doubt, I am as certain that the only book containing them must have been written in the reign of Claudius, or at least of Nero, as I am when I see characters and passages in Terence's Comedies referred to in Cicero's Ora. tions, though the dramatic poet be not named, that Terence wrote them before the Dictatorship of Julius Cæsar. If your hypothesis, indeed, could be maintained, that the same series of prophetic visions which were revealed to John, at a later period, had been before revealed to Paul, my conclusion would not be just. But I can see no. more reason why such an extraordinary series of emblematic visions, under the New Covenant, should have,

*

*This certainly was not my meaning, but merely that some of the events might have been supernaturally communicated to Paul, which were afterwards represented more fully and in a regular series of visions to John.

With respect to the queries you put towards the close of your obliging letter, I fancy they will not in the least invalidate my position, that without understanding these prophecies, it is not possible to discriminate rightly the plain essential truths of the gospel, from the superstitious doctrines of the antichristian apostacy. The situation of the generality of the professors of the Christian faith must remain, till these prophecies are generally understood, just what you yourself must acknowledge it to have been, from the period of the formation of the Gothic kingdoms in the South of Europe to the time of the Reformation, and I think to the present hour; and such, indeed, as these visions predict, it will remain till the apostate church is destroyed. At present, my dear Sir, do you know one single religious so ciety, who, for fear of receiving as the word of God, the unfounded doctrines of erring men, have well discriminated the spurious from the authentic books and passages of the received canonical Scriptures? Or one in which even the Lord's Prayer, given by Luke, is taught or used, according to what Griesbach and Archbishop Newcome have shewn to be the true and original form in which our Saviour taught it! Such subjects, however, are too copiI beg pardon for having detained you ous for epistolary correspondence, and so long.

I remain,

Dear Sir,

With sincere respect, Your faithful humble servant, EDWARD EVANSON.

THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN LOCKE AND

SIR,

LIMBORCH, TRANSLATED,

WITH HISTORICAL NOTES.

Clapton, Dec. 21, 1817.

HAD occasion, not along ago, to

Church, Oxford, in 1651. In the "Memoirs the Life Dr. South,"

I look into the letters which passed (1717) it is said, that of W. Slutted

between Locke and Limborch, and which form a large part of the Familiar Letters. Having some leisure, I occupied myself upon that correspondence, then almost new to me, till I had translated the whole. It consists of sixty-nine letters, all in Latin, except three in French; forty-three written by Locke, and twenty-six by Limborch. They discuss, as might have been expected from the writers, several interesting subjects, and it may not be unsuitable to your purpose to give the translations, in a series, as your engagements shall allow. I will subjoin a few notes, and prefix some account of Locke's and Limborch's histories prior to the date of the first

letter.

J. T. RUTT.

JOHN LOCKE was born at Wrington, a village near Bristol, August 29, 1652, of parents whom he recollected with great regard. His father was bred to the law, and had inherited a considerable estate in the county of Somerset. This was injured by the war, in which he became a captain in the army of the Parliament. He was also Steward or Court-keeper to the anti-royalist, Colonel Alexander Popham. t

Mr. Locke's father survived his son's advance to manhood, when, according to Le Clerc, "they lived together rather as two friends, than as two persons, one of whom might justly claim respect from the other," though the father had been "severe to him, while a child, and kept him at a very great distance." The son" often commended—such a manner," I perhaps more than it might justly deserve.

John Locke was educated by his father, till his removal to Westminster School, then under the tuition of Dr. Busby, and where he remained till he was admitted a student of Christ

See Mon. Repos. I. 287.

+ Brit. Biog. VII. 3.

with the great Mr. John Locke, an equal ornament of polite and abstruse learning;" and it is remarkable that two young students should have set out together, whose paths were soou to separate so widely. South, who was Locke's junior by a year, had been also a scholar at Westminster. In 1653, also, their names occur together among the academical panegyrists of Cromwell, on the successful termination of the war with Holland.

