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1. PAUL, an apostle, not sent from men, nor by a man, but by Jesus Christ, and by God the Father, who raised him from 2. the dead, and all the brethren with me, to the congregations 3. of Galatia. May you have favour and peace from God the 4. Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for our sins, in order that he might deliver us from the present wicked world, in accordance with the will of our God and 5. Father, to whom be glory for ever and ever, Amen! 6. I am astonished that you have so quickly changed from him who called you into the grace of Christ, to a different 7. gospel; not that there is really any other; but there are certain persons harassing you, and wishing to overthrow the 8. gospel of Christ. But even if we or an angel from heaven should announce to you a gospel, different from that gospel which has been announced to you, let a curse be on him! 9. I repeat what I have said :—if any one bring a gospel to you different from what you have received, let a curse be on him! 10. For do I now obey men rather than God? Or, am I seeking to please men? For if I still pleased men, I should not be Christ's servant.


But I let you know, brethren, that the gospel which was 12. announced by me, is not of human authority; for I neither received it nor learned it from a man, but through a revelation 13. from Jesus Christ. For you have heard of my former conduct while in Judaism; that I most violently persecuted and ravaged 14. the congregation of God; and what proficiency I made in

Judaism beyond many of my own age and class; being an 15. excessive zealot for the traditions of my fathers. But, when

God, who set me apart from my birth, and called me by his 16. grace, was pleased to reveal his Son to me, that I should make

him known among the nations, I did not immediately confer 17. with any man, nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who

were apostles before me; but I went away into Arabia, and 18. returned again to Damascus. Then, after three years, I went

up to Jerusalem to converse with Peter, and I remained with 19. him fifteen days: but I saw no other of the apostles, except 20. James, the brother of our Lord. Mark! what I am writing

to you is in the presence of God:-I am not falsifying. 21. Afterward I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia; and 22. I was unknown personally to the Christian congregations of 23. Judæa: they had heard only, that he who formerly persecuted them was now spreading abroad the faith, which he before 24. destroyed: and they glorified God on account of me. СНАР. ІІ.

1. Then, after fourteen years, I went up again to Jerusalem 2. with Barnabas, accompanied also by Titus. Now I went up for the purpose of explanation; and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among the nations; but particularly to those who seemed to apprehend that I was labouring or had 3. laboured in vain. Nor was Titus, my companion, though a 4. Greek, compelled to be circumcised, at the instance of false brethren, interlopers, who had slipped in as spies on our liberty, which we have in Christ Jesus, in order that they 5. might reduce us to bondage: nor did we yield to them in the least, a single moment, in order that the truth of the gospel 6. should remain with you. But, between me and those who were highly thought of, whatever they formerly were, there was nothing different: God does not accept a man for personal appearance:—nor, in fact, did those who were highly thought 7. of communicate anything additional to me: but, on the con

* The lexicons amply justify this rendering of κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν; and it is more in accordance with the immediate context than that of the common version.

trary, perceiving that I had been intrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, the same as Peter with that for the 8. circumcision;—for he who inspired Peter for the apostleship of the circumcision, inspired me also for the Gentiles;—and, 9. acknowledging the commission given to me, James, and Kephas, and John, considered pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship, that we should be for the Gentiles, and themselves for the circumcision. They wished 10. only that we should be mindful of the poor,—the very thing which I had undertaken to do.

11. But when Kephas came to Antioch, I opposed him openly,

because he was blamable: for, before that certain individuals 12. came from James, he ate together with the Gentiles: but

when they came, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing 13. those belonging to the circumcision; and the other Jews dis

sembled along with him, so that even Barnabas was led astray 14. by their hypocrisy. But when I saw that they did not take a right course toward the truth of the gospel, I said to Kephas, in the presence of all:-" If thou, being a Jew, livest like the Gentiles and not like the Jews, how is it that thou dost oblige 15. the Gentiles to Judaise? We who are born Jews and are not 16. heathen sinners, know that a man is not justified by works of

law, but only through faith of Jesus Christ, and we have believed on Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by faith of Christ and not by works of law; because by works of law 17. no person whatever shall be justified. If, however, while

seeking to be justified in Christ, we ourselves have been found sinners, is Christ therefore a minister of sin? by no means! 18. For, if I build up again the very things I pulled down, I con19. stitute myself a transgressor. By the law, however, I have 20. died to the law, that I might live to God. I am crucified

along with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ liveth in me; and, as to my present natural life, I am living by faith in the Son of God, who loved me, even to delivering 21. himself up in my stead. I reject not the grace of God; for if through law I have righteousness, then Christ died unnecessarily."


