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charged them to make the echo resound through the carth, that men might know the day of their visitation, and that it might not be said, "the light" of the Pope "is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, for their works were evil." To the city itself he applied the glowing descriptions of prophecy"Thy gates shall be open continually; they shall not be shut day nor night-salvation shall possess thy walls and praise thy gates-the Gentiles shall walk in thy light, and kings in the brightness of thy rising-and they shall call thee the city of the Lord, the Sion of the Holy One of Israel." Turning to the fathers, he reminded them of the honour and glory to which they were raised; the gates of the council were the gates of heaven; through them the knowledge of the Lord would cover the earth as the waters cover the sea. They were admonished to act worthy of their calling, putting away all fear, favour, and contention, and so demeaning themselves that they might justly say, "It hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us," at the sound of which words the enemies of the council would be smitten with dismay and fall to the ground. And he assured them that all who resisted their decrees, and incurred thereby the indignation of the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of France, and the guilt of rebellion against the Holy Spirit, would find it impossible to escape: neither mountains, lakes, nor floods should save them: swifter than eagles, stronger than lions, the pontiff and the sovereigns would pursue and seize them, and trample them to death. Finally, he addressed the countries and states of Christendom, Greece, Spain, France, and Germany, whom "Satan had desired to have that he might sift them as wheat," and invited them to แ come to the marriage, because all things were now ready:" and he concluded by invoking the presence and aid of Jesus Christ through the intercession of Virgilius, the tutelary saint of the valley of Trent. 45

The Pope adopted decisive measures to secure his authority, and prevent all intermeddling with his prerogative. He appointed a congregation or committee of

45 Pallav. lib. v. c. 17, 18. Sarpi. lib. ii. c. 27, 23. Le Plat, i,

cardinals to superintend the affairs of the council, watch. its proceedings, and aid him with their advice. The legates were instructed to begin with the discussion of disputed doctrines and to treat the reformation of abuses as a matter of secondary moment; notes were to be taken and transmitted to him, of any observations relative to his court, the reform of which he reserved for himself. To all letters and documents his own name and those of the legates were to be prefixed, that it might appear that he was not only the author, but also "the head and ruler" of the council : 46 and he appointed the secretary and other necessary officers without consulting the fathers, or permitting them to exercise their undoubted right of election.

Several congregations 47 were held before the second session, in which there were some interesting discussions. The French bishops, of whom there were but three present, requested that the business of the council might not be entered upon till the arrival of the ambassadors and prelates that were expected from France; but this was overruled. Then disputes arose respecting the right of voting. It was questioned whether abbots and generals of orders enjoyed that right, and some of the bishops were anxious not to concede it, lest they should make themselves masters of the council by their numbers the legates, however, decided in their favour. though not without encountering strong opposition. Another subject of debate was the title of the council: the French bishops, who were joined by some Italians and Spaniards, contended that to the epithets, "Sacred" and "Holy," should be added, "representing the universal church," which were used by the councils of Constance and Basle. The legates were aware that the assumption of this title would seem to give the council more power than it was intended it should possess, and they stoutly resisted it chiefly, as they wrote to the Pope, because of the clause which had been subjoined

46 Pallav. lib. v. c. 16. s. 2.

47 It will be seen in the sequel that the business of the council was generally divided into two or three departments, each under the management of a separate " congregation," or, as we should say, Committee. A "General Congregation" was like a "Committee of the whole house" in our Parliament.

by the above named assemblies, to this effect, "that a general council holds its power immediately from Jesus Christ, and that all christians, of what condition and dignity soever, even the Popes themselves, are obliged to obey it." Their opponents were as zealous for the insertion of the words in question as they were against it: they maintained their sentiments with much tenacity and warmth, and gave such indications of an independent spirit as vexed the legates not a little. 4o

At the second session, held Jan. 7, 1546, a papal bull was read, prohibiting the use of proxies, for had they been allowed, his Holiness would have found it difficult to maintain a majority. An exhortation was addressed to the council, written by Cardinal Pole, and containing some just and useful sentiments. The subject of the decree was the manner of life to be observed during their residence at Trent: it was rather an admonition than a decree. All persons were exhorted to amend their faults and walk in the fear of God, not fulfilling the lusts of the flesh; to be constant in prayer, and frequent in confession; to go to church often, and receive the eucharist; to keep the commandments of the Lord, as far as they were able; to pray for the peace of Christian princes and the unity of the church; to fast at least every Friday, and give alms to the poor. Ecclesiastics were reminded of the duty of performing mass every Lord's day, and presenting constant prayers, supplications, and thanksgivings, for their most holy lord, the Pope, for the emperor, for kings and all in autho rity, and for all men. Bishops received a special in junction to observe sobriety and moderation at thei tables; to have the Scriptures read at their meals; to instruct and train their domestics in every virtue. Those

