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toral delightful; and this consists in exposing the best side only of a shepherd's life, and in concealing its miseries. Nor is it enough to introduce shepherds discoursing together in a natural way; but a regard must be had to the subject; that it contain some particular beauty in itself, and that it be different in every eclogue. Besides, in each of them a designed scene or prospect is to be presented to our view, which should likewise have its varietyf. This variety is obtained, in a great degree, by frequent comparisons, drawn from the most agreeable objects of the country; by interrogations to things inanimate; by beautiful digressions, but those short; sometimes by insisting a little on circumstances; and, lastly, by elegant turns on the words, which render the numbers extremely sweet and pleasing. As for the numbers themselves, tho' they are properly of the heroic measure, they should be the smoothest, the most easy and flowing imaginable. It is by rules like these that we ought to judge of Pastoral and since the instructions given for any art are to be delivered as that art is in perfection, they must of necessity be derived from those in whom it is acknowledged so to be. It is therefore from the practice of Theocritus and Virgil (the only undisputed authors of Pastoral) that the critics have drawn the foregoing notions concerning it.

Theocritus excels all others in nature and simplicity. The subjects of his Idyllia are purely pastoral; but he is not so exact in his persons, having introduced reapers and fishermen as well as shepherds. He is apt to be too long in his descriptions, of which that of the cup, in the first Pastoral, is a remarkable instance. In the manners he seems a little defective; for his swains are sometimes abusive and immodest, and perhaps too much inclining to rusticity: for instance, in his fourth and fifth Idyllia. But it is enough that all others learned their excellencies from him, and that his dialnct alone has a secret charm in it, which no other could ever attain. * Fontenelle's Disc. of Past. P.

+ See the forementioned Preface. P.

Oseislas, Idyl. x. and AMɛıç, Idyl. xxi. P.

Virgil, who copies Theocritus, refines upon his original; and in all points where judgment is principally concerned, he is much superior to his master. Though some of his subjects are not pastoral in themselves, but only seem to be such, they have a wonderful variety in them, which the Greek was a stranger to*. He exceeds him in regularity and brevity, and falls short of him in nothing but simplicity and propriety of stile; the first of which, perhaps, was the fault of his age, and the last of his language.

Among the moderns their success has been greatest who have most endeavoured to make these ancients their pattern. The most considerable genius appears in the famous Tasso and our Spenser. Tasso, in his Aminta, has as far excelled all the pastoral writers, as, in his Gierusalemme, he has outdone the epic poets of his country. But as this piece seems to have been the original of a new sort of poem, the Pastoral Comedy, in Italy, it cannot so well be considered as a copy of the Ancients. Spenser's Calendar, in Mr. Dryden's opinion, is the most complete work of this kind which any nation has produced ever since the time of Virgil†. Not but that he may be thought imperfect in some few points. His eclogues are somewhat too long, if we compare them with the Ancients: he is sometimes too allegorical, and treats of matters of religion in a pastoral style, as the Mantuan had done before him. He has employed the Lyric measure, which is contrary to the practice of the old poets. His stanza is not still the same, nor always well chosen. This last may be the reason his expression is sometimes not concise enough; for the tetrastic has obliged him to extend his sense to the length of four lines, which would have been more closely confined in the couplet.

In the manners, thoughts, and characters, he comes near to Theocritus himself; though, notwithstanding all the care he has taken, he is certainly inferior in his dialect; for the Doric had its beauty and propriety in * Rapin Refl. on Arist. part. ii. Refl, xxvii-----Pref. to the Ecl. in Dryden's Virg. P. † Dedication to Virg. Ecl. P.

the time of Theocritus; it was used in part of Greece, and frequent in the mouths of many of the greatest persons: whereas the old English and country phrases of Spenser were either entirely obsolete, or spoken only by people of the lowest condition. As there is a difference betwixt simplicity and rusticity, so the expression of simple thoughts should be plain, but not clownish. The addition he has made of a Calendar to his Eclogues is very beautiful; since by this, besides the general moral of innocence and simplicity, which is common to other authors of Pastoral, he has one peculiar to himself; he compares human life to the several seasons, and at once exposes to his readers a view of the great and little worlds, in their various changes and aspects. Yet the scrupulous division of his Pastorals into months, has obliged him either to repeat the same description in other words, for three months together; or, when it was exhausted before, entirely to omit it: whence it comes to pass that some of his Eclogues (as the sixth, eighth, and tenth, for example) have nothing but their titles to distinguish them. The reason is evident, because the year has not that variety in it to furnish every month with a particular description, as it may every season.