1. O simple Galatians, who has fascinated you, among whom Jesus Christ crucified has been depicted before your eyes? 2. The only point I wish you to reply to is this:-Did you receive the Spirit by works of law, or by the report of faith? 3. Are you so simple as to think, that, having commenced with

the Spirit, you are now perfecting yourselves by the flesh? 4. Have you suffered so much for nothing, if really for nothing? 5. Did he then who dispensed to you the Spirit, and performed

miracles among you, do this in connexion with works of law, 6. or the report of faith? Just as Abraham "believed God and 7. it was accounted to him for righteousness." Understand then, that it is they who are of faith who are the sons of Abraham. 8. And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the nations by faith, announced the glad tidings previously to Abraham, that "all the nations shall be blessed in thee." 9. So that they who are of faith, are blessed with believing 10. Abraham. But whoever are of the works of the law are

under a curse: for it is written, "Accursed is every one who fails to do the whole of those things which are prescribed in 11. the book of the law." And that by law no one is justified with God, is clear; because, "the righteous by faith shall 12. live." Now the law is not a matter of faith, but "he who 13. has performed those things shall live by them." Christ has

redeemed us from the curse of the law, in becoming a curse in our stead; for it is written, "Every one who is hanged on 14. a tree is accursed":—and this, in order that the blessing of Abraham might be for the nations, in Christ Jesus; and that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.


Brethren, I say in regard to a man, supposing the case of a human compact, if ratified, no one sets it aside, or superadds 16. conditions. Now, the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his "seed." He does not say, and to his "seeds," as relating to many, but as relating to one: "and to thy seed"-who is 17. Messiah. Now this I affirm, that a covenant-engagement previously ratified by God in respect to Messiah, the law, issued four hundred and thirty years afterwards, does not unsettle, to

18. the revocation of the promise: for if the inheritance were derived from law, it was no longer from promise: but God graciously 19. gave it to Abraham by promise. "Why then the law?" It was interposed, on account of transgressions, until the period when "the seed" to whom the promise related, should come; having 20. been delivered by angels into the hand of a mediator. Of one 21. party, however, he is not the mediator:a but God is one.-Is the law then in opposition to the promises of God? Very far from it! For if a law capable of conferring life were given, 22. certainly righteousness would come from that law. But the scripture has included all men under sin, in order that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to the 23. believers. And, before the coming of that faith, we were

kept closely shut up under law, for the future unveiling of 24. the faith. So that the law has been our tutor for Christ, that 25. we might be justified by faith. And now, the faith having 26. come, we are no longer under a tutor; since you are all sons 27. of God through faith in Christ Jesus. For whatever you are,

who have been baptized into Christ, you have become clothed 28. with Christ. There is not in him Jew nor Greek; there is not slave nor free; there is not male and female; for you are 29. all one in Christ Jesus: and if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to promise.


1. Now I say that, during the whole period of his childhood, the heir differs in nothing from a servant; lord of all though

a No translation can supply all the ideas necessary to complete the sense of this elliptical passage. The reader must do this for himself. The mediator for the law was evidently Moses; but, as he acted only for one party, i. e. the circumcised children of Abraham, he was not qualified to treat with God on behalf of another party equally in need of mediation, viz. the uncircumcised nations. Another and a superior mediator was therefore required to treat between the " one God" of the whole human family and its various tribes. This part Jesus was qualified to perform, and officially as a high priest, with his own blood, became the " one mediator between God and men," he himself uniting in his person the various tribes and nations of men by the forming of one new man—a compound of Jew and Gentile, but of a neuter characterthat so he might act for all mankind as their sole mediator.

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