Dr. John Owen, who, in 1652, became Vice-Chancellor of the University, was Dean of Christ Church, during the period of John Locke's academical education. His tutor was Mr. Thomas Cole, who was ejected in 1660 for non-conformity, and lived to witness the celebrity of his pupil. † On the recollection and authority of Mr. Tyrrell, the historian, it is said, "that Mr. Locke was looked upon as the most ingenious young man in the College," though, from disaffection to the mode of education then pursued, "he wished his father had never sent him to Oxford." Le Clerc says, “I myself have heard him complain of the method he took in his studies at first-and when I told him that I had a Cartesian Professor for my tutor, a man of a clear head, he said he was not so happy; though it is well known that he was no Cartesian." complained that "the only philosophy then known at Oxford, was the Peripatetic, perplexed with obscure terms and stuffed with useless questions."

He

In 1655, Mr. Locke became B. A., and M. A. in 1658. His first destination was medicine, and he pursued "the usual courses," practising occasionally at Oxford till, in 1664, he went into Germany, as Secretary to

* See "State Poems continued," 1698, PP. 6-8, 12, 13, and Mon. Repos. V. 232.

+ Thomas Cole, M. A., was "Principal of St. Mary's Hall," whence he was ejected by the King's Commissioners in 1660. He died in 1697. See Palmer's Noncon.

↑ Bibliothèque Choisie in Brit. Biog. Mem. 1802, III. 249, 252. ubi sup.

Bib. Chois. in Brit, Biog. VII. 4, 5.

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an Embassy. Returning in less than a year, he resumed his studies at Oxford, applying especially to natural philosophy.

"the

gaged him, was to draw up Fundamental Constitutions of Carohina," which were published in 1669, and collected among his Pieces in 1719. If these Constitutions were all framed by himself, there are two, at least, which do him little credit, as in No. 23, he proposes to perpetuate feudal vassalage, and in No. 110, negro slavery. There were others, however, so favourable to religious liberty, that they were qualified by an additional article, not approved by Mr. Locke, whose liberal views in religion have incurred the censure of one of his biographers. ↑

Mr. Locke was now to become a politician. In 1666, a trifling circumstance introduced him to au intimate acquaintance with the first Earl of Shaftesbury, then Lord Ashley, who soon consulted him as a physician, and paid him many flattering atten tions. This nobleman had plausibilities which might fascinate a student unacquainted with the great world; but his character, as faithful history records it, though possessing all but the most important accom plishments, can add no reputation to the memory of John Locke. Lord Ashley had fought against Charles I., and courted Cromwell, the chief of the regicides, yet, on a change of times, had sat in judgment on Cromwell's associates. He has also been described, on his own authority, as a libertine, surpassed only by his royal master, Charles II., § that most religious King, according to the liturgy.

Lord Ashley invited Mr. Locke to reside in his family. "He urged him to apply himself to the study of state affairs and political subjects, both ecclesiastical and civil;" and "began to consult him on all occasions of that nature. He also introduced him to the acquaintance of the Duke of Buckingham, the Earl of Halifax, and some other of the most eminent persons of that age." ||

It was to some of these noblemen, according to Le Clerc, that his friend, by a pleasant raillery, declared against the habit of card-playing, among companions capable of improving conversation. ¶

The first employment in which Mr. Locke's patron appears to have en

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In 1668, Mr. Locke accompanied the Earl and Countess of Northumberland to Paris. Returning, in 1670, with the Countess, the Earl having died in Italy, he again resided with Lord Ashley, who, in 1672, was created Earl of Shaftesbury, and made Lord High Chancellor, when he appointed Mr. Locke "Secretary of the Presentations." He next became "Secretary to the Board of Trade," but the commission was dissolved in December, 1674. ‡