Of the following Eclogues, I shall only say, that these four comprehend all the subjects which the critics upon Theocritus and Virgil will allow to be fit for Pastorals; that they have as much variety of description, in respect of the several seasons, as Spenser's: that, in order to add to this variety, the several times of the day are observed, the rural employments in each season or time of day, and the rural scenes or places proper to such employments; not without some regard to the several ages of man, and the different passions proper to each age.

But, after all, if they have any merit, it is to be attributed to some good old authors, whose works, as I had leisure to study, so, I hope I have not wanted care to imitate.




FIRST in these fields I try the sylvan strains,
Nor blush to sport on Windsor's blissful plains:
Fair Thames! flow gently from thy sacred spring,
While on thy banks Sicilian muses sing;
Let vernal airs through trembling osiers play,
And Albion's cliffs resound the rural lay.

You that, too wise for pride, too good for pow'r,
Enjoy the glory to be great no more,
And carrying with you all the world can boast,
To all the world illustriously are lost!
O let my Muse her slender rced inspire,
Till in your native shades you tune the lyre:
So when the nightingale to rest removes,
The thrush may chant to the forsaken groves.
But charm'd to silence, listens while she sings,
And all the aerial audience clap their wings.





Soon as the flocks shook off the nightly dews, Two swains, whom love kept wakefui, and the muse, Pour'd o'er the whitening vale their fleecy care, Fresh as the morn, and as the season fair; The dawn now blushing on the mountain's side, Thus Daphnis spoke, and Strephon thus reply'd. Daphnis. Hear how the birds on every blooming With joyous music wake the dawning day! [spray, Why sit we mute, when early linnets sing, When warbling Philomel salutes the spring? Why sit we sad, when Phosphor shines so clear, And lavish Nature paints the purple year? [strain, Strephon. Sing then, and Damon shall attend the While yon slow oxen turn the furrow'd plain. Here the bright crocus and blue violet glow; Here western winds on breathing roses blow.




I'll stake yon lamb, that near the fountain plays,
And from the brink his dancing shade surveys.
Daph. And I this bowl, where wanton ivy twines,
And swelling clusters bend the curling vines:
Four figures rising from the work appear,
The various seasons of the rolling year;
And what is that, which binds the radiant sky,
Where twelve fair signs, in beauteous order lie?


Damon. Then sing by turns, by turns the Muses sing, Now hawthorns blossom, now the daisies spring; Now leaves the trees, and flow'rs adorn the ground; Bcgin, the vales shall ev'ry note rebound.


Streph. Inspire me, Phœbus! in my Delia's praise, With Waller's strains, or Granville's moving lays: 46 A milk-white bull shall at your altars stand, That threats a fight, and spurns the rising sand. Daph. O Love! for Sylvia let me gain the prize, And make my tongue victorious as her eyes: No lambs or sheep for victims I'li impart; Thy victim, Love, shall be the shepherd's heart. Streph. Me gentle Delia beckons from the plain, Then, hid in shades, eludes her eager swain; But feigns a laugh, to see me search around. And by that laugh the willing fair is found. Daph. The sprightly Sylvia trips along the green; She runs, but hopes she does not run unseen; While a kind glance at her pursuer flies, How much at variance are her feet and eyes!



Streph. O'er golden sands let rich Pactolus flow,

And trees weep amber on the banks of Po;
Blest Thames's shores the brightest beauties yield:
Feed here my lambs, I'll seek no distant field.

Daph. Celestial Venus haunts Idalia's groves; 65 Diana Cynthus, Ceres Hybla loves.

If Windsor shades delight the matchless maid,
Cynthus and Hybla yield to Windsor shade. [show'rs,
Streph. All nature mourus, the skies relent in
Ilush'd are the birds, and clos'd the drooping flow'rs;
If Delia smile the flow'rs begin to spring,
The skies to brighten, and the birds to sing.


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