48 The legates made a great ado about the liberty of the council. "Let the fathers speak freely," they were often saying. But it was the mere farce of freedom. The influence of their authority on the suffrages and opinions of the assembly was notorious. They often negatived a proposition at once, without allowing the fathers to give an affirmative vote. They were accustomed to interrupt and contradict those who were speaking contrary to their views. One of their creatures grossly insulted the advocates of the clause mentioned above: he called them "secret enemies" and "foxes;" but no

notice was taken of it. "La chose ne déplut point," says Vargas. Lettres et Memoires de Vargas, p. 55.

who were skilled in the Scriptures, were urged to give themselves to constant meditation, in order to discover the best means by which the intention of the council might be rightly directed, and the wished-for effects realised; so that what merited condemnation might be condemned, and approbation be awarded where it was deserved; that throughout the whole world men might glorify God with one mouth and one confession of faith. In giving their opinions or votes, they were to avoid all clamour and tumult, all frivolous or obstinate disputation, and to speak with mildness and modesty. It would have been well if these regulations had been observed. * 9

Several of the bishops had expressed in open session their discontent at the non-insertion of the clause, "representing the universal church." The legates were very angry at this, and reproved the offenders for it, at a congregation held a few days after. In the debate which ensued, the bishop of Feltri observed, that if the clause were admitted, the Protestants would take occasion to say, that since the church is composed of two orders, the clergy and the laity, it could not be fully represented if the latter were excluded. To this the

bishop of St. Mark replied, that the laity could not be termed the church, since, according to the canons, they had only to obey the commands laid upon them; that one reason why the council was called was, to decide that laymen ought to receive the faith which the church dictated, without disputing or reasoning; and that consequently the clause should be inserted, to convince them that they were not the church, and had nothing to do but to hear and submit! Jerome Seripand advised that the decision should be deferred till the council had issued some decree that would justify the adoption of so magnificent a title. Subsequently, the legates so far yielded as to allow the insertion of the words "æcumenical and universal," and this was approved by the Pope.

An important question next occupied their attention

49 Two titular archbishops were present; Olaus Magnus, archbishop of Upsal, and Robert Wanchop, archbishop of Armagh, who is said to have first introduced the Jesuits into Ireland. They were sent by the Pope, and supported at his expense; it was easy to see on which side they would vote. Sarpi, 1. ii. s. 34.; Pallav. 1. vi. c. 5.


-whether they should begin with doctrine or discipline. The Pope had already determined on the former. the other side was the Emperor, whose views were powerfully advocated by the Cardinal of Trent. In an address which made a deep impression on the audience, he contended that the reformation of the ecclesiastics would be the fittest means of reclaiming men from heretical pravity. But for the promptitude and address of the Cardinal de Monte, the Pope's party would have been in the minority on this occasion. He perceived the effect produced on the assembly by the speech just delivered, and adroitly replied, that he gave thanks to God, who had inspired the Cardinal of Trent with so excellent a disposition; that for his own part, as he excelled the rest in dignity, he was willing to set them an example; that to show his sincerity, he would resign the bishopric of Pavia, part with his splendid furniture, and diminish the number of his domestics; that the same might be done by others, and that this would excite the clergy every where to imitation. But the declaration of the true faith ought not on this account to be deferred. The reformation so generally desired was a matter of great moment; for not only was the Court of Rome corrupt, but abuses had crept in among all ranks and orders of men, the correction of which would require much time; meanwhile the faithful ought not to be left in uncertainty respecting the true doctrine of Christ. This plausible speech was loudly praised. It touched the Cardinal of Trent to the quick, whose ecclesiastical revenues were immense, and his establishment unusually magnificent and expensive. He answered, murmuringly, that his meaning had been misunderstood; he had intended no personal allusions: of this he was persuaded, that some persons could better govern two bishoprics than others could one; but that he was willing to resign the see of Brescia, if such were the wish of the council. 50 In the issue, it was agreed to adopt a plan proposed by the bishop of Feltri, which was, that some subject, both of doctrine and discipline, should be decided in each session. This measure was observed in all the future proceedings of the council,

50 Pallav. I. vi. c. 7, s. 6-8.

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