In 1675, Mr. Locke wrote, according to Desmaizeaux, “what my Lord Shaftesbury did, in a manner, dictate to him," in " A Letter from a Person of Quality to his Friend in the Country," exposing the designs then developing in Parliament to establish an arbitrary power. "This letter was privately printed," and at the close of the same year, "the House of Lords ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman." Of this bonfire Mr. Marvell says, "the sparks of it will eternally fly in the adversaries' faces." § It was remarked in the Letter," that Bartholomew day was fatal to our church and religion, in throwing out a very great number of worthy, learned, pious and orthodox divines." This passage was quoted in 1676, in the preface to "The Presbyterians Unmasked," as from "that late vile letter" of an "able, but more daring author."

who had been admitted B. M. at In the same year, 1675, Mr. Locke, Oxford, passed some time at Mont

See Mon. Repos. II. 83.

+ See Biog. Brit. V. 2994. Note G.
Brit. Biog. VII. 6, 7.
§ See Dedic. to Locke's Pieces.

pelier for the recovery of his health. There he communicated to Mr. Her bert, afterwards Earl of Pembroke, the design of his Essay. From Montpelier he removed to Paris, and became acquainted with the celebrated Protestant, M. Justel, at whose house he first saw Mr. Guenelon, a physician of Amsterdam, and M. Toignard, whose names will often occur in the following correspondence. During this absence from England, he expressed an inclination, had a vacancy occurred, to have become Gresham Professor of Physic. † At Paris also he attended, as a physician, the Countess of Northumberland, who hed married the "Lord Embassador Montague." This appears from the following paper, in the British Museum, (Ayscough, 4290,) in the handwriting of Dr. Ward.

DEAR SIR,

I HAVE sent you enclosed some proofs taken from Mr. Locke's own letters, of what was talked of yesterday at Dr. Mead's, that Mr. Locke did, on some occasions, practise as a physician. You will please to communicate them to Dr. Mead, with my humble service, and esteem me,

Dear Sir,

Your most obedient servant,
JOHN WARD.

G. C. Thursday,
15th August, 1745.
To Dr. Thomas Stack, at Dr. Mead's,
Ormond Street.

December 4, 1677, Mr. Locke wrote to Dr. Mapletoft, from Paris, desiring his advice in relation to a disorder which had seized the Countess of Northumberland, Lady to the English Embassador; who then committed herself to the care of Mr. Locke, having before tried the French physicians, in a like case without sucCess. Dr. Mapletoft chose to consult their common friend, Dr. Sydenham, upon this occasion, whose opinion was soon dispatched to Paris. But before it got thither the disorder was in a

great measure removed by what Mr.

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Locke had himself done in the mean time; which proved to be much the same as was prescribed by Dr. Sydenham. And, therefore, in a following letter, written the same month, by Mr. Locke to Dr. Mapletoft, he said, in his pleasant manner, 66 upon reading our friend's letter, I was ready to cry out, the spirit of the prophets is upon the sons of the prophets; I having, in what I have done here, not only proceeded by the same method, but used the very same remedies he directed as to the main."

In 1679, Lord Shaftesbury had again a prospect of court-favour, and prevailed upon Mr. Locke to return, but being soon displaced had no further opportunity of serving him. The Earl became, at length, so obnoxious to the government, that, for personal safety, he retired to Holland, in November, 1682, and died in January following. Mr. Locke, who had followed him, would not venture a return to England, where he had now become obnoxious to a profligate court, whose resentment he presently experienced, and in November 1684, he was deprived, by royal mandate, of his student's place at Christ Church. On the accession of James, W. Penn would have procured for Mr. Locke a pardon, which he refused, being conscious of no crime. In May 1685, the English Envoy at the Hague demanded him to be delivered up by the States General, upon a groundless suspicion of his having been concerned lion. + In this demand he was joined in the Duke of Monmouth's rebelwith eighty-three other persons.

