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illustrations. Rather than run the chance of a better opportunity hereafter, we insert his remarks here.

"Before we proceed, it may be proper (says Mr. Stuart) to take notice of the distinction between Invention and Discovery. The object of the former, as has been frequently remarked, is to produce something which had no existence before; that of the latter, to bring to light something which did exist, but which was concealed from common observation. Thus we say, Otto Guerricke invented the air-pump; Sanctorius invented the thermometer; Newton and Gregory invented the reflecting telescope: Galileo discovered the solar spots; and Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood. It appears, therefore, that improvements in the Arts are properly called inventions; and that facts brought to light by means of observation, are properly called discoveries.

Agreeable to this analogy is the use which we make of these words, when we apply them to subjects purely intellectual. As truth is eternal and immutable, and has no dependence on our belief or disbelief of it, a person who brings to light a truth formerly unknown, is said to make a discovery. A person, on the other hand, who contrives a new method of discovering truth, is called an inventor. Pythagoras, we say, discovered the forty-seventh proposition of Euclid's first book; Newton discovered the binomial theorem but he invented the method of prime and ultimate ratios; and he invented the method of fluxions.

In general, every advancement in knowledge is considered as a discovery; every contrivance by which we produce an effect, or accomplish an end, is considered as an invention. Discoveries in science, therefore, unless they are made by accident, imply the exercise of invention; and, accordingly, the word invention is commonly used to express originality of genius in the sciences, as well as in the arts."

§. 162. Dependence of transitions in style on association.

It requires skill rightly to manage the TRANSITIONS in a discourse or poem, to conduct the hearer or reader from

one topick to another without violence to his feelings, and without injury to the natural order, clearness, and interest of the subject. No transitions seem to be admissible, but such as are suggested by association, either by the primary laws alone, or as they are modified by the secondary laws. But when that power holds out a number of ways, in which the passing from one topick to another can be effected, the writer has an opportunity to discover his skill in the selection.

In Goldsmith's poem of the Traveller, the nature of the subject requires frequent transitions, and they are happily managed. In one part of his poem, he describes the descendants of the Romans in their state of effeminacy and debasement; but how does it happen, that immediately after he undertakes a description of the character of the Swiss? In speaking of the present inhabitants of Italy, he sees hardly any thing but indications of indolence and luxury, but little of vigour, of hardship, of ancient truth. He is led, therefore, by the principle of contrast, to think of conduct, characters, and situations directly the reTo think, then, of the Swiss under such circumstances seemed to be almost unavoidable;

verse.

My soul turn from them-turn we to survey,

"Where rougher climes a nobler race display,
"Where the bleak Swiss their stormy mansions tread,

"And force a churlish soil for scanty bread.

§. 163. Of associations suggested by present objects of perception.

Associated thoughts and emotions, when made to pass through the mind by some sound, which the ear has caught, by some object, which has met the eye, or by any present object of perception whatever, are vivid and strong. Associations, which do not admit any of our present perceptions as a part of the associated train, cannot but impress us, as being in some measure airy and unsubstantial, however distinct. We deeply feel, that they are a part of the experiences of departed days, and which, in departing from us, have become almost, as if they had never been. But

let them partake of our present experience, of what we now feel and know to exist, and they seem to gain new strength; the remembrances are not only distinct, but what was airy and unsubstantial fades away, and they have life, and power, and form.

How often, in the wanderings of life, are we led by some apparently accidental train of thought to the recollection of the residence of our early years and of the incidents, which then occurred! The associations are interesting, but we find it difficult to make them permanent, and they are comparatively faint. But let there be connected with that train of thought the present sound of some musical instrument, which we then used to hear, and of our favourite tune, and it will be found, that the reality of the tune blends itself with the airy conceptions of the mind, and, while we kindle with an illusive rapture, the whole seems to be real. Some illustrations may tend to make these statements more clear and to confirm them.

