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December, was exceedingly disheartening and tiresome. He said:
"The next evening we arrived in Utica, which place we left at twelve o'clock that night. As a sample of the disagreeable travelling in this region at this season, I will here mention that, with all possible diligence, the stage was five hours going from Utica to Trenton, a distance of only thirteen miles. Two gentlemen and one lady belonging to Sackett's Harbor, and a lady belonging to Watertown, were our fellow-sufferers this dark night on this tiresome road. Late the following evening we arrived at Denmark, and the next day (Saturday) about one o'clock, at Watertown, N. Y."
Thus he had been six days in going from Boston to Watertown, travelling almost day and night. On Sunday forenoon he preached in the court-house in the latter place, although the day was cold and stormy, to a great crowd. The Methodists, learning that the court-house would not contain the people, generously offered their church in the afternoon, which was much crowded. On Monday he offered prayer in the new church, after which the pews were sold. On Tuesday he preached in Brownville, in the Presbyterian church, the clergyman being present. The dedication was on Wednesday. A greater number of people collected than could by any possibility get into the house. In the evening he gave another sermon, to many hearers. On Thursday he officiated at the installation of Rev. Pitt Morse, at Watertown. In the evening he preached at the village of Sackett's Harbor, on Lake Ontario, in the Presbyterian church, which ⚫ was obtained for him with much difficulty. On Friday he preached in the town of Henderson, on the lake; and
the next morning at Lewisburg, to a large assembly. Returning to Watertown, he preached, on the next day (Sunday), twice in the new church, "which was much crowded with an attentive and devout audience, though the day was unpleasant, and the travelling uncomfortable in the extreme."
The people were exceedingly unwilling that he should return speedily home. They desired him to spend at least a month in that region. He said:
"On Monday I took my leave of my friends in Watertown, who manifested, on the occasion, an affection and concern for me which have made an impression on my mind that will, without doubt, endure the remainder of my pilgrimage on earth. Notwithstanding my fervent solicitude to return to my family and friends at home, I deeply regretted that it was not consistent for me to comply with a great number of requests to preach in different towns in that region, and a number of places on the road as I returned. But, knowing that I should be expected in Boston the coming Sabbath, I set my face accordingly, praying God to protect me from danger, and prosper my return.” *
SECTION VIII.—OPINIONS ADVANCED IN 1824.
It may not be unprofitable to notice the opinions which seemed to take the lead in Mr. B.'s mind during this year. From the time of his conversion to Universalism, he had believed Calvinism to be radically false in
* The sermon which Mr. Ballou preached at the dedication just described was from Psalm 36: 7, 8. It was never published, except in the Herald of Salvation, a religious paper issued in the place where the sermon was delivered. We have preserved a copy of it, and we consider it very valuable; but we feel constrained, for want of room, to omit quotations from it.
everything that was peculiar to itself. He had believed, indeed, in the superintending agency of God, and that not even a sparrow falls to the ground without his notice and permission. He never looked upon the world as the sport of chance. God was as much the Governor of men as the Creator of them; and He executed His holy will in ways not always clear to mortal sight, but still always wise and just. But, above everything in the opinions of men which Mr. B. lamented, was the partiality and cruelty which the systems of human invention ascribed to God. He was, therefore, the decided, constant and active opponent of the Calvinistic divinity, and of the doctrine of endless torture in every form. He could not believe that all those who professed to hold that doctrine actually regarded it as truth. They were wedded to it as a system,—it was embraced in the creeds they had subscribed; but they did not act as if they truly believed it. They did not maintain it with that confidence which would arise from a strong and clear conviction that it was capable of defence; nor were they so ready to enter into an investigation of the true sense of those passages which they regarded as pillars of the doctrine they held, as we might suppose men would be who had entire confidence that it was the doctrine of the word of God. He was sometimes fearful that sectarianism had an effect on the popular clergy so blinding, that they thought it good policy to teach to others what perhaps they had doubts of themselves. Possessed of such a conviction, and having for years been in the habit of freely speaking his opinions, he often expressed the fear that there was more sectarian pride than love of truth manifested in the zeal
with which the partialist clergy, so called, defended their peculiar doctrines. He never ceased to oppose those doctrines. He believed them to have originated not in the wisdom of God, but in "the cunning craftiness of men, whereby they lie in wait to deceive."— Eph. 4: 14. He felt that he had adopted the ministry of reconciliation; and, having such a ministry, he fainted not, but "renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully; but, by manifestation of the truth, commending himself to every man's conscience in the sight of God."-2 Cor. 4: 1, 2. If it had been possible for the great apostle of the Gentiles to have known Hosea Ballou, he could not have described him more accurately. Mr. Ballou could say with that apostle, "We are not as many, which corrupt the word of God; but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ."-2 Cor. 2: 17.
Not once in all his life, we have often heard him say, did he give an interpretation to a passage of Scripture which he did not believe was consistent with the will of God. Because he believed that the texts which are used to prove the doctrine of future judgment and endless. punishment were continually misapplied by the clergy of our times, he labored, on every proper occasion, to show that such texts, when properly understood, give no support to those doctrines. He dwelt much on these points, this year. As an instance, see what he said on the passage, 2 Cor. 5: 10,-" For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath
done, whether it be good or bad." The extract occurred at the close of a somewhat long article:
"Observe, then, the true reading of the passage, leaving out the supplied words, by which it will be easily perceived that the recompense mentioned in the text is to be received in the body where the works are wrought. For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things in his body, according to that he hath done, whether good or bad.' Where is this retribution to be received? Answer: in the body, where the works are done. The author of the text had been brought before the judgment-seat of Christ, and had received according to what he had done. When the Lord met him, on his way to Damascus, and said, 'Why persecutest thou me?' the question opened such a scene of inward inquiry and heart examination as resulted in a most perfect adjudication in his own conscience; he then received according to what he had done. Sin revived, and he died: but, wherein he had acted according to his understanding, he obtained mercy.
"In the verse following our text the apostle says, 'Knowing, therefore, the terrors of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God, and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences.' Here let us remark, 1st. The apostle spake of what he knew. Knowing, therefore, the terrors of the Lord.' He had experienced the trial; he had appeared before the judgment-seat of Christ. 2d. This the apostle expresses when he says, 'But we are made manifest unto God.' The word appear in our text, and the word manifest in the verse following, are variations of the same word in the Greek; and, when considered in their connection and relation, make it plain that the apostle's meaning was, that he had passed this ordeal and had received according to his works, and that we must all be made manifest to the light of divine truth, as he had been.
"Now comes the cry of licentiousness. Says the opposer, I will indulge in all manner of sin, if there is to be no future judgment, and no retribution in the future state for what I do here. Well; out of thine own mouth shalt thou be condemned. Hear