His situation was

now perilous, especially (if Father Orleans may be credited) as the Prince of Orange was and arbitrary power by force, that he then so little inclined to oppose Popery his army against the Duke. ‡ Yet had offered King James to command during his stay in Holland, Mr. Locke who were now ready to assist him, had formed some valuable connexions, and with no one does he appear to have become more intimate than with Professor Limborch, the great nephew of Episcopius. He was a native of

Brit. Biog. VI. 169. † Ibid. VII. 8—10.

Histoire des Revolutions D'Angleterre, 1694, III. 469.

Amsterdam, one year younger than Mr. Locke, and in 1655, had become a preacher among the Remonstrants. After several situations, in 1667 he was chosen Minister at Amsterdam, and the next year Professor of Divinity in that city.

During this year, 1685, Mr. Locke was concealed two or three months at Amsterdam, in the house of Mr. Veen, father-in-law to Dr. Guenelon, till, in September, he retired to Cleve, a city on the borders of the Rhine, where he commenced the following Correspondence.

inclined to remain here for health's sake. The pleasantness of the place, and, if not absolute indolence, yet the love of quiet and an aversion to the hurry of travelling still detain me. My daily walks, by which I strive against a disposition to idleness, are very pleasant. But how much more agreeable would they be, if I could have some of you as the companions of my rambles! For this I wish continually both for your sakes and my own, especially while the weather is so fine. Such an excursion would, I think, be far from unfavourable to Mr. Guenelon's health, whose ten

The Correspondence between Locke and der lungs and delicate constitution,

Limborch, 1685-1704.

No. 1.

John Locke to Philip a Limborch.

Cleve, 28 Sep. 1685.

MY EXCELLENT FRIEND, YOU will readily believe, that in writing to our friend Mr. Guenelon, ten days ago, I did not omit my respects to yourself. Yet a sense of duty, and a recollection of your favours, demand from me a more direct expression of my esteem and gratitude, lest I should scem to do that, as a matter of course, or negligently, which I feel to be a highly incumbent duty; especially as the silence of our friend Guenelon leaves me in doubt whether he received my letter. I should peculiarly regret its miscarriage, because if it did not reach him, I might appear to disregard or undervalue the numerous services by which you all have obliged me, or you might suppose that, during the interval of a few hours, I could forget those numerous benefits, the remembrance of which no time can efface.

In that letter I also mentioned the kind reception given me by your friend Vander Key, and how zealously he had assisted me. The name reminds me again to express my thanks to you for this introduction to his friendship, though it be but a trifling benefit, compared with your accumulated favours. I am unable also to express, adequately, my sense of the kindness I received from Mr. Veen

and his excellent wife. Pray express them for me in your happiest phraseology.

I wrote to Mr. Guenelon that I was

Biog. Brit. V. 2998. Note O.

the serene air of this place would suit exactly.

I pray you write to me, and say what is passing among you, especially as to our affairs. But, above all, inform me of your own and our friend's health.

I am, yours, most respectfully,
J. LOČKE.

No. 2.

John Locke to Philip a Limborch.
Cleve, Oct. 3, 1685.

MY WORTHY FRIEND, I HAVE received from you two letters, full of kindness and good-will, nor will you, I trust, deem me ungrateful if, under my present anxiety, I answer neither of them as they deserve. I only entreat this, that you contrive for my having intelligence of the Earl of Pembroke's arrival, from who can send the information either some of your friends at the Hague, to you or me. The Commander of the British forces was mentioned as coming over, and, if not arrived, is expected daily. I wish particularly to have the earliest notice of his aptisfied that you will procure for me proach. Having said this, I am sathe most prompt information.

I must reserve other subjects to the next opportunity, as the packet is going. Salute my friends most affectionately in my name. Farewell, and continue to regard me, as yours, most J. LOCKE. respectfully,

Mr. Locke seems to apprehend some inconvenience from these British troops; but how they came into a neutral country, or on what authority they could have molested him there, does not appear.

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