It is related in one of the published Lectures of Dr. Rush, that an old native African was permitted by his master, a number of years since, to go from home in order to see a lion, that was conducted as a show through the state of New Jersey. He no sooner saw him, than he was so transported with joy, as to express his emotions by jumping, dancing, and loud acclamations, notwithstanding the torpid habits of mind and body, superinduced by half a century of slavery. He had known that animal, when a boy in his native country, and the sight of him suddenly revived the memory of his early enjoyments, his native land, his home, his associates, and his freedom.

There is in the same writer another interesting instance of the power of association, in which he himself had a part, and which will be given in his own words.-" During the time I passed at a country-school, in Cecil County, in Maryland, I often went on a holiday, with my schoolmates, to see an eagle's nest, upon the summit of a dead tree in the neighbourhood of the school, during the time of the incubation of that bird. The daughter of the farmer, in

whose field this tree stood, and with whom I became acquainted, married, and settled in this city about forty years ago. In our occasional interviews, we now and then spoke of the innocent haunts and rural pleasures of our youth, and, among other things, of the eagle's nest in her father's field. A few years ago, I was called to visit this woman when she was in the lowest stage of a typhus fever. Upon entering her room, I caught her eye, and, with a cheerful tone of voice, said only, The eagle's nest. seized my hand, without being able to speak, and discovered strong emotions of pleasure in her countenance, probably from a sudden association of all her early domestick connexions and enjoyments with the words I had uttered. From that time she began to recover. She is now

She

living, and seldom fails, when we meet, to salute me with the echo of the eagle's nest." "

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From such illustrations it would seem to be sufficiently clear, that, whenever associated thoughts and emotions are connected with any present perceptions, they are peculiarly strong and vivid. They steal into all the secret chambers of the soul, and seemingly by some magick power impart a deeper intensity to its feelings, and give to the shadowy world of memory the stability of real existence. There are two causes, why such associated feelings should possess more than ordinary strength and vividness.

(1) The particular train of thought and feeling, which is excited in the mind, continues longer than in other cases, in consequence of the greater permanency and fixedness of the present objects of perception, which either suggested the train, or make a part of it. So long as the lion was permitted to remain in the sight of the aged African, so long without interruption was the series of delightful thoughts kept up within him. The bright images, which threw him into such raptures, and awoke stupidity itself, were not fleeting away with every breath, but remained permanent.

The sick lady of Philadelphia saw the physician, with whom she had been acquainted in the early part of life. By the mention of the eagle's nest, he vividly recalled the

scenes of those young days. But it was the presence of the person, whose observation had given rise to the train of association, which contributed chiefly to keep it so long in her thoughts. Had it occurred merely from some accidental direction of her own mind, without any present object, which had made a part of it, no doubt her sufferings or other circumstances would soon have banished it.

(2) The second cause of the increased vividness of associations, suggested by a present object of perception or combined with it, is this, viz. The reality of the thing perceived is communicated in the illusions of the moment to the thing suggested. The trees of the desert were the hiding place of the lion, when the African saw him in early life; and now, after the lapse of so many years, he imagines, that, in the quickened eye of his mind, he beholds. the forests of his native soil, because he has before him the proud and powerful animal, that crouched under their shade. And the presence of the monarch of the forest gives a reality not only to woods and deserts; but by a communication of that, which is real to that, which is merely suggested, the whole group of his early experiences, as well as the sight of the animal, which made a part, are revived, and have virtually a real, renewed existence.

These remarks may be properly applied to explain a recent, strong manifestation of feeling in a whole people. The citizens of the United States have a multitude of patriotick associations,connected with their revolutionary war. But those associations, owing to length of time, were by degrees growing dim on the minds of the aged, and made a still more diminished impression on those of the young. In the years 1824-5, La Fayette, the only surviving revolutionary officer of the grade of major-general, came on a visit to this country to see once more the people, for whom he had fought in his youth. All classes flocked to behold him, and to grasp his hand. Nothing could exceed the deep feeling, which existed from one part of the republick to the other. But it was not the individual merely, however strongly the people were attached to him, that awoke such a happy and lofty enthusiasm. All the events and all

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